A Historical View of Women in MusicEducation Careers   By Sondra Weiland Howe   Presented by Amy Meyer
NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELSStudying music could be done in the following ways:    •   Short term courses    •   Normal schoo...
NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELS, continuedJulia Ettie Crane, exceptional educator    •   1855-1923    •   Attended Potsdam, NY d...
NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELS, continuedWomen in the Kindergarten Movement   •   Kindergarten was the compromise between home ...
MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURYEducated Women between 1890-1920   • Educated women between 1890-1920      ...
MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedFrances Elliot Clark (1860-1958)   •   •       Organized Music E...
MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedSupervisors in the early 1900s   •   Not accepted as musicians b...
MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedElsie M. Shaw (1866-1962) St. Pauls first lady of Music   •   • ...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY  •   More opportunities for women      o   Active in professional groups ...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedThe Early Years of MSNC   •   MSNC organized conferences   •   ...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedResearching Outstanding Women in Music Education   •   Importan...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMabelle Glenn (1881-1969)   •   •       Attended Monmouth (Illi...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedLilla Belle Pitts (1884-1970)   •   Attended Chicago Conservato...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMarguerite Vivian Hood (1903-1992)   •   Attended Jamestown Col...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedFrances M. Andrews (1908-1976)   •   •       MENC president 197...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMary E. Hoffman (1926-1997)   •   Attended Lebanon Valley Colle...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedIsolation from the Feminist Movement   •   •       Only 2 femal...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedDorothy A Straub (1941- )   •   •       MENC president from 199...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedCarolynn A. Lindeman (1940- )   •   •       President of MENC f...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedJune Hinckley (1943-2007)   •   •       MENC president from 199...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedLynn M. Brinckmeyer   •   •       MENC president from 2006-2008...
LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedBarbara L. Geer   •   •       MENC president from 2008-2010    ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHINGImportant Aspect for Women   •   •       Textbooks written by men, who were self-taught       Women edi...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedMary Stanley Schindler   •   •      Translated Praktischen Lehrgang into English      Basis ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedEleanor Smith (1858-1942)   •   •       First senior editor of a music textbook series   •  ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedEleanor Smith, continued   •   •      Head of Music Department of University of Chicago     ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedM. Teresa Armitage   •   •       Not much biographical information on Armitage       Senior ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedMabelle Glenn   •   Published Music appreciation texts with Edith Rhetts and Margaret       ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedLilla Belle Pitts    •   Senior editor for "Our Singing World" (1949-1967)        o Books fo...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1950s   •   •       Rose Marie Grentzer, "Birchard Music Series"...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1960s   •   •       Georgiana Peterson, "Getting to Know Music" ...
TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1970s   •   •       Elizabeth Crook, "Music" (1970-1976)       R...
RESEARCH AND EDITINGJournal of Research in Music Education (JRME)   •   Two of nine editors are women        o Cornelia Ya...
RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedBulletin of Historical Research in Music Education   •   •       Founded by George Heller a...
RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedBulletin on the Council for Research in Music Education   •   •       Published at Universi...
RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedPhilosophy of Music Education Review   •   •       Founded by Estelle R. Jorgensen at India...
RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedGender trends   •   Women outnumber men two-to-one in the following:       o General Music ...
COMPARING MUSIC EDUCATION CAREERS TOCAREERS IN OTHER FIELDSOpportunities for women in education   •   •       Education co...
COMPARING MUSIC EDUCATION CAREERS TOCAREERS IN OTHER FIELDS, continuedThe Role of Women in Academia   •   •       Estrange...
HUMANE MODELS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURYHistorical Survey of prominent music educators   •   •       Importance of quali...
HUMANE MODELS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, continuedMusic Careers Evolve         •   As evidenced by the following ladies...
PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONSWomen have given us much   •   The women in the article have paved the way for us, as women, to     ...
PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONS, continuedResearch in Music Education   •   It is the presenters belief that in studying women and ...
PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONS, continuedWomen in Present Music Education   •   Howes article outlines some of the major contribut...
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A historical view of women in music education careers

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Sondra Weiland Howe's article on important women in music education.

