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Percussion curriculum

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Percussion curriculum

  1. 1. Performance Competencies for Instrumental Music: Percussion Division of Curriculum Anne Arundel County Public Schools Annapolis, Maryland Summer, 2006 Publication Number ****
  2. 2. Percussion Curriculum Committee Participants Coordinator of Music Amy Cohn Debbie Derrickson Irene Harroll Victoria Humphrey Chris Lerch Music Teacher, Resource Music Teacher, Resource Music Teacher Music Teacher Barbara King, Editor Retired Music Supervisor and Former President, MMEA ii
  3. 3. PERFORMANCE COMPETENCIES FOR INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC: PERCUSSION RATIONALE This curriculum is a guide to instrumental music teachers and students for assistance in defining and attaining goals for musical achievement. The basic concepts and instrumental techniques involve mental, muscular, visual, and aural skills. The purpose of this publication is to organize the development of the skills into a logical sequence to be utilized in Anne Arundel County Public Schools to help students attain their musical potential. The learnings are regarded as a foundation for a life-long relationship with music for all participating students. Two existing documents were used and expanded in the development of this publication: Definitions of Performance Competencies for Instrumental Students, a sequential guide for string, wind, and percussion and Musicianship Tests, a systematic testing procedure on the elements of music and musical performance. Both of these were thoughtful and effective tools for instruction. The Maryland State Department of Education’s Music Essential Learner Outcomes are referenced in order to give this document instructional balance in the following four areas: perceiving, performing and responding to music; historical, cultural and social context; creative expression and production; and aesthetic criticism. Since instruction in the area of this curriculum begins as early as grade four, objectives and activities have been designed with care for the developmental level of the student. Instrumental music instruction is targeted for all students with interest and the basic skills necessary for a level of success and satisfaction. The curriculum is compatible with techniques and philosophical approaches from the major contributions of Bruce Pearson, Benjamin Podemski, Roy Burns, and Haskell Harr. As a rule, rich aural experiences will precede or coincide with labeling and performance skills. iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Outcomes……………………………………………………...………………v Level One…………………………………………………………...…………1 Level Two……………………………………………………………………34 Level Three…………………………………………………………………..66 Level Four………………………………………………..…………………..96 Level Five………………………………………………..…………………126 Level Six……………………………………………………...…………….156 Level Seven………………………………………...……………………….184 Level Eight………………………………………………………………….213 Level Nine…………………...……………………...………………………242 Bibliography………………………………………………………..………270 iv
  5. 5. Outcomes for Percussion Level One Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The The The The The The The The The The student student student student student student student student student student will will will will will will will will will will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care. demonstrate assembly and set-up of instruments. demonstrate correct posture and positioning. identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions. perform and describe selected rudiments. identify, describe, and perform steady beat and basic rhythm patterns. identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. interpret, through performance, standard notation in various meters. identify, perform, and describe a variety of articulations and tempo markings. demonstrate valuing through performance and practice habits. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will describe and demonstrate appropriate performance behavior. 2. The student will perform melodies and rhythms from a variety of historical periods, musical styles, and world cultures. 3. The student will identify and describe ways in which performing music can bring personal satisfaction. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will improvise rhythms and melodies, using traditional sounds. 2. The student will compose and notate music which shows contrast. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will analyze and articulate characteristics of a good performance. 2. The student will devise and apply criteria to evaluate class performance. v
  6. 6. Outcomes for Percussion Level Two Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The The The The The The The The The student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care and knowledge. demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments. identify, perform, and describe major scales and arpeggios through one sharp and one flat. perform and describe additional snare drum rudiments and mallet technique. identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. perform and describe music using standard notation in various meters. identify, perform, and describe new articulations, including accent, slur, legato, staccato, and tie. demonstrate the ability to perform a part independently in a large ensemble. demonstrate valuing through performance and practice habits. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe appropriate audience behavior. 2. The student will analyze, compare, and contrast patterns in music and mathematics. 3. The student will describe how specific percussion instruments are used in a variety of musical styles and genres. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will improvise melodies using a variety of mallet percussion instruments. 2. The student will compose and notate music to accompany a reading. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will analyze and articulate personal preferences for specific music works. 2. The student will devise and apply criteria to evaluate individual performance. vi
  7. 7. Outcomes for Percussion Level Three Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The The The The The The The The The The The student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care and knowledge. demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments and the drum set. identify, perform, and describe major scales and arpeggios through two sharps and two flats. perform and describe timpani technique. perform and describe snare drum rudiments and mallet technique. identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. perform and describe sight-reading. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe phrasing and dynamics within an ensemble. demonstrate the ability to perform in a percussion ensemble. read and perform solo music and orchestra and band literature in adjudicated solo and ensemble performances. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe elements of folk or ethnic themes reflected in a variety of percussion music. 2. The student will investigate and describe examples of the impact of technology on music. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will create, notate, and perform a composition, using traditional notation. 2. The student will improvise and perform music, using electronic sounds. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will compare the uses of music elements in compositional style. 2. The student will evaluate personal performance within an ensemble, using established criteria. vii
  8. 8. Outcomes for Percussion Level Four Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The The The The The The The The The The The student student student student student student student student student student student will will will will will will will will will will will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care and knowledge. demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments. identify, perform, and describe major scales and arpeggios through three sharps and three flats. perform and describe additional snare drum rudiments and mallet technique. demonstrate and describe accurate timpani technique, including coordination and tuning. identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. perform and describe sight-reading. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe playing styles and articulations, including trills and staccato. demonstrate the ability to perform independently in a large and a small ensemble. read and perform solo music and orchestra and band literature in adjudicated solo and ensemble performances. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe elements of percussion music reflected in a variety of cultural expressions. 2. The student will investigate and describe exemplary percussion performance. 3. The student will identify and describe elements common to music and the visual arts. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will create and perform a snare cadence. 2. The student will improvise a short melody over a given rhythmic accompaniment. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will demonstrate the habits of self-regulation in regard to rehearsal etiquette. 2. The student will formulate and apply criteria for evaluating a percussion solo. viii
  9. 9. Outcomes for Percussion Level Five Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The The The The The The The The The The student student student student student student student student student student will will will will will will will will will will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care and knowledge. demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments. identify, perform, and describe minor scales and arpeggios through three sharps and three flats. perform and describe three mallet techniques. demonstrate and describe timpani technique. identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. perform and describe sight-reading. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe expressive performance, including interpreting tempi, dynamics, and phrase markings. read and perform solo music and orchestra and band literature in adjudicated solo and ensemble performances. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe elements of expressive performance in a variety of music styles, cultures, and genres. 2. The student will investigate and describe percussion careers. 3. The student will analyze and describe audience behavior in a variety of musical settings. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds 1. The student will create and perform melodies and rhythms for percussion ensemble. 2. The student will improvise melodies and rhythms, using Level Four instruments. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will demonstrate the habits of self-regulation in regard to practice and rehearsals. 2. The student will use established criteria to evaluate the varying ways composers use the elements of music in selected compositions. 3. The student will formulate and apply criteria for evaluating a percussion performance, compared to a vocal performance. ix
