All Bread consists of Four Parts:
• Bran- outer covering –high on fiber
content gives color to flour
• Endosperm-makes up most of the
kernel, about 83%. This is where we get
flour from. This is made up of protein
and starch. The proportion of theses
varies from variety of wheat.
• Germ- contains fat , flavor
Types of Flour found in a Pastry
Type of Flour Percentage of Gluten Type of Wheat
Whole Wheat 11-14% bran particles and wheat germ
reduce this down to about 6%
Hard red wheat
Pastry 7-9.5% Soft red winter
AP 9.5-11.5% Blend of hard and soft
Bread 11.5-13.5% Hard red spring
High Gluten 13.5-14.5 Hard red wheat
75% Dry powdery-yellow
Cake Flour 6-8% Soft red winter wheat
•Gives elasticity and
helps with structure
• Make bread rise. It feeds on the starch
in the flour, converts it to sugar to eat
and expels CO2 and a little alcohol.
The CO2 make the bread rise.
• Yeast is a microorganism. It’s alive!
It is a member of the fungus family,
related to the mushroom.
Varieties of Yeast
• Dry active- This is a powdered form. It has been freeze
dried to have most of the water removed to make it
shelf stable. This need to be rehydrated in warm water
about 100-110 degrees to wake it up
• Fresh- this is compressed into blocks this just need to
be mixed with water to use
• Instant- this is dry active yeast this the addition of
ascorbic acid so it can be added in the beginning of
mixing. No need to be mixed with water
• Wild- This is a concentrated and cultivated form
Other ingredients that are found in some
breads that will affect structure
• Fat-butter or oil. Adds richness and softness. Can
aid in color, too. Too much will inhibit the yeast
• Eggs- add richness and softness, adds color too.
Too much will inhibit the yeast
• Sugar-Can aid in the proofing of bread. Adds
tenderness, richness and will aid in the color of
the product when baked. Too much will inhibit
When these ingredients are present the yeast
amount needs to be increased
Name the 4
What is yeast ?
list the different
types, how does
List the flours from
lowest in protein to
highest IN ORDER
What are the functions of
Salt and Water ?
Name the other
ingredients found in bread
and how they effect