Artisan bread


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Artisan bread

  1. 1. Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 Understanding Artisan Breads
  2. 2. Artisan Breads Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 Common Characteristics: • Handmade. • Use of pre-ferments and sourdough or culture starters (a fermented dough or batter used to provide leavening for a large batch of dough). • No chemical additives or preservatives. • Traditional production methods. Understanding Artisan Breads
  3. 3. Yeast Pre-Ferments Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 • Poolish: thin yeast tarter made with equal parts flour and water plus commercial yeast. • Biga : the Italian term for pre-ferment. It usually is a stiff pre-ferment and made with two times the quantity of yeast as a poolish. • Levain-levure: French term for yeast pre-ferment. (Levure means “yeast.” Levain means “sourdough.”) • Pâte Fermentée : a piece of fermented bread dough saved from a previous batch. • Mixed fermentation: a straight dough in which both a pre- ferment and a fresh addition of yeast are used for leavening. Understanding Artisan Breads
  4. 4. Sourdough Starters Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 A dough or batter that contains wild yeasts and bacteria. •It has a noticeable acidity as a result of fermentation. •The wild yeasts in sourdough starters are not the same as commercial yeasts. •Wild yeasts can tolerate and grow in higher levels of acidity. Understanding Artisan Breads
  5. 5. Bacterial Fermentation Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 • Sourdough starters contain bacteria as well as yeast. The most important bacteria are from the group Lactobaccilli. • Two kinds of acid are created by bacteria, lactic acid and acetic acid. Understanding Artisan Breads
  6. 6. Refreshing the Starter Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 • After the initial fermentation has begun, the starter must be refreshed or fed regularly so the yeasts and bacteria are nourished and will multiply until they are strong. • The basic procedure is to combine a portion of the fermenting starter with additional flour and water. Understanding Artisan Breads
  7. 7. Autolyse Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 Artisan bakers may take an extra step during mixing called autolyse. •Autolyse is to first combine the flour and water and mix at low speed just until the flour is moistened and a dough is formed. Let stand 30 minutes. •During the autolyse, the flour hydrates fully. Understanding Artisan Breads
  8. 8. Fermentation Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 • Artisan breads are fermented at lower temperatures. • Sourdoughs ferment more slowly. Understanding Artisan Breads
  9. 9. Baking Copyright©2013byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.AllRightsReserved 7 • Artisan breads are usually baked as “hearth breads.” • If baked on pans, perforated pans are best. • Steam should be injected for the first 15 minutes. Most lean hearth breads are best baked in a hot oven, 425° to 450°F (218° to 232°C). Understanding Artisan Breads
  10. 10. French, Italian, and Vienna Loaves Make up Techniques
  11. 11. •Flatten the rounded, relaxed dough into a circle. Fold the sides over the center, then round again. •Shape the dough into a seam-free ball. •Place on prepared pans. Proof, wash with water, and slash in a crosshatch pattern. Bake with steam.
  12. 12. •Flatten the rounded, relaxed dough into a circle. Fold the sides over the center, then round again. Roll the dough under the palms of the hands into a smooth oval loaf. •Place on pans sprinkled with cornmeal or flour. Proof, wash with water, and dredge with flour. Score.