  10. 10. Outcomes for Percussion Level Six Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The The The The The The The The The The student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will demonstrate the ability to maintain and change essential percussion instrument parts. demonstrate correct posture and playing positions. describe and perform major and minor scales and arpeggios. perform and describe rudiments on the snare drum and apply them to drum set technique. describe and perform advanced timpani techniques. identify, describe, and interpret through performance music terms, symbols, and structural features. describe and perform sight-reading. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe the elements of music as used to enhance interpretation. read and perform solo, ensemble, and orchestra/band literature. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe elements of music for percussion from a variety of historical periods, cultures, and styles. 2. The student will analyze the connection of music elements to elements in theatre and dance. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will create, notate, and perform a composition, using traditional notation. 2. The student will perform and describe transcriptions. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will demonstrate the habits of self-regulation in performance. 2. The student will formulate and establish criteria for evaluation of music compositions and performances. x
  11. 11. Outcomes for Percussion Level Seven Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The The The The The The The The The The The The student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will student will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care. demonstrate correct posture and positioning. perform and identify perfect fourths and fifths, octaves, and major and minor thirds. perform and describe appropriate technique for keyboard percussion. demonstrate and describe additional techniques for timpani. identify, describe, and interpret through performance music terms, symbols, and structural features. perform and describe sight-reading. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe additional rhythms and meters. identify, perform, and describe structural characteristics of a variety of music. read and perform solo music and orchestra and band literature with increased proficiency. perform a part in an ensemble, demonstrating well-developed ensemble skills. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will identify and describe the role of percussion in individual and cultural expression. 2. The student will analyze music for percussion from a variety of periods, styles, and cultures. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will improvise melodies and rhythms on percussion instruments. 2. The student will transcribe and perform music for percussion ensemble. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will formulate criteria to evaluate personal music performance. xi
  12. 12. Outcomes for Percussion Level Eight Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will The student will articulations. identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care. demonstrate correct posture and positioning. perform rudiments with varied tempi and dynamics. identify, perform, and describe the chromatic scale for keyboard instruments in full range. demonstrate and describe advanced techniques for timpani and auxiliary symphonic percussion. identify, describe, and interpret through performance music terms, symbols, and structural features. identify, perform, and describe compositional techniques in a variety of music. perform and describe conducting patterns and techniques. identify, perform, and describe complex rhythms and meters. perform a part in an ensemble, demonstrating well-developed ensemble skills. read and perform solo music and orchestra and band literature with an increased understanding of playing styles and Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will analyze and articulate reasons for choosing percussion as a performance medium. 2. The student will analyze and perform music for percussion from the Renaissance and Baroque periods in music. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds 1. The student will improvise rhythmic and melodic variations in major and minor keys. 2. The student will transcribe and perform music for percussion that incorporates technology. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will evaluate a percussion performance by comparing it to exemplary models. 2. The student will articulate high artistic standards for ensemble performance. xii
  13. 13. Outcomes for Percussion Level Nine Students will perceive, perform, and respond to music. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The student will present and coach others in proper instrument care and repair techniques. The student will practice consistently high artistic standards for posture and positioning. The student will perform and describe the chromatic, major, and minor scales for each keyboard instrument, using the full range. The student will perform with refined stick and mallet technique on snare drum, timpani, and mallet instruments. The student will identify, interpret through performance, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features, in addition to demonstrating good sight-reading skills. The student will coach and conduct an ensemble performance using a full score. The student will perform and describe music in mixed or unusual meters. The student will analyze and describe differences in interpretation of different performances of the same musical selection. The student will read and perform solo, ensemble, and orchestra and band literature with high artistic standards for expression and accuracy. The student will perform, in an ensemble or as a soloist, music representing a variety of styles, cultures, and genres. Students will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. 1. The student will explore and recruit performance opportunities outside the classroom. 2. The student will analyze and perform music for percussion from the Classical, Romantic, and Contemporary periods in music. Students will demonstrate the ability to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. 1. The student will improvise original melodies and rhythms in a variety of styles over given chord progressions. 2. The student will create and perform compositions which require advanced percussion techniques. Students will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. 1. The student will evaluate the artistic and aesthetic qualities of solo and group performances. 2. The student will articulate high artistic standards for solo and ensemble performance. xiii
  14. 14. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 1 (Grade 4) Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. Perceiving, performing, and responding are fundamental to music. They are the processes through which music affects thought and emotion and provides opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction. A flexible instructional setting that allows for a balance of these is needed for a wholesome, rich, musical environment in the school. The approach is “total percussion.” Students will learn mallet instruments and techniques along with those for drumming. Students will have early experiences with percussion music and instruments from around the world. In this unit students have their first experiences in manipulating, caring for, and making sounds on their instruments. They establish practice, learning, and performance habits that they will carry with them for a lifetime. The listening skills they develop are fundamental to other disciplines, as well as to music. Instruction usually takes place in relatively small classes of similar instruments and like abilities. The use of instruments in this group setting requires cooperation and self-regulation. Activities within the unit address a variety of learning styles, including cooperative learning, kinesthetic experiences, logical/sequential thinking, and critical analysis. This and the other three units for this level are taught concurrently and throughout the year. Perceiving, performing, listening, understanding cultural context, creating, and evaluating are interrelated and are best taught making connections natural to the art. 1
  15. 15. Level 1, Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. KEY QUESTION(S) ASSESSMENT How do I take care of my instrument(s)? Make and keep a list of everything you do to care for your instrument. How are the snare drum and mallet instruments set up and adjusted? Correctly demonstrate the set-up of instruments, from their cases to playing positions. Name all of the parts. Do I use good posture and technique for the snare drum? Perform selected rudiments observing tempo, posture, position, and technique. Echo and identify simple rhythms. Do I use good posture and technique for the mallet instruments? Demonstrate steady tempo by performing a piece, written or improvised, using a metronome. What is the proper way to “crash” the cymbals? Perform a duet with a classmate two times, switching parts on the repeat. What is the proper striking technique for the bass drum? What are the two proper ways to play the sleigh bells? Can I accurately perform single and double alternating strokes on the snare drum? Compose and perform a short piece, using standard notation and varying time signatures. Perform a piece of music for the class. Discuss your preparation of the piece and share your feelings about the performance. Demonstrate valuing by creating and adhering to a practice schedule. Can I correctly perform selected rudiments? Can I sing or play simple melodies by rote? Can I improvise basic rhythm patterns? Can I use standard notation when composing and performing? Am I aware of rhythm, dynamics, and tempi? Can I play a duet or harmony part? Can I perform music with varying time signatures? How do practice habits affect musicianship? 2
