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• Are also known as genetically modified or GM crops.
• A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been
a...
•Was under trial and error for almost 9900 years.The first genetically
modified plant was produced in 1982, using an antib...
• improved nutritional quality
• increased crop yield
• insect resistance
• disease resistance
• herbicide resistance
• sa...
DISADVANTAGES OF GM CROPS
• Damage to human health
• allergies
• horizontal transfer and antibiotic resistance
• eating fo...
Out Crossing/Horizontal gene flow:
If GM plants pass their new traits on to wild relatives,
those relatives could be chang...
• Lands which carry a specific “Bt” gene produce a toxin that kills insect pests
that feed upon them.
• Bt is used as a na...
Persistent or Invasiveness of Crops:
• It is important to determine whether newly introduced traits make a crop more
likel...
Reduced efficiency of pest,disease and weed control:
• Changes in agronomic practice with the introduction of GM crops
hav...
Effects on Soil and Water:
• It is sometimes argued that the use of herbicides will increase
with the widespread introduct...
Intellectual Property right:
• Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the intellect for which
a monopoly is ass...
Why GM Crops are banned in Nepal?
In Nepal, the NationalAgro-biodiversity Policy 2063 prohibits GM crops.
From environment...
Conclusion:
The Knowledge gained over the past few years show that GM crops have
been grown commercially indicates that th...
• http://www.greenfacts.org/en/gmo/3-genetically-engineered-food/5-gene-
flow.htm#1p2
•http://www.gmocompass.org/eng/safet...
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity
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Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity

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This presentation focus on the impact of genetically modified organism and plants on the biodiversity.This deals with the focus on the health related issue and environmental causes.Hope this presentation will be helpful to you all.Thanks

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Potential impact of transgenic crops(GMOs) on biodiversity

  1. 1. • Are also known as genetically modified or GM crops. • A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of a plant acquiring them through pollination. •The inserted gene sequence (transgene) may come from another unrelated plant, or completely different species. •Throughout history all crops have been genetically modified from their original wild state by domestication, selection, and control of breeding over long periods of time. • Genetic engineering speeds up the process and increases the variety of genes which can be inserted into a particular plant.
  2. 2. •Was under trial and error for almost 9900 years.The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. •The first genetically modified crop approved for sale in the U.S., in 1994, was the FlavrSavr tomato, which had a longer shelf life, as it took longer to soften after ripening. • As of mid-1996, a total of 35 approvals had been granted to commercially grow 8 transgenic crops and one flower crop of carnations, with 8 different traits in 6 countries plus the EU. In 2000, with the production of golden rice, scientists genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time.
  3. 3. • improved nutritional quality • increased crop yield • insect resistance • disease resistance • herbicide resistance • salt tolerance • biopharmaceuticals • saving valuable topsoil • ability to grow plants in harsh environments ADVANTAGES OF GM CROPS
  4. 4. DISADVANTAGES OF GM CROPS • Damage to human health • allergies • horizontal transfer and antibiotic resistance • eating foreign DNA • changed nutrient levels • Damage to the natural environment • crop-to-weed gene flow • leakage of GM proteins into soil • reductions in pesticide spraying: are they real? • Disruption of current practices of farming and production in developed countries • crop-to-crop gene flow • Disruption of traditional practices and economies in less developed countries. • Lack of research on consequences of transgenic crops.
  5. 5. Out Crossing/Horizontal gene flow: If GM plants pass their new traits on to wild relatives, those relatives could be changed in a way that could make them play a different ecological role, potentially enabling them to out-compete other species. Toxic to living things: • Non-target effects. • Identifying a resistant gene and targeting its product to appropriate plant tissues so that it acts only against the pest,without adverse effects on friendly organism,is challenging. • Targeting the pest without undesirable side effects is a potential problem for all methods of control,whether chemical or biological.
  6. 6. • Lands which carry a specific “Bt” gene produce a toxin that kills insect pests that feed upon them. • Bt is used as a natural insecticide in organic agriculture. • A controversy arose about whether pollen from Bt plants could harm beneficial species (such as the monarch butterfly). However, a series of follow- up studies concluded that under field conditions the risk of harm to monarch butterfly caterpillars from Bt maize pollen is very small, particularly in comparison with other threats such as conventional pesticides and drought. Bt Toxin:
  7. 7. Persistent or Invasiveness of Crops: • It is important to determine whether newly introduced traits make a crop more likely to be more persistent(weedy) in agricultural habitat or more invasive in natural habitats. • If a crop species have very few weedy charecteristics,the addition of one or a few genes would be unlikely to cause weed problem. • In the absence of the herbicide application,GM herbicide-tolerannt crops are no more likely to be invasive in agricultural field or natural habitats than their nonGM counterparts.
  8. 8. Reduced efficiency of pest,disease and weed control: • Changes in agronomic practice with the introduction of GM crops have potential impact on the environment which include the use of broad-spectrum herbicides. • Glyphosate tolerance was considered to be highly unlikely to evolve in weed species.Another example are ryegrass inAustralia and horseweed In United States. • Pest resistant to GM Bt crops has been used by the ‘high –dose refuge’ strategy, where resistance to Bt in insects is controlled by recessive gene,the presence of refuge plants reduces the probability of the evolution of insects with resistant to Bt toxin. • Next generation of GM pest-resistant is likely to contain insecticidal gene,In Cotton sGk two insecticidal gene cry1A and CpT1(cowpea trypsin inhibitor) is being planted in China.Also other varieties are have been developed.
  9. 9. Effects on Soil and Water: • It is sometimes argued that the use of herbicides will increase with the widespread introduction of GM herbicide tolerant crops and that this will contribute to the contamination of soil and water and have undesirable effects on plat and animals. • In US small but significant decrease in herbicide use has been reported Since by the introduction of the GM soyabeans. • Furthermore the Canola council of canada, reported the result of a study that shows that the herbicide tolerant oilseed rape eliminated the use of >6ooo tones of herbicide in the 2000 growing season.
  10. 10. Intellectual Property right: • Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. • Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are the protections granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. • Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.
  11. 11. Why GM Crops are banned in Nepal? In Nepal, the NationalAgro-biodiversity Policy 2063 prohibits GM crops. From environmental point of view, GM seeds are not friendly at any cost. Therefore, it is, rightly, called seeds of destruction.
  12. 12. Conclusion: The Knowledge gained over the past few years show that GM crops have been grown commercially indicates that the impacts on biodiversity are positive on balance. By increasing yields,decreasing insecticide use, increasing the use of more environmentally friendly herbicides and facilitating the adoption of conservation tillage,GM crops have already contributed to increasing agricultural sustainable.
  13. 13. • http://www.greenfacts.org/en/gmo/3-genetically-engineered-food/5-gene- flow.htm#1p2 •http://www.gmocompass.org/eng/safety/environmental_safety/166.biodiversity_t hreatened_genetically_modified_plants.html • http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/bi430-fs430/Documents-2004/7B- MIN%20TILL%20AG/dale-nat-biotech-rev-envGMO-2002.pdf • http://www.agrobio.org/bfiles/fckimg/Carpenter%20- %20Impacts%20of%20GM%20Crops%20on%20Biodiversity.pdf References: • http://setopati.net/blog/82/

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