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  1. 1. Bread
  2. 2. All Bread consists of Four Parts: Flour Water Yeast Salt
  3. 3. Flour • Bran- outer covering –high on fiber content gives color to flour • Endosperm-makes up most of the kernel, about 83%. This is where we get flour from. This is made up of protein and starch. The proportion of theses varies from variety of wheat. • Germ- contains fat , flavor and nutrients
  4. 4. Types of Flour found in a Pastry Kitchen Type of Flour Percentage of Gluten Type of Wheat Whole Wheat 11-14% bran particles and wheat germ reduce this down to about 6% Hard red wheat Pastry 7-9.5% Soft red winter AP 9.5-11.5% Blend of hard and soft Bread 11.5-13.5% Hard red spring High Gluten 13.5-14.5 Hard red wheat Vital Wheat Gluten 75% Dry powdery-yellow color Cake Flour 6-8% Soft red winter wheat
  5. 5. Water •Gives elasticity and helps with structure
  6. 6. Yeast • Make bread rise. It feeds on the starch in the flour, converts it to sugar to eat and expels CO2 and a little alcohol. The CO2 make the bread rise. • Yeast is a microorganism. It’s alive! It is a member of the fungus family, related to the mushroom.
  7. 7. Varieties of Yeast • Dry active- This is a powdered form. It has been freeze dried to have most of the water removed to make it shelf stable. This need to be rehydrated in warm water about 100-110 degrees to wake it up • Fresh- this is compressed into blocks this just need to be mixed with water to use • Instant- this is dry active yeast this the addition of ascorbic acid so it can be added in the beginning of mixing. No need to be mixed with water • Wild- This is a concentrated and cultivated form (starter)
  8. 8. Salt • Adds roundness of flavor
  9. 9. Other ingredients that are found in some breads that will affect structure • Fat-butter or oil. Adds richness and softness. Can aid in color, too. Too much will inhibit the yeast • Eggs- add richness and softness, adds color too. Too much will inhibit the yeast • Sugar-Can aid in the proofing of bread. Adds tenderness, richness and will aid in the color of the product when baked. Too much will inhibit the yeast. When these ingredients are present the yeast amount needs to be increased
  10. 10. Summary Name the 4 parts to bread What is yeast ? list the different types, how does it work List the flours from lowest in protein to highest IN ORDER What are the functions of Salt and Water ? Name the other ingredients found in bread and how they effect structure