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  • A historical view of women in music education careers

    1. 1. A Historical View of Women in MusicEducation Careers By Sondra Weiland Howe Presented by Amy Meyer
    2. 2. NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELSStudying music could be done in the following ways: • Short term courses • Normal schools • Individual study with individual teachers • Self-taughtLuther Whiting Mason, male music educator • Self-taught without college degree • Taught at various locales • Supervised music in primary grades in Boston Public Schools from 1864-1878 • Successful due to his independence from the family • Wife, Hannah, stayed home with his children and took care of the family property • Masons life in education typical for men at this time
    3. 3. NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELS, continuedJulia Ettie Crane, exceptional educator • 1855-1923 • Attended Potsdam, NY district schools and graduated from Potsdam Normal School • Studied piano, played and sang in churches, schools and singing schools • Studied voice with Manuel Garcia • Accepted Music Education position at Potsdam Normal School in 1884 • Active in national music organizations • Founded Crane School of Music which is still in operation today
    4. 4. NINETEENTH CENTURY MODELS, continuedWomen in the Kindergarten Movement • Kindergarten was the compromise between home schooling and institutional learning from Germany • Acceptable for women because Kindergarten was part of the "Private Sphere" • Women taught music in the following ways: o privately o in home studios o published music in womens magazines o female academies, one room school houses, Sunday schools and church charity schools o music considered proper to teach or publish childrens songs and hymns o trained musicians and benefited school music programs
    5. 5. MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURYEducated Women between 1890-1920 • Educated women between 1890-1920 o Unmarried, self-supporting, college educated o Pursued careers in teaching, nursing and social work o Music studied in normal school  supervised music in city schools  active in local, state and national music organizations  study music in normal schools and summer institutions o Worked and affiliated with the following:  Womens colleges  Settlement houses  Reform associations  Suffrage movement
    6. 6. MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedFrances Elliot Clark (1860-1958) • • Organized Music Educators National Conference (1934) now MENC Graduated from Tri-State Normal College • • Honorary Doctorate from Temple University Music Supervisor in Milwaukee Public Schools • • RCA Victor (1911-1947)- promoted recorded music in the classroom Active in Department of Music Education of NEA, first leader of MSNC and founder of National Federation of Music Clubs
    7. 7. MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedSupervisors in the early 1900s • Not accepted as musicians by professionals • Not accepted as educators by intellectuals • MSNC gave an opportunity to discuss this as a family group
    8. 8. MUSIC SUPERVISORS EARLY IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedElsie M. Shaw (1866-1962) St. Pauls first lady of Music • • Supervisor of Music in St. Paul, MN from 1898-1933 Attended Visitation Convent in St. Paul • • Studied organ, piano, voice and theory privately Worked at St. Marys for 60 years with her mother in music • • Supervised elementary classroom teachers Taught at Teachers Training School • • Conducted choirs and orchestras Expanded music into the high school • After retirement, worked at St. Lukes Catholic Church in music
    9. 9. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY • More opportunities for women o Active in professional groups o Officers, committee members, performers, and presented papers o Music supervisors of public schools o Teachers at normal school o Professors at universities
    10. 10. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedThe Early Years of MSNC • MSNC organized conferences • There were 13 female presidents from 1907-2010 • Not indicative of impact of women in education
    11. 11. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedResearching Outstanding Women in Music Education • Important in order to understand the struggle for the majority who balance work, professional responsibilities and family life • Important to learn from the past
    12. 12. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMabelle Glenn (1881-1969) • • Attended Monmouth (Illinois) College Conservatory Honorary Doctorate from Chicago Musical College • • Supervisor of Music in Bloomington, IL Director of Music in Kansas City, MO • • President of MSNC from 1928-1930 Author of books about music appreciation, psychology, and textbook series • Wanted to promote creative art, to listen to tasteful music and train students to make profitable leisure time
    13. 13. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedLilla Belle Pitts (1884-1970) • Attended Chicago Conservatory of Music, Northwestern University, and Columbia Teachers College • • On Faculty of Columbia Teachers College, Florida State University MENC president from 1942-1944 • Advocate for technology and changing our curriculum to changing times and student needs • • Advocated folk song appreciation Strong relationship (at the time) between musicology and music education
    14. 14. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMarguerite Vivian Hood (1903-1992) • Attended Jamestown College in North Dakota and University of Southern California • • Montana State Supervisor of Music Faculty member at University of Montana, University of Southern California and University of Michigan • • MENC president from 1950-1952 First woman chair of Music Educators Journal • Encouraged educators not only to teach but to plan for the future
    15. 15. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedFrances M. Andrews (1908-1976) • • MENC president 1970-1972 Received Masters and Doctorate from Pennsylvania State University • • Faculty member of Pennsylvania State University from 1943-1973 Journal of Research in Music Education • Implemented GO Project as MENC president o Identified areas of concern in music education o Explored the relevance of the curriculum o Developed guidelines for music education
