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The history of Human-Computer Interaction: a summary

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The history of Human-Computer Interaction: a summary

  1. 1. THE HISTORY OF HCI THEORYIntroductory slides to the course Human-Computer Interaction @ KU Leuven, Belgiumhttp://onderwijsaanbod.kuleuven.be/syllabi/e/S0C76AE.htmBy Bieke Zaman http://www.linkedin.com/in/biekezamanYou can be inspired by these slides, but please give me the credits
  2. 2. FROM CLASSICAL TO MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HCI
  3. 3. CLASSICAL HCI-FIRST WAVE-
  4. 4. CONTEXT• Early ’80s• Discretionary use• Command and form-based interactions• Difficult to learn, difficult to use
  5. 5. A (passive) system component • Limited attention span, faulty memory • De-personalised • unmotivated Single user Often novice userHUMAN FACTOR http://www.flickr.com/photos/familymwr/4930275692/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  6. 6. CLASSICAL HCI THEORIESCONTRIBUTIONS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY• Basic research: that helps to explain capabilities and limitations users• Applied basic research: Prescriptive advice for interface designCOGNITIVE MODELING• Models the cognition that is assumed to happen when a user caries out tasks• Predictive or prescriptive
  7. 7. CLASSICAL HCI METHODSASSUMPTIONUsers can be analysed in the same manner asthe information processing of technology• Controlled lab experiments• User modeling• Rigid guidelines• User requirements
  8. 8. MODERN HCI-SECOND WAVE-
  9. 9. CONTEXT• Late ’80s, early ‘90s• Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) succeeded• Maturation of local area networks (LANs) & ¢ internet
  10. 10. 1. An active autonomous agent • capable of regulating and controlling behaviour • With individual ¢ motivation 2. Member of community of workers, often expert users 1. Acting in a settingHUMAN ACTOR http://www.flickr.com/photos/76029035@N02/6829285309/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  11. 11. MODERN HCI THEORIESALTERNATIVE COGNITIVE APPROACHES• Distributed Cognition• External cognition• Ecological Psychology ¢SOCIAL APPROACHES• Situated Action• Ethnomethodology and ethnography• CSCW theories
  12. 12. MODERN HCI THEORIESOTHER IMPORTANT APPROACHES• Grounded Theory• Activity Theory• Hybrid theories ¢
  13. 13. MODERN HCI METHODSETHNOGRAPHY• Intensive, long term involvement• Participant-observations - contextual inquiries• Thick descriptions: – why and how – accounting for unpredictable factors – Focus on interactivity and how cognition is distributed ¢ (rather than modelling what happens inside the head) – How the environment affects action & perceptionQUICK AND DIRTY METHODS• Rapid prototyping• Iterative (co-)design & evaluations
  14. 14. ¢
  15. 15. CONTEMPORARY HCI -THIRD WAVE-
  16. 16. CONTEXT• Mid to late 2000s• Societal and economic changes – Post-materialism -> experiental orientation• Technological evolutions – Internet! ¢ – Home use – New interaction paradigms, embedded computation – Discretionary use of the moment
  17. 17. 1. Users as designers 2. People who want to be satisfied – also in non-work, non- purposeful & non- rational settings ¢ – Value-driven, life goals 3. People who continuously engage in new, initial technology HUMAN CRAFTER experiencesHUMAN SATISFACTOR http://www.flickr.com/photos/ldoritan/4604769875/sizes/m/in/photostream
  18. 18. CONTEMPORARY HCI THEORIESTURN TO EMOTIONS AND QUALITIES• Emotions, aesthetics, hedonics, motivationsTURN TO DESIGN• Critical reflection, accountability ¢• Creative HCI, interpretively flexible designTURN TO CULTURE• Interpretative schemes, cultural study
  19. 19. CONTEMPORARY HCI THEORIESTURN TO THE WILD• Studying and designing in the wild• Augment people & places ¢TURN TO EMBODIMENT• Interaction as practical engagement with the social and physical• Technology and practice cannot be separated• Perception and action cannot be separated either
  20. 20. CONTEMPORARY HCI METHODSEXPLORATORY, CREATIVE METHODS• Inspiration seeking ¢PARTICIPATORY METHODS• User involvement• Co-design, accounting for human values
  21. 21. CONTEMPORARY HCI FRAMINGSOCIALLY AWARE AND RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH• aiming for life goals that reach beyond the pragmatic or hedonic• incl. health, well-being, climate change, ¢ feminism, multiculturalism, globalization, world peace and povertyUCD STARTS BY UNDERSTANDING• … the human values that the technology will be designed to serve
  22. 22. INVISIBLE CHILDREN____________________

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