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Keynote Value-Sensitive Design: Case parental controls and tracking technologies


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In this talk, Bieke Zaman presents the issues HCI researchers and designers are challenged with when engaging with values in design. She will focus on the case study of accounting for values in the design of parental controls and tracking technologies of children's whereabouts.
Lecture given during the Ph.D event November 2015

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Keynote Value-Sensitive Design: Case parental controls and tracking technologies

  1. 1. Being a Value-Sensitive Design Critic Prof. Bieke Zaman @biekezaman University of Oulu, Finland November 2015
  2. 2. Value-Oriented Design: Why?
  3. 3. Why? • Because… • it is not only instructive to question how technology is shaping the way we behave, think, interact and socialize, • but also how we are shaping technologies Technologies and design choices are not value free
  4. 4. Why values matter “We have noticed a shift in the body of HCI work from a focus on the context of use to the context of impact” Cockton (2006), while pointing to the key role of engaging with values in HCI to achieve this shift • Values have the power to change • Shaping decision making • Guiding our behaviour • Affecting the judged importance
  5. 5. Value-Oriented Design: The Challenges
  6. 6. Engaging with values? A paradigmatic discussion Various strands of engaging with values in HCI 1. Value-Sensitive Design (Friedman and colleagues) 2. Worth-centered Design (Cockton and colleagues) 3. Values-led Participatory Design (Iversen and colleagues) 4. …
  7. 7. What are values? A conceptual discussion Challenge 1 “Values to who?” • User value? End user values? • Designer values? • Organizational values? • Cultural values?
  8. 8. What are values? A conceptual discussion Challenge 2 “How and when do values emerge?” • Is it something that a company can impose to a product (cf. strategic management and the notion of a value chain) • Is it something created by the user after the product has been launched (e.g., consumer research experiences) • Is it something you can design or only design for (and to which extent is it concerned with production and consumption & aligned with multi stakeholder concerns)
  9. 9. What are values? A conceptual discussion Challenge 3 “How to identify, recognize and understand values?” • Quantifiable? E.g., profits or economic revenues as an indicator of (economic) values • Interpretable? User values: an (anticipation/ reflection upon) an interaction between user and product • Designable? How to recognize /understand values in designs?
  10. 10. What are values? A conceptual discussion Challenge 4 “How to design and negotiate values?” • How to ‘translate’ something abstract in something tangible? • Who to negotiate with? • How to deal with value conflicts / tensions, i.e. when one value undermines another (cf. security vs privacy)? • When creating something that has no precedent, how to anticipate upon values and how to know whose to be involved? • How to anticipate the consequences of design choices, e.g. in judging alternatives?
  11. 11. Engaging with values? Methodological Issues • Tapping into the unconscious? E.g., Laddering, projective techniques • How to ‘solve’ value tensions, e.g. Value dams, value flows • Power issues, e.g., who is heard, when, and how • Theoretical notions shaping our analytical lens, e.g., child as active agent Zaman,  B.,  &  Vanden Abeele,  V.  (2010).  Laddering  with  Young  Children  in  User  eXperience Evaluations:  Theoretical  Groundings  and  a  Practical  Case.  In  Interaction  Design   and  Children.  Barcelona:  ACM  Press. Zaman,  B.,  &  Jafarinaimi,  N.  (2015).  A  Value  Sensitive  Design  Case  Study:  Why  Values  Do  (not)  Design.  Charting  the  next  decade  of  Value  Sensitive  Design  Workshop,  Aarhus   Conference.  
  12. 12. Engaging with values? Communicative issues • Summarizing and categorizing versus focusing on in-depth, contextual insights • Communication tools: value inventories, personas, stories Zaman,  B.,  &  Vanden Abeele,  V.  (2010).  Laddering  with  Young  Children  in  User  eXperience Evaluations:  Theoretical  Groundings  and  a  Practical  Case.  In  Interaction  Design   and  Children.  Barcelona:  ACM  Press. Zaman,  B.,  &  Jafarinaimi,  N.  (2015).  A  Value  Sensitive  Design  Case  Study:  Why  Values  Do  (not)  Design.  Charting  the  next  decade  of  Value  Sensitive  Design  Workshop,  Aarhus   Conference.  
  13. 13. The problem? Understanding the difficulty • Engaging with values in design: a problem of practice • Values-oriented practitioners regularly encounter the empirical fact that a given value may be both desirable and non desirable when unfolding in the situated product interaction • What can values-oriented practitioners then rely on if values are sometimes appropriate and sometimes problematic? • Even when we know the values, how do we design for them? • Problem of the Identify / Apply logic • Values do not serve as fixed, pre-established formulas Zaman,  B.,  &  Jafarinaimi,  N.  (2015).  A  Value  Sensitive  Design  Case  Study:  Why  Values  Do  (not)  Design.  Charting  the  next  decade  of  Value  Sensitive   Design  Workshop,  Aarhus  Conference.   Jafarinaimi,  N.,  Nathan,  L.P.,  &  Hargraves,  I.  (2015).  Values  as  Hypotheses:  Design,  Inquiry,  and  the  Service  of  Values.  Design  Issues  31(4),  pp.  91-­‐104.  