  16. 16. Level 1, Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Instrument Care Posture and Position Basic Techniques Alternating sticks Rudiments Steady Beat Solo Ensemble Notation and Symbols Rhythm patterns Dynamics Tempi Time Signatures/Meter Practice Habits Articulation SKILLS AND PROCESSES Assessing Instrument Condition Setting up Instruments Performing Investigating Naming Striking Gripping Muffling Dampening 3
  17. 17. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Demonstrate proper care of percussion instruments, including snare drum, bass drum, xylophone, and/or marimba. (DL1) Wipe plastic heads regularly with a damp cloth. Wipe xylophone and marimba bars periodically with a dry, soft cloth. Find and read a passage on the “care and handling” of your instrument. (RS) Make and keep a list of everything you do to care for your instrument. (DL2) Cover and store all percussion instruments when not in use. ASSESSMENTS Be able to explain the care and handling of the snare drum, bass drum, and mallet instruments. Discuss the maintenance, cleaning, and safe storage. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Mueller, Complete guide to the maintenance and repair of band instruments. p. 272; Burns, Elementary drum method, p.4; Harr, Drum method, p.5; Pearson, Standard of excellence, book1, student edition, p.3. Wax xylophone and marimba bars periodically (Once a month, or once a semester) Recommended Wax: Formby’s Furniture Polish or comparable wax – Low beeswax content is recommended. 4
  18. 18. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will demonstrate assembly and set-up of instruments. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Find and read a passage on the proper assembly of the snare drum, bass drum, and mallet instruments. (RS, DL1) Explain assembly procedures to non-percussion students. Draw a diagram, labeling the parts. (DL2) Working in pairs, check and adjust your partner’s instrument (snare drum) to fit him or her correctly. ASSESSMENTS Open cases, remove instruments, and correctly assemble a snare drum and mallets (xylophone or marimba) while naming the parts and explaining reasons for height and adjustments made during assembly. Position the bass drum properly on its stand. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, book 1, student edition, p. 2. 5
  19. 19. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 3. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Snare Drum: Holding a drumstick in each hand, find the spot on the drumstick approximately one-third of the length from the end. Place that part of the stick between the first joint of your index finger and the pad of your thumb. Place your remaining fingers on the stick and pull it toward your palm. Your fingers should hold the stick loosely, and your thumb should point toward the drumstick tip. Your palm should face down and your fingers should always remain on the stick. Make sure you have a “crevice” between your thumb and index finger. Hold your stick one to two inches above and almost parallel to the batter head. The sticks should form a 60˚ angle. Using your wrist, raise the tip of the stick six to eight inches above the head. Drop the tip of the stick to the head and allow it to bounce off. The tip should strike the head slightly off-center directly above the snares. ASSESSMENTS Use a relaxed, correctly placed grip to demonstrate a 60˚ angle placement of the drumsticks on the drum head. Perform bounce strokes, using the same and opposite hand at proper height from the drumhead. Follow immediately with a strike from the opposite hand or the same hand, depending on the effect needed. Diagnose and coach a fellow student’s hand and stroke technique, and provide coaching for improvement. MSA = Maryland School Assessment DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, book 1, student edition, p. 2-3. Demonstrate proper playing techniques for the students. 6
  20. 20. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 4. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for Orchestra Bells: Hold the mallets in a similar fashion to matching grip on the drumsticks. Using your wrist, raise the tip of the mallet six to eight inches above the bar. Then drop the head of the mallet to the bar, and allow it to bounce off. The mallet should strike directly in the center of the bar. Mallets should not strike “nodes.” Black Keys may be struck a quarter inch from the edge of the bar. Follow immediately with a strike from the opposite hand. Make notes in your notebook or journal outlining proper performance positions. Experiment with the sound by hitting the keys in different areas. Explain why you think the best sound is in the center of the keys. (DL3, GT) ASSESSMENTS Gripping the mallets in “matching” grip, perform single strokes with alternating hands. Start 6-8 inches from the bar and strike directly into the center, or a quarter inch from the edge for black keys. Do not strike nodes. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, book 1, student edition. p. 2-3. Provide visual reinforcement for suggested activities. 7
  21. 21. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (4. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for Cymbals: Practice playing 14-inch or 16-inch cymbals using correct grip to strike and mute for desired effect. Hold cymbal straps, gripping between your index finger and thumb. Grip close to the cymbal bell. Curl the remaining fingers around the strap, holding with enough tension for appropriate control. Repeat with the opposite hand. Keep one hand (usually the left) stationary while the other makes the stroke. Top Cymbal (usually the right one) should follow a downward motion onto the plate of the other cymbal. Cymbals should make a flam sound, with the bottom of the right-hand cymbal hitting first, followed by the top part of the right-hand cymbal. To stop vibrations, muffle the cymbals by drawing them against the abdomen. Playing cymbals is physically taxing. Describe some ways you might build arm strength. (DL2, LM) ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate ability to grip cymbals using index finger and thumb with enough tension for control. Strike cymbals using one stationary hand and one moving hand to produce a proper “crash” sound. Properly muffle, using the abdomen. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Tes, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2, p.607; Burns, Elementary drum method, p. 6. Provide visual reinforcement for suggested activities. 8
  22. 22. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES (4. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions.) Technique for Bass Drum: Using both a lamb’s wool beater for concert work and a hard felt mallet for marching, experiment with the sound of each. Stand in position so that the music stand and the director are in a straight line. Strike the drum between the center of the head and the edge to produce the best sound. (Closer to the center rather than closer to the edge.) Place your other hand, the dampening hand, between the beater and the rim, close to the beater. Stop the vibration of the head on the rests with your dampening hand. Play a steady beat on the bass drum along with a recording of a march. Note: The most desired technique for dampening is placing the dampening hand on the head of the bass drum that is not being struck. Sometimes bass drum stands do not allow for this technique, because they are so big. In this case, muffle with your knee (while resting foot on a chair) or the left hand, on the head being struck. ASSESSMENTS Make a chart describing the sounds produced by each of the two mallets; list one style of music you would use for each. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Burns, Elementary drum method, p. 7. Provide visual reinforcement for suggested activities. 9
  23. 23. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (4. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for Sleigh Bells: There are two acceptable ways to perform with the sleigh bells. It would be appropriate to learn both methods. 1. Hold the handle of the sleigh bells in one hand, with the bells pointing toward the floor. Make a fist with your other hand and firmly hit the top of the handle in the desired rhythm. 2. Have sleigh bells lying flat on the trap table. Grasp by the ends (i.e., corn on the cob), pick them up horizontally (silently) and shake them to the desired rhythms. Play along with Sleigh Ride from a professional recording. Perform, using a steady beat. (T) ASSESSMENTS Perform simple steady beat ♩ + ♫ patterns on the sleigh bells using methods one and two (bells pointing toward the floor and bells laying flat on the trap table). MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2, p. 606. The first technique could invite extraneous sounds. The second technique is highly recommended, but takes much practice to perfect. Take into consideration the placement of bells before performance of a piece. The hand motion in the second technique is similar to that of a snare drum stroke. Have the student hold the instrument on the table; picking up the sleigh bells should then become the first note of the rhythm pattern (this avoids sleigh bell solos). 10
  24. 24. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (4. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper performance positions.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for Snare Drum: Using a beginning method book, practice simple written exercises to drill single and double strokes with both hands. Keep sticks at opposite heights of the stick spectrum; relax and make solid strokes. Use a metronome to keep an even beat. Imitate your teacher performing a simple pattern of double and single strokes. ASSESSMENTS Perform eight measures of alternating single strokes and eight measures of alternating double strokes using a metronome. Sight-read, with 75% accuracy, a simple exercise that has sticking “marked in” to show both single and double strikes,. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Werntz, Ten lessons for the snare drum. 11
