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Torcendo a Luz

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Nesta palestra pretendemos apresentar alguns conceitos básicos em compõem a visão da ciência moderna sobre o fenômeno luminoso. Em particular discutiremos as diversas formas de propagação da luz, notadamente aquelas que envolvem efeitos de torção no seu fluxo de energia, dando origem aos chamados vórtices ópticos.

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Torcendo a Luz

  1. 1. Torcendo a Luz Antonio Zelaquett Khoury Instituto de Física Universidade Federal Fluminense
  2. 2. Sumário • A história da visão • Newton x Huygens• Newton x Huygens • O Eletromagnetismo e a Luz • O fóton • Vórtices
  3. 3. A história da visão
  4. 4. OsOs antigosantigos e ae a visãovisão Platão (427 a 347 AC) Aristóteles (384 a 322 AC) Mozi (470 a 391 AC) “Raios” emitidos pelo OBSERVADOR “Raios” emitidos pelo OBJETO
  5. 5. AlhazenAlhazen Ibn al-Haytham ou Alhazen (965 a 1040) Método científico - Ótica geométrica
  6. 6. Newton x Huygens
  7. 7. Isaac Newton (1643Isaac Newton (1643--1727)1727) Teoria corpuscular Refração – mudança de velocidade das partículas Cores – corpúsculos com diferentes energias
  8. 8. ChristiaanChristiaan Huygens (1629Huygens (1629--1695)1695) Teoria ondulatória Dupla refração – ondas – polarização
  9. 9. Thomas Young (1773Thomas Young (1773--1829)1829) O experimento de Young Interferência – ONDAS
  10. 10. O Eletromagnetismo e a Luz
  11. 11. ForçasForças elétricaselétricas ee magnéticasmagnéticas Forças elétricas Forças magnéticas Interação à distância
  12. 12. CamposCampos eletromagnéticoseletromagnéticos Campo elétrico Campo magnético Linhas de campo: Alteração do espaço Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
  13. 13. OndasOndas eletromagnéticaseletromagnéticas Leis do Eletromagnetismo James Clerk Maxwell (1791-1867) EQUAÇÃO DE ONDA LUZ ??
  14. 14. O Fóton
  15. 15. OndasOndas eletromagnéticaseletromagnéticas Ondas em pacotes de energia Max Planck (1791-1867) FÓTON: E=hν Onda ou corpúsculo ?? Dualidade onda-partícula
  16. 16. ModosModos normaisnormais dede umauma ondaonda Cordas Membranas Vibração geral – superposição de modos Energia de cada modo: E=nhν
  17. 17. Vórtices ópticos
  18. 18. OndasOndas propagantespropagantes Frentes de onda: pontos do espaço oscilação “em fase” (síncrona) Ondas planas Ondas esféricas Vórtices
  19. 19. FluxoFluxo dede energiaenergia Fluxo de energia perpendicular às frentes de onda Vórtices
  20. 20. VórticesVórtices emem laserslasers HermiteHermite--Gauss (HG)Gauss (HG) LaguerreLaguerre--Gauss (LG)Gauss (LG)
  21. 21. Fase e intensidade dos modos LGFase e intensidade dos modos LG Intensidade 2 ψ l=1 p=0 l=2 p=0l=1 p=0 l=2 p=0 Interferencia com ondas planas 2 1+ψ Fase
  22. 22. Padrões de interferênciaPadrões de interferência
  23. 23. Produção de modos com momento angular orbitalProdução de modos com momento angular orbital N.R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, Opt. Lett. 17, 221 (1992) Métodos holográficos l = -1 l = 0 Lente confocal l = 1 l = 0
  24. 24. Holographic production of HermiteHolographic production of Hermite--GaussGauss Holograma
  25. 25. SuperposiçãoSuperposição dede modosmodos ( 2 1 )+= i+= ( 2 1 ) Cylindrical lenses at 45o Conversor de modos
  26. 26. Conversão por astigmatismo: Lentes cilíndricas Conversão de modos LGConversão de modos LG--HGHG ( 2 1 )+ i+( 2 1 )
  27. 27. SpinSpin--Orbit CNOT gateOrbit CNOT gate C. E. R. Souza and A.Z. Khoury, Opt. Express 18, 9207 (2010). Single lens mode transformer CNOT gate
  28. 28. ω 2ω ω Geração de Segundo harmônico Processos ópticos não linearesProcessos ópticos não lineares NL Conversão paramétrica descendente NL ω2 k2 idler pump ωpkp signal ω1 k1
  29. 29. Transfer of OAM in an OPOTransfer of OAM in an OPO B. Coutinho dos Santos, A. Z. Khoury, and J. A. O.Huguenin; Opt. Lett. 33, 2803 (2008).
  30. 30. Muito obrigado!!

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