Dental Materials


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Una breve descripción de los cementos odontológicos más usados

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  • Dental Materials

    2. 2. Chemistry in Dental Materials <ul><li>Definition of Chemistry: </li></ul><ul><li>A science that deals with the composition of matter and the changes in composition which the matter may undergo. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Base - main or supporting ingredient in material. </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst - substance that </li></ul><ul><li>initiates a chemical reaction. </li></ul>Chemistry in Dental Materials
    4. 4. <ul><li>Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture-two or more not chemically combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution - a homogenous mixture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solubility-how well something dissolves. </li></ul></ul>Chemistry in Dental Materials
    5. 5. Bases and Dentin Bonding Agents. <ul><ul><li>Function and purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placed in tooth after cavity prep and just before placement of restorative material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function to reduce microscopic gap between surface of dentin and restorative material. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Function and Purpose Cont’d <ul><li>Reducing the microscopic gap can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce “micro leakage.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce sensitivity of restoration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help living tissue inside the tooth recover from stress of preparation and restoration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Reducing the microscopic gap can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve to bond or tie restoration to tooth chemically and micro-mechanically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists retention of restoration. </li></ul></ul>Function and Purpose Cont’d
    8. 8. Bases <ul><li>Glass Ionomer (GI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix liquid with powder IAW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturers instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix material and hand applicator to dentist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold material on small mixing pad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>near patient’s mouth. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Dentist will place material in cavity preparation with instrument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You or dentist will light cure base for 30-60 seconds. </li></ul></ul>Glass Ionomer cont’d
    10. 10. <ul><ul><li>GI bonds somewhat to tooth structure, has good strength, resists decay. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually best choice of base material, if no pulp exposure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity prep needs to be relatively dry before place of GI or Calcium hydroxide. </li></ul></ul>Glass Ionomer cont’d
    11. 11. Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal) <ul><li>Light cured and self-curing. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp protector. Used when pulp exposure expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used under any restorative material. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Dentist will apply dycal only to relatively dry cavity preparation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once dycal mixed, you may need to dry cavity preparation before dentist place the dycal. </li></ul></ul>Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal)
    13. 13. <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispense equal amounts of base and catalyst. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix with dycal instrument until uniform in color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing time is 10 seconds. </li></ul></ul>Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal)
    14. 14. Calcium Hydroxide (Dycal) Base Catalyst
    15. 15. Dentin Bonding Agents (DBA) <ul><li>DBA dentist uses may require multiple steps and complex technique using several substances, acid etching steps, drying steps, and light curing. </li></ul><ul><li>You must become familiar with material to be used prior to use on patient. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Temporary Sedative Filling Material and Cements <ul><li>Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A reinforced eugenol composition. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. IRM <ul><li>Uses and Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary restoration up to 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base or a temporary cement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used under composite restorations </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. IRM Preparation <ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispense 1:1 ratio powder to liquid onto a parchment pad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluff powder prior to measuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispense liquid by holding dropper vertically </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. IRM NOTE: 1 drop liquid, regular eye dropper. 2 drops liquid, long eye dropper. 1/2 1/4 1/4 Powder (1 scoop) Liquid
    20. 20. IRM Preparation <ul><li>Mixing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine half the powder with liquid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine remaining powder in two or three increments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all the powder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix will have consistency of play dough. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing time will not exceed 1 min. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Zinc Phosphate Cement <ul><li>(Zinc oxide and phosphoric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cementing agent for crowns and FPDs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary restorations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulating base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces heat when mixed. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Zinc Phosphate Cement
    23. 23. Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation <ul><li>Measurement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispense 7 drops of liquid on a cool, clean, dry glass slab. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill powder cap to shoulder and dispense on glass slab. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide powder into segments. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Zinc Phosphate Cement 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/16 Liquid (7 drops) Powder (1 cap) 1/16
    25. 25. Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation <ul><li>Mixing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with smallest increment and graduate to largest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix each segment approximately 15 seconds over a large area to dissipate heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix time is 1 1/2 - 2 minutes </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Zinc Phosphate Cement Preparation <ul><li>Precautions - Mix over a LARGE area to dissipate the generated heat as this heat will accelerate setting time. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Glass Ionomer Cement <ul><li>Uses and Characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cementing crowns and FPDs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary filling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases fluoride ions which helps GI resist recurrent decay. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation IAW manufacturers instructions. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Impression Materials <ul><li>Alginate impression material. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses and Characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary impressions for study casts (seldom used for final impressions). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreversible hydrocolloid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAUTION - Do NOT inhale powder. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular set - working time, 2 minutes; set time, 4 1/2 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast set - working time 1 minute; set time, 1 to 2 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting time is reduced by warmer water. </li></ul>Alginate Impression Materials
    30. 30. <ul><li>Preparation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure water and place in rubber mixing bowl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumble alginate container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure powder and add to water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stir in middle of bowl; then, spatulate against sides of bowl. </li></ul></ul>Alginate Impression Materials
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Mix must have a smooth, creamy texture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete mix within 60 seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place mix into impression tray. </li></ul></ul>Alginate Impression Materials