  25. 25. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 5. The student will perform and describe selected rudiments. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Drill these ten selected rudiments: Single stroke roll Double stroke roll 5-stroke roll 7-stroke roll 9-stroke roll 13-stroke roll 17-stroke roll Single paradiddle Double paradiddle Triple paradiddle Practice open-closed-open or at different tempi. M.M. =100 Play “Guess the Rudiment:” The teacher or a student plays a rudiment. Other classmates guess which one is being played. Rudiments are practice rhythms for the snare drum player. Copy these rudiments in your notebook and practice them daily. ASSESSMENTS Using proper grip, posture, and position to drum, perform in sequence and describe the ten named rudiments with a metronome speed of M.M. =100. Research the use of rudiments and write a short paragraph detailing your results. Read your finished paper to the class. (RS, LM) MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Wertz, Ten lessons for snare drum. 12
  26. 26. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 6. The student will initiate and perform steady beat and basic rhythm patterns. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Read Podemski’s section on rhythm and the percussionist. Practice easy rhythm patterns using ♩ ♪ in decreasing value. Switch between various rhythmic values to reinforce subdivision of the beat. Always utilize a metronome while practicing rudiments and random patterns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Call and Response – use ♩ ♪ and their corresponding rests to echo the teacher example accurately. Associate rhythms with the notation on flash cards. (RS) Demonstrate ability to count. Clap and move in time to the beat. Say students’ names in rhythm. Form groups of “like” rhythms. Write the rhythms on the board. (DL2) Sit down and practice moving arms, hands, and legs in rhythm. Decide whether the music is in duple or triple meter. Conduct duple and triple patterns while listening to examples of each. Use body movements in rhythm while following a leader. (AS) Discuss and define the concepts of the beat, and duple and triple meters. ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate evenness and steady tempo by playing written selections and improvised rhythms using a metronome as your foundation. MSA= Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Podemski, Snare drum method, pp. 34-35. Use word associations such as “Mississippi, Hot Dog” to help students internalize rhythms. Have them count immediately afterwards. Use a rhythmic vocabulary such as Gordon Froseth or Kodály. Have students count, chant, play, and march to a steady beat. Use children’s names as a chant for duple and triple beats. 13
  27. 27. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 7. The student will identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Memorize the meaning of the following musical symbols: Quarter note and rest Half note and rest Whole note and rest Eighth note and rest Crescendo Decrescendo Accent Forte, piano Copy symbols with meanings into a music notebook. Give a friend a musical test, using flashcards. (DL2) Use musical signs when playing your song. Find a new song that uses them. Plays selections, using the dynamics marked in the music; then play them without any dynamics at all. Decide which version sounds more musical. (DL3) ASSESSMENTS Use musical terms to describe your performance. Compose and perform two phrases of music, one for orchestra bells, and one for snare drum. Each should be eight measures in length, incorporating between the two all notations and symbols in the list. (DL4) Identify notational errors after a performance. (DL4) MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Display these symbols in the classroom with definitions. Use the symbols in early repertoire. Make small flash cards so students can play a short game while you are tuning the wind instruments. 14
  28. 28. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 8. The student will interpret, through performance, standard notation in various meters. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Use the current method book to find and practice reading exercises in these time signatures: 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. With another student set up the snare drum and the bass drum. To establish the feel of the accented beats, the bass drum will play on the downbeat and the snare on remaining beats of the measure. Then have the bass drum play on all 4 beats. The snare will alternate on beats 1 and 3, then 2 and 4 to establish different emphasis. Alternate players in performing the same exercises. (DL2) Use body percussion while listening to different pieces of music. This helps develop a feel for time signatures. Example: “pat-clap-snap” while listening to Take Me Out to the Ball Game, for ¾. ASSESSMENTS Listen to four examples played by the teacher and identify the time signature. Write and perform a piece of music (16measures or fewer) that uses all three time signatures in random succession. (Use ♩ and♪ rhythms only) (DL4) MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Play with students on bass and snare to instill emphasis for each of the three time signatures. Use movement and dance forms to show differences and connection to meter, i.e., March – 2/4; Waltz – 3/4; Polka – 4/4. 15
  29. 29. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 9. The student will identify, perform, and describe a variety of articulations and tempo markings. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Practice dynamics in terms of height of mallet from head or bar: ff = 9 inches f = 6 inches mf = 5 inches mp = 4 inches p = 3 inches pp = 1 inch Describe and perform a melody in terms of its step-wise and skip-wise construction on the bells. Echo melody patterns by singing and playing. Echo rhythm patterns by speaking and playing. Combine melody and rhythm patterns. ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate all six levels of dynamics on snare drum or orchestra bells. Choose an eight-measure melody that uses varying rhythm and dynamics. Perform the selection accurately three times, first clapping, then singing or speaking, and finally playing on the designated instrument. (DL2) Define and memorize the following terms: (DL2) Allegro Moderato Andante Slur Tie MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Display a progress or “star” chart for each child. Use stars or dots to record each student’s progress. Have a “play day” or a “class Notes: concert day” at specific intervals so individuals may perform for the class. Use large wall charts for notation. Give rewards for correct answers. Provide for each student a practice chart and a repertoire list. Each time a student plays a piece, he or she is to fill in or check a box. Display these filled-in charts in the room. Have students take an aural discrimination test to show understanding of the characteristics of the melody. 16
  30. 30. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 10. The student will demonstrate valuing through performance and practice habits. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Choose a piece from a current method book or another solo for snare drum or orchestra bells. Determine your choice, using the following guidelines. 1. Interest level 2. Level of difficulty 3. Rhythmic variety 4. Length 5. Memorization potential Practice and perform for your class. (DL3) Interview a musician you respect and ask about his or her practice habits. Set up a daily practice schedule and note the length of sessions. Use a metronome and increase tempo daily to push for a higher performance level. Write two sentences after each practice session to reflect on progress and attitude. (DL4, GT) Perform with an ensemble in at least two concerts over the course of the year. ASSESSMENTS Perform a solo for the class by memory, if possible. After your performance, discuss your reasons for choosing the piece and the manner in which you practiced and accomplished your goal. Share how it made you feel to perform your solo and how it changed you as a musician and a student. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Make appropriate texts and solo literature available to beginning level snare drum and mallet players. Advise students and help them choose acceptable pieces for their achievement levels. Remind them to have regular practice regimen. Suggest techniques for memorization. Use class charts to track practice and to reward students. 17
  31. 31. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 1 (Grade 4) Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. Unit 2 provides students with opportunities to demonstrate an understanding of the impact of percussion on our culture, to investigate and describe a history of the instruments, and to explore music written for percussionists. Students will be engaged in performing, organizing, describing, interpreting, and communicating essential aspects of music history and human experience, using the language, skills, methods, and materials of music. In this unit, an attempt has been made to connect the application of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience to the student’s own life and experience. The music chosen and the historical perspective discussed encompass a wide variety of musical styles, genres, and cultures. The materials, activities, and instructional strategies apply to a variety of learning styles and abilities. Music performance, analysis, and reading and writing activities are infused throughout. Decision-making, problem solving, investigation, and invention are among of the processes in which students will be actively involved as they learn. 18
  32. 32. Level 1, Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. KEY QUESTION (S) ASSESSMENT How should an audience act? Discuss and make a list of appropriate performance behaviors. Determine the importance of performance behaviors. How is music used in holiday celebrations of other cultures? Perform two contrasting holiday songs. Explain the history and use of these particular songs in their cultures. How does music aid in self-expression? How is percussion used in other cultures? How does History relate to music? After listening to recordings of music from other cultures, identify the instruments used and describe the role of the music in the culture to which it belongs. Choose a piece of music that has a link to some historical event. Describe the connection or significance of that piece of music as it relates to the event. Who composed the music we sing? Choose a composer of a piece of music in your performance repertoire. Describe a brief history of the composer and explain what makes that composer’s work unique and recognizable. Alter the dynamics, tempo, and rhythm of a selection from your performance repertoire to make the piece more expressive. Share the reasons for making the changes you did and explain why it is important to be able to do so. 19