    16. 16. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedMary E. Hoffman (1926-1997) • Attended Lebanon Valley College (BS) and Columbia Teachers College (Masters) • • Supervisor in Milwaukee and Philadelphia Taught graduate courses at Columbia Teachers College, Temple University and University of Illinois • Contributed to textbooks World of Music, Silver-Burdett, and Music Connection • • MENC president from 1980-1982 Leader in professional work in MENC, textbook author, and day-to-day teacher
    17. 17. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedIsolation from the Feminist Movement • • Only 2 female MENC presidents in forty years (1952-1992) Possibly reflects discrimination with MENC • • MENC followed patriarchal values of 19th century Female presidents followed MENC expectations for leaders • However, from 1990-2010, there were 5 female presidents of MENC
    18. 18. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedDorothy A Straub (1941- ) • • MENC president from 1992-1994 Attended Indiana University for both her BME and MME • • Music coordinator for Fairfield Public Schools (CT) Violinist in Greenwich Symphony and Greater Bridgeport Symphony • • ASTA member (only 1 of 2 to be MENC president) National Arts Standards adopted during presidency • Received awards from ASTA and National School Orchestra Association
    19. 19. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedCarolynn A. Lindeman (1940- ) • • President of MENC from 1996-1998 Attended Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, Mozarteum Academy (Salzburg), San Francisco State University • • Received DMA from Stanford Professor at San Francisco State University from 1973-2005 • • Promoted national standards and advocacy Series editor for Strategies for Teaching • Acknowledges discrimination in academia
    20. 20. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedJune Hinckley (1943-2007) • • MENC president from 1998-2000 Attended Louisiana Polytechnic Institute and Stetson University • • Received Ph.D from Florida State University Music and Fine Arts supervisor for Brevard County School District in Florida • • Arts Education Specialist for Florida Department of Education Conceptualized and implemented Vision 2020 Project and Housewright Symposium on the future of Music Education • Author of mid-level general music and various articles on music education
    21. 21. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedLynn M. Brinckmeyer • • MENC president from 2006-2008 Associate professor of Music and Director of Choral Music Education at Texas State University • Educated at Eastern New Mexico University and the University of Kansas (Ph.D) • Taught in New Mexico and then taught higher education in the Pacific Northwest • During her presidency, MENC celebrated its 100th birthday
    22. 22. LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES IN THETWENTIETH CENTURY, continuedBarbara L. Geer • • MENC president from 2008-2010 Attended St. Andrews Presbyterian College (NC) and the University of North Carolina • Music consultant for Winston-Salem/Forsyth School System in North Carolina
    23. 23. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHINGImportant Aspect for Women • • Textbooks written by men, who were self-taught Women edited and translated for mens textbooks • Women published their own hymns, books of songs and teaching materials
    24. 24. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedMary Stanley Schindler • • Translated Praktischen Lehrgang into English Basis for Masons National Music Course • L. LoughlinAdelia Known for her popular song books published by Oliver Diston • • Translated French and German Mason used her translations for revision of National Music Course in 1886
    25. 25. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedEleanor Smith (1858-1942) • • First senior editor of a music textbook series • Modern Music Series (Silver-Burdett 1901-05) • The Eleanor Smith Music Course (American Book Company 1908-11) • Emphasized quality music for kids, not just exercises • Prolific composer of childrens songs • Followed Kindergarten philosophy of Froebel • Educated in Chicago and Berlin • Head of Department of Vocal Music at Chicago Normal School Director of Hull House Music School (1893-1935)
    26. 26. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedEleanor Smith, continued • • Head of Music Department of University of Chicago Music teacher at Chicago Kindergarten College and Froebels • Kindergarten School Published music for Sunday school and early childhood Sunday •o school Chairman of MSNC Committee on Sunday School Music 1911 Wanted quality music o Published "Childrens Hymnal" in 1918 o Hymns written by Smith and other women composers
    27. 27. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedM. Teresa Armitage • • Not much biographical information on Armitage Senior editor of "Laurel Music Series" (1908-1929) • • Senior editor of "A Singing School" (1939-1959) From Chicago • VP of NEA Department of Music Education in 1923
    28. 28. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedMabelle Glenn • Published Music appreciation texts with Edith Rhetts and Margaret Lowry • • Published books for glee clubs with Virginia French Glenn, Helen S. Leavitt and two men compiled World of Music o Books for grades 1-7 o Teaching manuals o Piano course o Music appreciation
    29. 29. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedLilla Belle Pitts • Senior editor for "Our Singing World" (1949-1967) o Books for each grade Kindergarten through high school o Editions for teachers and students o Piano accompaniments
    30. 30. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1950s • • Rose Marie Grentzer, "Birchard Music Series" (1958-1963) Sister Mary Lourdes, "To God Through Music" (1953-1959) • Sister Cecelia, "We Sing and Praise Series" (1957-1962)
    31. 31. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1960s • • Georgiana Peterson, "Getting to Know Music" (1966-1968) Lorraine E. Watters, "Magic of Music" (1966-1970) • • Beatrice Landeck, "Making Music Your Own" (1964-1971) Mary Helen Richards, "Threshold to Music" (1974-1985)
    32. 32. TEXTBOOK PUBLISHING, continuedWomen Senior Editors in the 1970s • • Elizabeth Crook, "Music" (1970-1976) Rosemary Hallum, "New Dimensions in Music" (1970-1976) • Mary Val Marsh, "Spectrum of Music" (1974-1978)
    33. 33. RESEARCH AND EDITINGJournal of Research in Music Education (JRME) • Two of nine editors are women o Cornelia Yarbough from 2000-2005 o Wendy Sims, current editor o Ella Wilcox, associate editor, incredibly knowledgeable • Women editors past o Editorial associates include Lilla Pitts, Cornelia Yarbough and Frances Andrews o Percentage of women on committee o Could these percentages predict trends in the future? o What is the relationship between women and the research done by women?