  14. 14. The solution? A Reorientation • Rather than focusing on what values are, focusing on what values do • A question of how values serve in action • Values as hypotheses • = a lens to look at , Is a way to understand / making sense of the situation • = a lens to / Is a way to judge the action that the situation demands (what needs to be done?) • But, values do not design Zaman,  B.,  &  Jafarinaimi,  N.  (2015).  A  Value  Sensitive  Design  Case  Study:  Why  Values  Do  (not)  Design.  Charting  the  next  decade  of  Value  Sensitive  Design  Workshop,  Aarhus   Conference.   Jafarinaimi,  N.,  Nathan,  L.P.,  &  Hargraves,  I.  (2015).  Values  as  Hypotheses:  Design,  Inquiry,  and  the  Service  of  Values.  Design  Issues  31(4),  pp.  91-­‐104.  
  15. 15. Putting things into perspective 1. An understanding of values, then, is something that emerges along a discovery in context, that is not to be separated from the action in which values unfold, accounting for the interwoveness of values and design 2. The usefulness of any conceptualization of values depends upon its success in the exploratory and explanatory endeavor in which they are deployed. 3. Engaging with values beyond a success or failure model – not just asking whether we applied the right value or whether the design met the value target
  16. 16. Value-Oriented Design: Designing for families with children/teenagers
  17. 17. Case study: parental controls & tracking technologies
  18. 18. A means to which / an end? Expectancy Value Theory (EVT) and Means-End Chain (MEC) theory “People choose a product because it contains attributes (A) that are instrumental to achieving desired consequences (C) and fulfilling values (V) ” • Which characteristics are at stake for tracking technologies? (A) • Why would people use it? (C, V) Zaman,  B.,  Geurden,  K.,  De  Cock,  R.,  De  Schutter,  B.,  Vanden Abeele,  V.  (2014).  Motivation  Profiles  of  Online  Poker  Players  and  the  Role  of  Interface  Preferences:  A   Laddering  Study  among  Amateur  and  (Semi-­‐)  Professionals.  Computers  in  Human  Behavior,  39,  154-­‐164.
  19. 19. Looking through the lens of children • What gratifications do they seek? • Example young children’s media gratifications at home Vanden Abeele,  V.,  &  Zaman,  B.  (2008).  The  Extended  Likeability  Framework:  A  Theoretical  Framework  for  and  a  Practical  Case  of  Designing  Likeable  Media   Applications  for  Preschoolers.  Advances  in  Human-­‐Computer   Interaction,  2008,  1–12.
  20. 20. Looking through the lens of children • How are they affected by their parents’ use of tracking technologies? • Example technical solutions for secure and private parent-teen mobile safety Czeskis,  A.,  Dermendjieva,  I.,  Yapit,  H.,  Borning,  A.,  Friedman,  B.,  Gill,  B.,  &  Kohno,  T.  (2010).  Parenting  from  the  pocket:  value  tensions  and  technical  directions  for   secure  and  private  parent-­‐teen  mobile  safety  (pp.  1–15).  ACM  Press.
  21. 21. Looking through the lens of adults • What are they concerned with? • Provider of parental controls • E.g., media company, corporate values • Consumer of parental controls • E.g., parents, parental values Nouwen,  M.,  Van  Mechelen,  M.,  &  Zaman,  B.  (2015).  A  Value  Sensitive  Design   Approach  to  Parental  Software  for  Young  Children.  In  Proc.  IDC  2015 (pp.  363–366).   Boston,  MA,  USA:  ACM  Press.
  22. 22. Looking through the lens of adults • Who is responsible? • Parents or even the parents of the friends of your child • Considering direct and indirect stakeholders Czeskis,  A.,  Dermendjieva,  I.,  Yapit,  H.,  Borning,  A.,  Friedman,  B.,  Gill,  B.,  &  Kohno,  T.  (2010).  Parenting  from  the  pocket:  value  tensions  and  technical  directions  for   secure  and  private  parent-­‐teen  mobile  safety  (pp.  1–15).  ACM  Press.
  23. 23. Looking through the lens of adults • Who is responsible? • Companies­‐agenda/en/news/better-­‐internet-­‐kids-­‐ceo-­‐coalition-­‐1-­‐year
  24. 24. Looking through the lens of adults • Who is responsible? • Third parties: e.g., child welfare NGOs, freedom of speech advocates etc. • Researchers/designers • Example, Interaction Design & Children (IDC) researchers and designers • When discussing the motivations for their designs and investigations, they “reveal which qualities and behaviors of children they aspire to support as a community” Yarosh et al. (2011, p. 138) • Common aspirations: • Social interaction • Connectedness (e.g., increased attention to support family connectedness) • Other: learning, expression & being creative, digital and physical play, personal growth Yarosh,  S.,  Radu,  I.,  Hunter,  S.,  &  Rosenbaum,  E.  (2011).  Examining  values:  an  analysis  of  nine  years  of  IDC  research.  Proceedings  IDC  2011,  pp.  136-­‐144.  
  25. 25. Looking through the lens of adults • What do parents/ caregivers do? • Cf. values guiding behaviour • Example parental mediation styles of young children’s digital media use at home Parental Mediation Styles Restrictive Mediation (time, content, purchases, device, location) Distant Mediation (e.g., supervision) Active Mediation Collaborative Play Participatory Learning Zaman,  B.,  Nouwen,  M.,  Vanattenhoven,  J.,  de  Ferrerre,  E.,  Van  Looy,  J.  (2016).  A  Qualitative  Inquiry  into  the  Contextualized  Parental  Mediation  Practices  of  Young   Children’s  Digital  Media  Use  at  Home.  Journal  of  Broadcasting  and  Electronic  Media.
  26. 26. Looking through the lens of technology • What does it afford? • Example parental controls Parental Controls: functionalities Time Restrictions Content Restrictions Activity Restrictions: - Economic - Social - Entertainment Monitoring & Tracking
  27. 27. Looking through the lens of technology • What should these parental controls afford? • Example tracking technologies Can you do it better? Become a Value-Sensitive Design Critic yourself
  28. 28. Questions? @biekezaman