  33. 33. Level 1, Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Performance behavior Creative expression Composers Historical events and context Varied musical styles, genres, and cultures SKILLS AND PROCESSES Clapping Giving attention Expressing feelings Performing Discussing Listening Investigating Summarizing 20
  34. 34. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will describe and demonstrate appropriate performance behavior. Understanding music as and essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Demonstrate courteous behavior to fellow students when they are performing. Show appreciation of others’ performances by clapping at the end of a performance. Show your ability to give attention without being distracted. Describe how you would like an audience to behave when you perform. Make a list detailing appropriate performance behaviors. (DL2) Include: Entering a concert venue Warm-up time Responding to director cues Acknowledging applause Exiting after the concert ASSESSMENTS With a fellow student as the performer, show how to respond in a performance situation. First, show correct behavior; then show examples of incorrect behavior. Give reasons why one should use correct behavior. (DL3) MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Be sure to review these concepts: Recital etiquette, appropriate dress, no talking during the performance, respect for others, appropriate and necessary applause. Schedule recitals. 21
  35. 35. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will perform melodies and rhythms from a variety of historical periods, musical styles, and world cultures. Understanding music as and essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Research a country, using the Internet and/or books from the media center. Look for connections to music in that culture and for information on the history of the holidays and customs. Be able to explain the significance of the music you choose. Choose two contrasting pieces to prepare for a class performance. Determine if any new instruments will be needed and, if so, what you will do to acquire them. Use your own plan to arrange a version of the piece. You may work alone or in a group. (T, LM, M) Listen to music of a variety of composers from three or four musical periods in history. Discuss the simple differences between musical periods and similar composers within the period. Choose a composer from one period and research written material and recordings of that composer. Using the orchestra bells, prepare a simple melody for performance from your band book. ASSESSMENTS Perform two contrasting “Holiday” selections as a solo or in a group. Be responsible for planning an arrangement of the tune. Explain the history and use of the selection in that culture. Listen to performances from the following cultures: African, African American, Native American, Latin American, Caribbean, Asian, Middle Eastern, European, South Appalachian As you listen, take notes on the wide variety of percussion instruments heard. Using books and other media, including the internet, find and identify as many instruments as possible. Try to determine which styles use which instruments. Determine whether some styles use the same instruments. Discuss what function or role these instruments have in the music performed. (DL3, DL4, GT, T) MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: The general music teacher should have recordings or texts with a good variety of Literature. World music recordings are available at the local library and on the Internet. 22
  36. 36. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 3. The student will identify and describe ways in which performing music can bring personal satisfaction. Understanding music as and essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Play one piece from the class text "as written.” Experiment withdifferent ways to change the piece, using dynamics, tempo, changing rhythms, adding rests, even playing backwards. Listen to classmates and take notes on their interpretations of the same piece. Repeat the exercise and try another “new” version to challenge yourself to explore more variations. (GT, DL3) ASSESSMENTS Perform a piece from the book “as written” and “your own” way; talk about what you changed and why. Share your feelings about the importance of being able to be free to change the music. Share how music allows you to express your feelings. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Demonstrate on snare drum and mallet instruments ways to alter or vary a simple rhythmic and/or melodic piece to “free up” or open the door to individual expression. Talk about how this process allows the performer to experience freedom and creativity within preset structure. 23
  37. 37. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 1 (Grade 4) Unit 3 (MSDE Performance outcome III): The student will demonstrate the ability to organize musical ideas and sound creatively. This unit provides students with the learning tools necessary to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. Unit 3 offers students the opportunity to explore musical improvisations using traditional and original techniques and to arrange and compose, using appropriate notation and forms. Students will be actively engaged in performing, organizing, describing, interpreting, evaluating, and communicating the creative organization of musical ideas and sounds, using the language, skills, methods, and materials of music. In this unit, students will be improvising rhythms and melodies that show contrast. Students will be actively engaged in the creative habits of mind as they acquire, extend, refine, and engage knowledge in a meaningful way. Finally, creativity, personal decision-making, and real life connections will be encouraged as students are asked to create their own solutions to creativity and improvisation questions. 24
  38. 38. Level 1, Unit 3 (MSDE Performance outcome III): The student will demonstrate the ability to organize musical ideas and sound creatively. KEY QUESTION (S) ASSESSMENT Can I compose an original melody? Play or sing two short four-measure melodies, one improvised and one pre-written. Can I improvise rhythms and melodies? Answer a short melodic phrase, given by your teacher, by improvising in a style similar to the given example. Can I notate my compositions? Can I create compositions to fit a given context? Listen twice to a melody played by your teacher. Create a rhythmic accompaniment to complement the melody. Compose, notate, and perform a 16-measure melody for snare drum or bells. Compose and perform a rhythmic accompaniment to add interest to a story. 25
  39. 39. Level 1, Unit 3 (MSDE Performance outcome III): The student will demonstrate the ability to organize musical ideas and sound creatively. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Melodic patterns Rhythmic patterns Accompaniment Phrases Composition SKILLS AND PROCESSES Singing Playing Notating Graphing Creating Improvising Answering Composing 26
  40. 40. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 3: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will improvise and perform rhythms and melodies, using traditional sounds. Organizing musical ideas and sounds creatively. ACTIVITIES Using the eight pitches of the major scale, experiment with your voice and orchestra bells to create combinations of pitches that form a “melody.” Start with small groups of pitches and use repetition of notes. Vary the rhythm to add variety. Use the voice as a starting point and try to echo ideas. Use bells and try to copy the idea. Write down at least one four-measure melody. (DL4, DL5) Choose a simple melody from your book and have a partner play while you keep a steady beat. The second and third times, change the rhythm patterns to provide interest. Try to use the bass and snare drum simultaneously and add dynamics. ASSESSMENTS Perform two short four-measure melodies. You may sing or play both. One must be improvised or “made-up” on the spot and one written previously. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Demonstrate, using the notes of the major scale, an improvised melody, one with your voice and one on orchestra bells. Give examples of varying meters and styles. Try to show a phrase and some semblance of beginning, middle, and end. 27
  41. 41. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 3: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will compose and notate music which shows contrast. Organizing musical ideas and sounds creatively. ACTIVITIES Listen to two phrases of a melody that share common notes and rhythms but that differ to complement each other. With another student, echo each other in small two- or four-measure phrases with your voice and orchestra bells. Keep melodies as close to the original as possible, to mimic the style. Using snare drum or orchestra bells, create an eight-measure composition in the meter (time signature) of your choosing. Use the information from the previous lessons on melody, phrases, and rhythmic accompaniment as inspiration for structuring your composition. Be accurate with the number of beats in a measure and keep the ability level of the performer in mind. The teacher will read a short passage from a children’s book. Listen for spaces and volume changes and expression in the reader’s voice. Decide on a rhythm pattern that complements the general feeling of the story. Add extra patterns to complement the changes in the reader’s voice if appropriate. Listen to a recorded story that uses accompaniment and watch a video. Listen to the percussion instruments and determine how they added to the expression of the story. ASSESSMENTS Answer a short melodic phrase by improvising in a style close to the given example. Discuss the difference between the example and the answer phrase. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Give students a variety of examples of short melodic statements that you create. Echo yourself, changing few pitches or rhythms, to create continuity. Discuss rhythm and pitch variances and notate them to show variations. 28