    34. 34. RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedBulletin of Historical Research in Music Education • • Founded by George Heller at University of Kansas in 1980 Now Journal of Historical Research in Music Education (JHRME) 1999 o Editor is currently Mark Fonder o Shelly Cooper is Book Review Editor o 3 male editorial advisors o One half of editorial committee of JHRME is female
    35. 35. RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedBulletin on the Council for Research in Music Education • • Published at University of Illinois Edited by Richard Colwell 1963-1990 • After Colwell, three women editors: o Marilyn Pflederer Zimmerman- 1990-1995 o Eunice Boardman- 1993-1999 o Deborah Sheldon- 2000-2001 • 42% of Advisory Committee is female
    36. 36. RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedPhilosophy of Music Education Review • • Founded by Estelle R. Jorgensen at Indiana University Assistant Editor- Iris M. Bob • • Book Review Editor- Mary Reichling Current editorial consultants- only 17.6% are female
    37. 37. RESEARCH AND EDITING, continuedGender trends • Women outnumber men two-to-one in the following: o General Music o Choir o Private studio o Keyboard instruction • Men are more prominent in the following: o Band o Administration o Jazz o More are at universities and colleges o Women are contained at certain areas
    38. 38. COMPARING MUSIC EDUCATION CAREERS TOCAREERS IN OTHER FIELDSOpportunities for women in education • • Education considered extension of the home Women contained in certain areas of education, most are working with young children • Research suggests discrimination and pedagogy doesnt change to reflect gender
    39. 39. COMPARING MUSIC EDUCATION CAREERS TOCAREERS IN OTHER FIELDS, continuedThe Role of Women in Academia • • Estrange themselves from other women Distance self from shared womens experience" • • Devalue womens traditional occupations Avoid research on topics about women • Hostile climate to women professors with harassment of female academics • Need to persist to allow for the following: o Feminist scholarship o Women-friendly classrooms o Curriculum to include womens experiences
    40. 40. HUMANE MODELS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURYHistorical Survey of prominent music educators • • Importance of quality education Guiding personal philosophies • • Positive supportive mentors leadership opportunities
    41. 41. HUMANE MODELS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, continuedMusic Careers Evolve • As evidenced by the following ladies: o Frances Clark o Eleanor Smith o Elsie Shaw o Frances Andrews o Carolynn LindemanWe need to include women as a part of Music Education history as they arerole models for todays music educators.
    42. 42. PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONSWomen have given us much • The women in the article have paved the way for us, as women, to reach beyond the glass ceiling. • The author points out that the glass ceiling is still in place, which is evidenced by the stigma of women in charge as well as the fact men outnumber women as administrators. • These women have enabled us and given us the tools to take music education to the next level. • In order to reach the pinnacle of music education and womens impact on it, we need to consider female academics and research about women in education.
    43. 43. PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONS, continuedResearch in Music Education • It is the presenters belief that in studying women and their impact on music education, past and present, current educators will be able to take the tools of the past and use them in the future. • Research needs to be done on womens impact in music education as we have helped paved the way to current trends, texts, national standards and teacher education.
    44. 44. PRESENTERS CONCLUSIONS, continuedWomen in Present Music Education • Howes article outlines some of the major contributions of women in the past. These women were highly educated, as we are today. More women now have college degrees and masters degrees than men do. • Women in music education today have the opportunity to get involved in the organizations that aid us in our jobs, as our earlier counterparts did. • The women in Howes article had to make a choice between family and careers. How is todays working mom able to do what they did? What would the research tell us?

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