    32. 32. Vinyl-polysiloxane Impression Material <ul><li> (Reprosil) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely accurate impression material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown and bridge impressions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise duplication of models (diagnostic casts) in the dental laboratory. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Vinyl-polysiloxane Impression Material <ul><li>Four Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Body (low viscosity) - used in syringe or tray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular Body (medium viscosity) - used in syringe or tray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Body (high viscosity) - used in tray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putty-Used in tray. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Preparation <ul><li>Dispense equal lengths (4 “) of materials from each tube on to a parchment pad. </li></ul><ul><li>Dispense in middle of pad close together, but not touching. </li></ul><ul><li>Use two tongue blades to incorporate the two materials. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Vinyl-polysiloxane 4”
    36. 36. <ul><li>Use first tongue blade to begin the mix, at 30 seconds, turn the mix with the second tongue blade and complete the mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix must be complete within 60 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix must be uniform in color, no streaks. </li></ul>Preparation
    37. 37. Infection Control <ul><li>Sterilize instruments used in treatment (material syringe, impression trays, etc.). </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Disinfect impression material prior to sending to lab. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse thoroughly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spray with disinfectant solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place in sealed plastic bag and give to the lab. </li></ul></ul>Infection Control
    39. 39. Restorative Resin Materials <ul><li>Acid Etch (35 - 50% solution of Phosphoric Acid). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases bond between enamel & resin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides added source of retention and marginal seal. </li></ul></ul></ul>ABC
    40. 40. Restorative Resin Materials
    41. 41. Acid Etch <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry cavity prep thoroughly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply etch to enamel wall and leave on IAW manufacturer’s instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse and dry thoroughly. </li></ul></ul>A
    42. 42. Acid Etch <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated tooth will appear chalky. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If prep becomes contaminated with saliva, repeat procedure. </li></ul></ul>A
    43. 43. Acid Etch <ul><li>Precautions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid contact with soft tissues, rinse thoroughly if contaminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect pulp. </li></ul></ul>A
    44. 44. Bonding Agent <ul><li>Purpose - chemically bonds composite filling material to tooth structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Light cured - no mixing required. </li></ul>B
    45. 45. Bonding Agent <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply bond to etched tooth surface (use of a dentin primer to bond is optional). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light cure IAW manufacturer’s instructions (20 - 30 seconds). </li></ul></ul>B
    46. 46. Bonding Agent <ul><ul><li>Precaution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper use of the protective shield when curing bonding agent eliminates potential eye hazards to provider and patient. </li></ul></ul>B
    47. 47. Light Cured Composite Resins <ul><li>Uses and Characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative material for anterior teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matches tooth color. </li></ul></ul>C
    48. 48. <ul><li>Procedure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply Base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etch tooth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply bonding agent, light cure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place resin filling material and light-cure (20-40 sec). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish/polish restoration. </li></ul></ul>Light Cured Composite Resins C
    49. 49. Light Cured Composite Resins <ul><li>Precautions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure proper use of the protective shield. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispense materials prior to use. </li></ul></ul>C
    50. 50. Amalgam <ul><li>An alloy containing a mixture of silver, tin, copper, mercury, and zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied in pre-capsulated form; mixing of amalgam is also called amalgamation or trituation. </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Physical Characteristics of Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid at room temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaporizes with increased heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides plasticity to amalgam restorations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly Poisonous - symptoms of poisoning are nausea, headache, swollen glands. </li></ul></ul>Amalgam
    52. 52. Amalgam <ul><li>Mercury absorption - absorbed directly through skin contact or from inhalation of mercury vapors. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Hygiene. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid touching hair or face after handling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands thoroughly. </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>Personal Hygiene. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEVER wear jewelry (mercury combines readily with silver and gold). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store scrap in unbreakable, tightly-sealed container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notify NCOIC in the event of mercury spill. </li></ul></ul>Amalgam
    54. 54. Amalgam <ul><li>Advantages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best restorative material for posterior teeth, restore all surfaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“User Friendly” can be readily mixed, placed, and carved in a short time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High compression strength upon setting - withstands biting forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists recurrent decay better than composite resin. Can last a very long time. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Amalgam <ul><li>Disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non esthetic - silver color does not match natural tooth color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains mercury. </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Amalgam <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triturate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place capsule in amalgamator. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set timer IAW manufacturer’s Inst. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use over rimmed tray. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispose of scrap amalgam properly. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Material Safety <ul><li>Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain information on the chemical and physical hazards in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>MSDs should be centrally located within the clinic, this allows easy access for all personnel. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Material Safety <ul><li>Misuse of chemicals can cause injury to you or a patient. </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>Storage of hazardous/flammable materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilized in patient treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DTR - 1-2 week supply (clinic policy). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk - centrally located supply area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk flammable material must be stored in a centrally located flame proof cabinet. </li></ul></ul>Material Safety
    60. 60. Precious Metals Recovery Program <ul><li>Designed to save money and conserve natural resources. Comply with local SOPs. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver bearing scraps. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap amalgam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap dental x-ray film. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used X-ray fixer solution. </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. QUESTIONS
    62. 62. SUMMARY <ul><ul><li>Chemistry relating to dental materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases and dentin bonding agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary sedative materials and cements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Ionomer products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identied the basic facts and principles of: </li></ul>
    63. 63. SUMMARY <ul><ul><li>Impression materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative resin materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amalgam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material safety relating to dental materials and mercury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precious metals recovery program. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identied the basic facts and principles of: </li></ul>