  42. 42. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 1 (Grade 4) Unit 4 (MSDE Performance Outcome IV): The student will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. This unit provides percussion students with the learning tools and knowledge to make aesthetic judgments. Unit 4 offers students the opportunity to evaluate selected musical compositions, using established criteria, and to formulate, apply, and communicate criteria for evaluating performances. Students will evaluate a performance by comparing it to similar or exemplary models. Students will practice self-regulation and analyze and articulate characteristics of an exemplary member of an ensemble. The Dimensions of Learning provide the framework for the activities in this unit, particularly Dimension Five. Students are asked to utilize the productive habits of mind as they plan, evaluate, and engage in critical and creative thinking. It is very important for students to recognize and value the productive habits of mind and their connection to successful music understanding and performance. 29
  43. 43. Level 1, Unit 4 (MSDE Performance Outcome IV): The student will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. KEY QUESTION(S) ASSESSMENT How can expressive interpretation alter the listener’s reaction to music? Listen to three different recordings of the same piece. Describe the reaction you had to each recording. What makes a performance good? Take notes while observing a live concert band concert. Write a review of the concert; include why you feel the way you do. List the required elements for a good performance. Devise a rating system based on this list to evaluate performances. Apply your rating system to a class performance. 30
  44. 44. Level 1, Unit 4 (MSDE Performance Outcome IV): The student will demonstrate the ability to make aesthetic judgments. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Expressive interpretation Musical expressions Social contexts Personal aesthetic criteria Evaluation Criteria SKILLS AND PROCESSES Listening Reacting Investigating Writing Evaluating Analyzing Listing 31
  45. 45. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 4: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will analyze and articulate characteristics of a good performance. Making aesthetic judgments. ACTIVITIES View videos of a high school, middle school, and elementary school band. Take notes on identified criteria. Include: playing in tune, steady tempo, posture, following the conductor, and behavior. Make a list of characteristics you observed that made the performance good. Add any characteristics you feel might have been missing. Devise a rating system, based on this list, to evaluate performances. Notice similarities and differences from level to level. (DL3, DL5, GT) Practice performing solos in class with a partner. Take notes and comment on positive aspects of your performance; make suggestions for improvements. ASSESSMENTS View a live concert band concert in your school district from any level. Take notes. Present a two or three minute speech reviewing the concert and explaining your reasons for your judgment. Use past performances and class work to come to your conclusions. MSA = Maryland School Assessment DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Use videos of feeder systems, if possible, to give examples of a concert performance. Point out aspects that are both positive and negative. Monitor students in class as they perform for each other in a cooperative partner setting. 32
  46. 46. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 1 UNIT 4: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will devise and apply criteria to evaluate class performance. Making aesthetic judgments. ACTIVITIES Listen to a piece of music that features percussion instruments. Then, listen to two other versions of the same piece. Take notes on the differences in tempo, dynamics, and possible types of instrument timbre. (DL2) Play a piece from your method book in three different ways. Have your partner state his or her different reactions. Repeat the activity, switching roles. Take note of your reactions to your partner’s interpretation or “versions” of the same piece. Working in pairs, make a list of all the required elements of a class performance. Develop an organizer to list elements in relation to their importance, using a three level grading system to rate each requirement. Reserve a space for personal expression, creativity, and connection with the audience. Talk about the elements of chance and spontaneity in live performance as real and sometimes uncontrolled factors. (DL5, GT) ASSESSMENTS Write and present three short paragraphs describing the different reactions you had to a piece of music you listened to in three different recordings. Use a written performance evaluation form to judge class performances. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Use one piece by three different artists. For example: one standard jazz composition played by three different drum set players or vibraphonists. Let students listen for the variety, guide them and cite differences in tempo, timbre, and harmony to open up discussion and personal reaction to the performances. 33
  47. 47. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 2 (Grade 5) Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. Perceiving, performing, and responding are fundamental to music. They are the processes through which music affects thought and emotion and provides opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction. A flexible instructional setting that allows for a balance of these is needed for a wholesome, rich, musical environment in the school. The elementary experience for percussion students uses the approach of “total percussion.” Students will learn mallet instruments and techniques along with those for drumming. Students will have early experiences with percussion music and instruments from around the world. In this unit students have continuing experiences in manipulating, caring for, and making sounds on their instruments. They continue to refine practice, learning, and performance habits that they will carry with them for a lifetime. The listening skills they develop are fundamental to other disciplines, as well as to music. Instruction usually takes place in relatively small classes of similar instruments and like abilities. The use of instruments in this group setting requires cooperation and self-regulation. Activities within the unit address a variety of learning styles, including cooperative learning, kinesthetic experiences, logical/sequential thinking, and critical analysis. This and the other three units are taught concurrently and throughout the year. Perceiving, performing, listening, understanding cultural context, creating, and evaluating are interrelated and are best taught making connections natural to the art. 34
  48. 48. Level 2, Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. KEY QUESTION (S) How should I take care of my instrument? What is the correct posture and technique for the instruments I play? ASSESSMENT Assess your instrument for signs of wear, make adjustments and suggest repairs where appropriate. Assemble each instrument naming each part as you do so. Demonstrate and explain the proper playing position(s) and technique(s). Can I perform the standard rudiments? Perform the selected rudiments then write them out in standard notation. What is involved in performing for an audience? Sight-read various easy melodies and rhythms, including some dotted and syncopated rhythms and rhythms and melodies in 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, and 2/2. How does practice affect performance? Study a new piece of music. Identify and label its form. Can I identify major scales and arpeggios in the key of C, F, and G? Practice a piece of music to performance level, memorize the piece of music, and then perform it for an audience. Can I write music using standard notation? Can I identify and utilize new articulations? Write an essay on the connection between practice habits and performance. Include descriptions of personal practice activities and explain how they enhanced your musicianship. Using standard notation, write the major scales of C, F, and G. Make flashcards of articulations. Partner with another student to assess one another’s knowledge of articulations.. 35
  49. 49. Level 2, Unit 1 (MSDE Performance Outcome I): The student will perceive, perform, and respond to music. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Instrument care Posture and playing position Basic playing techniques SKILLS AND PROCESSES Assessing instrument condition Maintaining Instrument Condition Performing Rehearsing Notating Naming notes Counting Critical analysis 36
  50. 50. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will identify, perform, and describe proper instrument care. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Make a maintenance checklist to include the following: 1. Check drum heads for wear 2. Check and replace all sticks and mallets which are cracked or broken 3. Check stands for loose wing nuts, screws, etc. Acquaint yourself with the correct names of the parts of a snare drum. Make a drawing of a snare drum, showing the parts and their names. If repairs or adjustments are needed, have your teacher or a qualified repair shopattend to them. ASSESSMENTS Be able to recognize signs of wear, Suggest replacing heads and mallets that are unsuitable. Adjust stands. Name the parts of a snare drum by creating a diagram. Suggest repairs to your teacher. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Harr, Drum method, p. 4. Meuller, Complete guide to the maintenance and repair of band instruments. p. 275. Pearson, Standard of excellence, conductors’ score, book 2, p. 604. 37
  51. 51. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Techniques for the Suspended Cymbal: Find and read a passage on the set-up of the suspended cymbal. Hold a set of mallets or drum sticks using a matched grip. Strike the cymbal, using a technique similar to that used to strike a drumhead. For a roll, hold a yarn mallet in each hand, using a matched grip. Position the mallets opposite each other, one on the left and one on the right, close to the edge of the cymbal. Create the sound by alternating single strokes, approximately one inch above the cymbal. ASSESSMENTS Properly assemble a suspended cymbal on its stand. Demonstrate the two techniques of playing a suspended cymbal. Explain each. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson, Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2, p. 604. Demonstrate the single stroke and roll technique for your students. 38
  52. 52. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (2. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for the Tambourine: Hold the tambourine at chest level with one hand – thumb should be on the head side with fingers underneath. Strike the tambourine near the edge with the first three fingers of your other hand. Use a “knocking on the door” motion. Roll: Hold the tambourine using the normal grip. Rotate your wrist to create the roll. The wrist motion should be similar to that used when turning a doorknob. For cleaner articulation, begin the roll with one single stroke of your free hand. ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate, using both single note rhythms and rolls on the tambourine. Model and give step-by-step directions to a fellow student. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson. Standard of excellence, conductor score, p. 606. 39
  53. 53. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (2. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Techniques for the Woodblock: Hold the bottom of the woodblock with one hand. Do not squeeze the wood block too tightly. In your other hand, hold a drumstick or a hard rubber mallet. Use the same grip you use when playing mallet percussion instruments. Strike the woodblock in the center of the top part with a quick down-up wrist motion. Some woodblocks have a “sweet spot” that sounds brighter or lower, so experiment on different parts of the block. When playing fast woodblock parts, place the woodblock on a soft flat surface and use two mallets or sticks. ASSESSMENTS Use proper grip and position to demonstrate the two ways to play a wood block. Explain the difference and reasons for both techniques. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson. Standard of excellence, book 2, p. 605. Show students the proper technique through demonstration. 40
  54. 54. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (2. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Technique for the Triangle: Hold your left hand in a sideways “C” and suspend the triangle clip from the top of your thumb and index finger. Hold the triangle beater in your right hand between your thumb and index finger. Strike the outside right hand corner near the top or inside right hand corner of the base. The motion should not exceed 2 inches. The forearm stroke should not be used. ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate the proper way to hold and position a triangle. Play, using a 2-inch motion. Contrast by showing the improper stroke to prevent wrong technique. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson. Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2, p. 605. Show the students proper striking technique and emphasize the importance of a short striking distance for proper control. 41
  55. 55. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES (2. The student will demonstrate correct posture and positioning for auxiliary instruments.) Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Techniques for the Maracas: Hold one maraca in each hand. Grasp the handle of each with your thumb and last three fingers. Extend your index finger so that it touches the shell. Using your wrist, flick one maraca, then the other consecutively, causing the beads inside to hit the shell creating a “tsk” sound. The motion should be similar to the motion used to play alternating strokes on the snare drum. ASSESSMENTS Demonstrate the hand position unique to the maracas and play consecutive quarter note patterns evenly to show control. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Pearson. Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2, p. 607. Demonstrate proper playing position and stress the care and control needed in playing the maracas. 42
  56. 56. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 3. The student will identify, perform, and describe major scales and arpeggios through one sharp and one flat. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Explain the half step and whole step pattern used to build a major scale. Use C, F, and G as your beginning notes. Write each scale on manuscript paper, and perform them on the bells. Echo intervals, melodies, and scales after the teacher sings or plays them on the piano. Choose several familiar melodies. Identify major intervals in those melodies and create mental associations to help you remember what each interval sounds like. Define an arpeggio. Using the three scales you notated, write the arpeggio note names for each. Perform each scale and its corresponding arpeggio on the bells or xylophone. Practice them up and down the scale, using quarter and eighth notes. ASSESSMENTS Name the notes of the C, F, and G major scales and arpeggios and perform them on the bells by memory. Use a metronome marking of your choice, and maintain a steady beat. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: 43
  57. 57. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 4. The student will perform and describe additional snare drum rudiments and mallet techniques. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Practice and drill the following rudiments by reading and rote. Work in pairs to check for accuracy: Flam Drag Ruff Flam tap Flam accent Practice all rudiments using open and closed positions. With matched grip, practice scales using alternate sticking. Find a solo in your method book. Practice using different sticking methods. Write the easiest above the notes and practice using this method. Perform for your class. ASSESSMENTS Perform the flam drag, flam tap, flam accent, and ruff in random order and write them from memory. Be sure to check for proper sticking technique, stick height, and stroke control. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Use a method book glossary and index to access a chart or list of rudiments. Pearson. Standard of excellence, conductor score, book 2. 44
  58. 58. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 5. The student will identify, perform, and describe music terms, symbols, and structural features. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES • • • • • • • • • ASSESSMENTS Scan over music quickly for markings and sight-read two contrasting pieces, one piece on the bells, and one piece on the snare. Use steady tempo, dynamics, and any other markings to play with 75% accuracy, without stopping to correct mistakes. • Find a dotted quarter note and a dotted half note in your method book. Identify dotted rhythms in your music and determine their value. Identify syncopated rhythms in your book. Practice placing the accent on unaccented beats. Use multi syllable words and change the normal accent, i.e. Mis-sis-sippi. Practice rhythms with a partner, having one person play a steady beat in quarter notes while the other performs dotted and syncopated rhythm patterns. Find phrases in your music that sound and look alike. Find phrases in your music that sound and look different. Make up names for like and unlike phrases. Describe and perform an ABA song. Color-code the form. (DL3) Examine a totally new written piece of music and analyze it using the same, different, and ABA to label its parts. (DL4) Demonstrate the ability to hear and perform a new interval pattern. Make a design or “picture” of new half-step and whole-step patterns and scales. Demonstrate the ability to sight-read by playing an unfamiliar piece from notation. Define and find in your book: o 1st and 2nd endings o DC al fine o Pick up note o Simile o Multiple measure rest MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Sight-reading: Show the pattern visually on a chart or black board. Have students point to the pattern they are hearing. Make a cassette tape of new repertoire pieces that use rhythms to be learned. Have it available for student use. Continue reading games and reading practice separately from playing the instrument. Provide students with easy to read notation for first reading and playing activity. 45
  59. 59. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 6. The student will perform and describe music using standard notation in various meters. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Play familiar songs that show the various meters – match the meter to the song. Write rhythm patterns in different meters; add the melody lines to them. Imitate rhythm patterns as played by the teacher. Associate the notation on flash cards with patterns as you imitate them. Become familiar with short rhythm patterns from daily lessons. Practice “hearing” rhythms and melodies in your head. Practice hearing steps, skips, and intervals on a keyboard instrument. Keep a steady inner beat while listening to dictation. This will tell you where the notes lie in relation to the beat. Write quickly, note head first; then go back to add stems. Listen carefully each time. ASSESSMENTS Write and perform a four-measure rhythm pattern or melody for each of the four time signatures. Sight-read on snare drum one four-measure rhythm pattern chosen by your teacher. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Have students count, clap, and play rhythm patterns they read from rhythm strips. Have students echo rhythm patterns vocally and instrumentally. Teacher-made rhythm strips, flash cards, and charts are extremely useful. 46
  60. 60. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 7. The student will identify, perform, and describe articulations, including accent, slur, legato, staccato, and tie. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Use your method book or a music dictionary to define the following: Accent Slur Legato Staccato Tie Find music that utilizes these articulations. Practice and perform examples for your class. Think of a way to remember the Italian words. For instance, you might want to think of staccato as your reaction to touching a hot iron. Make up other things that will help your memory. ASSESSMENTS Make flashcards of familiar and recently-learned articulations. Partner with another student to test each other. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: 47
  61. 61. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 8. The student will demonstrate the ability to perform a part independently in a large ensemble. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Participate in an area festival. Perform appropriate ethnic muswic relating to units on Native Americans, Central and South Americans, Japanese, and other Asian Cultures. (M) Perform as a member of a group in an assembly or concert. Be able to play your part with and without the rest of the ensemble. Choose a short solo you wish to memorize. Check patterns in the piece and make a chart noting them. Make a daily goal list for one week’s time to organize your practice. Tape the piece and listen to it to help memorization. Make arrangements with your director to perform your solo for an audience. (DL3) Practice pieces in small sections if necessary. Do not practice a piece continuously from beginning to end. This will help with memorization. Perform for an audience. ASSESSMENTS Perform on your instruments for of an audience. Write a list of goals and guidelines before you perform. Use a list as a guide for practice and study. After the performance, grade yourself, using the list to check for your success. Write a paragraph on your progress and reflect on your experience in preparing and performing. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Area festivals include school assemblies, school concerts, and recitals. 48
  62. 62. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 1: STUDENT OUTCOMES 9. The student will demonstrate valuing through performance and practice habits. Perceiving, performing, and responding to music. ACTIVITIES Perform in a school program such as an assembly or a concert. Keep an up-todate record of time spent in practice. Read a TV guide to find a music program. View the program, then write a short report on what you learned from the program. Visit a music store and repair shop to buy supplies for your instrument. Strive to be a cooperative and well-behaved member of the class. Show leadership by helping your section do the same. ASSESSMENTS Write a two-paragraph essay on the connection between practice habits and performance. Include activities in which you participated and how you believe they enhanced your musicianship. Perform a piece on your instrument for the class. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Provide students with opportunities to perform for an audience. Provide students with a chart for practice record keeping, and award stickers or other incentives. Look for enthusiasm for performance, willingness to carry the instrument home, evidence of practice, request for private instruction, eager attendance at lessons, descriptions of music experiences, interest in the middle school music program, and choosing to continue with the appropriate music courses. 49
  63. 63. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 2 (Grade 5) Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. Unit 2 provides students with opportunities to demonstrate an understanding of the impact of percussion on our culture, to investigate and describe a history of the instruments, and to explore music written for percussionists. Students will be engaged in performing, organizing, describing, interpreting, and communicating essential aspects of music history and human experience, using the language, skills, methods, and materials of music. In this unit, an attempt has been made to connect the application of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience to the student’s own life and experience. The music chosen and the historical perspective discussed encompass a wide variety of musical styles, genres, and cultures. The materials, activities, and instructional strategies apply to a variety of learning styles and abilities. Music performance, analysis, and reading and writing activities are infused throughout. Decision-making, problem solving, investigation, and invention are among the processes in which students will be actively involved as they learn. 50
  64. 64. Level 2, Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. KEY QUESTION(S) ASSESSMENT How should the audience behave? Have a “Dress-up” concert day. Everyone should come prepared to perform one short piece of music. Your audience behavior will be evaluated. What are the roles of traditional and nontraditional percussion instruments? Design a poster that demonstrates the differences between traditional and non-traditional percussive instruments and how they are used in a performance setting. How is music categorized and analyzed? Categorize music according to form, style, and expressive qualities. How does music relate to mathematics? Investigate the commonalities and differences between math and music. How has music changed throughout history? What does a conductor do? Perform a piece from your method book that has three different percussion parts. Each time you perform it, change the style. Explain each style and your reason for using it. Choose two pieces from the book and conduct as your classmates play. Cue performers and keep a constant beat pattern. 51
  65. 65. Level 2, Unit 2 (MSDE Performance Outcome II): The student will demonstrate an understanding of music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. ESSENTIAL CONTENT/CONCEPTS Audience behavior Traditional and Non-Traditional Percussion Strategies Music examples Patterns: Music and Math Music Styles Historical periods Time Signatures SKILLS AND PROCESSES Behaving Connecting Mathematics and Music Analyzing Musical Concepts Performing Conducting Experimenting Listening Conducting 52
  66. 66. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 1. The student will identify and describe appropriate audience behavior. Understanding music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Demonstrate appreciation of a musical performance by clapping at the appropriate times. Wear appropriate clothes to attend a symphony concert. (DL1) Write a short note to the performers expressing your enjoyment of the program you attended. Develop a list of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors for a given performance. (DL3) Evaluate the audience behavior at a concert or an assembly. ASSESSMENTS In class, have a “dress-up” concert day. Everyone should come prepared to perform a short piece. After each performance make short notes about the performer and the audience’s reaction. Share your notes with the class. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: School related programs: The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, The Annapolis Symphony Orchestra, Young audiences. Have students play in class and have others respond to them. Display posters and arrange field trips. 53
  67. 67. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 2. The student will analyze, compare and contrast patterns in music and in mathematics. Understanding music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Using time signatures from music and fractions from math class explore the meaning of each. Use a Venn diagram to note the similarities and differences. Discover the connection between scale, steps, intervals, and numbered note names. Use division to explain the various note values in 4/4 time. Start with whole notes and stop with sixteenths. Draw a pie or pizza and show the values including sixteenth notes by dividing the pie. Listen to a repeated melody. Discuss symmetry in a mathematical equation. Look for connections between the two. . ASSESSMENTS Use one example from your activities or an original idea to compare and contrast music and mathematics. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Talk about the connections between music and mathematics in basic ways. Mention the differences and similarities in meaning between fractions and time signatures. Talk about form in music and mathematical formulas and rules. 54
  68. 68. Performance Competencies in Percussion Level 2 UNIT 2: STUDENT OUTCOMES 3. The student will describe how specific percussion instruments are used in a variety of musical styles and genres. . Understanding music as an essential aspect of history and human experience. ACTIVITIES Pick three short pieces from a recording of marimba and xylophone solos provided by your teacher. Use the following elements as guidelines for listening: 1. instrumentation of the ensemble 2. style 3. period in history 4. origin (country or culture) 5. form (ABA, etc.) 6. dynamics 7. expression • • • ASSESSMENTS • Demonstrate how to play both traditional and non-traditional percussion instruments. Discuss how they are used in a piece of music. Discuss similarities and differences and create a pictorial representation in poster form to exhibit in your classroom. Using a snare drum, a bass drum, a cymbal, and orchestra bells, list their characteristics and uses in your school band setting. Choose from your band room and general music room some nontraditional percussion instruments (e.g. claves, shakers, guiro, hand drums etc.). Select four of these instruments and describe their characteristics and uses in the style of music of their origin. (M, DL3) Listen to audio or video recordings of simple melodies that include percussion and that represent a range of cultures from around the world. (M) Use traditional and non-traditional percussion instruments to play along with the recordings. Use the instruments that you think best suit the songs. Experiment playing each piece on both traditional and nontraditional instruments. Select from your method book three pieces that differ in style. MSA = Maryland School Assessment, DL = Dimension of Learning, M = Multicultural, ID = Inter-Disciplinary, C = Career Education, GT = Gifted/Highly Able, T = Technology, SS = Study Skills, LM = Library Media, AS = Adaptive Strategies, SAT = Scholastic Assessment Test, RS = Reading Strategies Notes: Provide recordings and sheet music for pieces to be analyzed. Make sure they are relatively short in length. Listen along with the students and discuss the elements of music to aid in analysis. Some instruments may be borrowed from the General Music classroom. Helpful references might include videos involving multicultural percussion instruments, reference books from the media center, and information about percussion found on the internet. 55
  69. 69. UNIT DESCRIPTION Percussion Level 2 (Grade 5) Unit 3 (MSDE Performance outcome III): The student will demonstrate the ability to organize musical ideas and sound creatively. This unit provides students with the learning tools necessary to creatively organize musical ideas and sounds. Unit 3 offers students the opportunity to explore musical improvisations using traditional and original techniques and to arrange and compose, using appropriate notation and forms. Students will be actively engaged in performing, organizing, describing, interpreting, evaluating, and communicating the creative organization of musical ideas and sounds, using the language, skills, methods, and materials of music. In this unit, students will be improvising rhythms and melodies that show contrast. Students will be actively engaged in the creative habits of mind as they acquire, extend, refine, and engage knowledge in a meaningful way. Finally, creativity, personal decision-making, and real life connections will be encouraged as students are asked to create their own solutions to creativity and improvisation questions. 56

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