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An orienteering curriculum


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Presentation at the 2011 Massachusetts Environmental Education Workshop

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An orienteering curriculum

  1. 1. A7: Map Navigation: Teaching Orienteering Barbara Bryant New England Orienteering Club
  2. 2. Today’s workshop• What is orienteering?• Sample curriculum: team navigation• Variations on the theme• Orienteering exercise• Resources for educators
  3. 3. What is orienteering? • A navigation sport• A treasure hunt with a map
  4. 4. Orienteering is acompetitive sport
  5. 5. Orienteeringhelps kids learn things they need to know
  6. 6. Orienteering Adventure September, 2010 6
  7. 7. Components of Orienteering Activities Map Navigation Teamwork Learn Plan Execute Reflect Developed over several years in collaboration with teachers
  8. 8. Junior High Orienteering Map Navigation Teamwork (1) Classroom lecture. (1) Make team ground rulesLearn (2) Homework. (2) Role-play potentially difficult (3) Test. situations Plan Teams plan routes. Distribute tasks. (1) Slow map walk to relate map to woods.Execute (2) Teams collect tickets at controls. (3) Tickets can be spent on prizes.Reflect How did we do? What did we learn?
  9. 9. Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 9
  10. 10. Classroom Lecture• Team challenge goal• Reading a map• Navigating with a map• Field trip information – Schedule – Team mission rules – What to bring – Safety• Homework: Planning a route 10
  11. 11. Team Challenge Goal• Using a map and compass, and working as a team, find controls in the woods. – Each team will get tickets for finding controls. – The tickets can be exchanged for prizes. 11
  12. 12. Reading the Map 12
  13. 13. Sea level 13
  14. 14. 10 feet 14
  15. 15. 20 feet 15
  16. 16. 20 feet 16
  17. 17. Elevation 17
  18. 18. Find some hilltops 18
  19. 19. Hilltops 19
  20. 20. Find saddles 20
  21. 21. Saddles 21
  22. 22. Water 22
  23. 23. Man-made Symbols 23
  24. 24. Rock 24
  25. 25. Vegetation(White) Forest 25
  26. 26. Estimating distance• 1:10,000 scale: One centimeter on the map is 10,000 centimeters (___ meters) on the ground. – Hint: 100 centimeters = 1 meter• A pace is two steps. Roughly how many of your paces make 100 meters? 26
  27. 27. NORTH Directions of the EASTWEST compass SOUTH 27
  28. 28. Telling someone where you are on the North map EastWest 250m 28 South
  29. 29. Navigating with the map 29
  30. 30. Orienting the map 30
  31. 31. Orienting the map 31
  32. 32. Orienting the map 32
  33. 33. Orienting the map 33
  34. 34. Ways of orienting the map• Match features around you• Use your compass• Use the sun (the sun is to the south of us in the middle of the day, if we are in the northern hemisphere) 34
  35. 35. When to orient the map• Orient the map at every control to make sure you head in the right direction.• Try to keep your map oriented at all times.• “Thumb” the map as you walk: keep your thumb roughly pointing to where you are on the map. 35
  36. 36. Field trip schedule• 8:45 Take bus to Middlesex Fells• 9:30 Training map.• 10:30 TEAM CHALLENGE.• 12:30 Deadline to return to Finish• 12:45 Return to buses.• 1:00 Return to school 36
  37. 37. Map Walk 1 37
  38. 38. TEAM CHALLENGE:Landmark Controls 38
  39. 39. TEAM CHALLENGE: Team Controls (Envelopes are marked with team letter and control number so we can clean up any remaining controls after the event.) 39
  40. 40. Licensing• Teams may choose to become Licensed to Navigate• To become licensed, teams must demonstrate – Knowledge of navigation (written test) – A good plan for tackling the Team Challenge (individual homework and team work in class) – Trustworthiness and readiness (teacher assessment)• Why be licensed? – The glory, the fame – Useful feedback on skills the team needs to work on. – Can choose to go without an adult chaperone – 1 bonus ticket/person for taking the test 40
  41. 41. Licensing exam
  42. 42. TEAM CHALLENGE: Prizes• Getting tickets – 4 tickets at each team control – 1 ticket for each landmark control – 1 ticket for each person taking the Licensing exam – 2 tickets for picking up garbage in the woods – 2 tickets for team prepared to get on the bus – 1 ticket for each person completing a course at a local NEOC orienteering meet• Late penalty – Lose 1 ticket for each minute late• Tickets can be exchanged for prizes and snacks at the Finish 42
  43. 43. Bring to the woods:• Watch (at least 1 per team)• Cell phone (1 per team)• Team packet (folder with maps, plan)• Backpack – Snack – Lunch – Water• Suitable clothing – Long-sleeved shirt; long pants – Sweater, raincoat• Insect repellant (optional) 43
  44. 44. Safety• Teams carry cell phones. Numbers distributed to all adults. Safety numbers (mine, 911, …)• Safety bearing is west.• Teams must always stay together.• Return to the Finish location by 12:30 at the latest.• Watch where you step.• Practice communicating location• Preparation: route planning, team dynamics, … 44
  45. 45. SafetyBearingisWEST to theroad, thenalong theroad to theparking lot. 45
  46. 46. RovingParents
  47. 47. Poison Ivy• 3 leaves• STAY AWAY! 47
  48. 48. Watch your step! 48
  49. 49. Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 49
  50. 50. ROUTE PLANNING 50
  51. 51. Route planning advice• Use trails as much as possible• Big trails are faster than little trails• Use landmark controls 51
  52. 52. Plan route from 2 to 3 52
  53. 53. Straight Line distance from 2 to 3 53
  54. 54. Draw in a route from 2 to 3 Pick up landmark controls along the way. 54
  55. 55. Which landmark controls will you visit? Answer: 120, 118, 117, 106 55
  56. 56. Which additional landmark controls can you get if you have extra time? What would be a good lunch spot? 56 How much time will you need to get from there to the finish?
  57. 57. Describe the route from 2 to 120From To Description2 120 Start by orienting the map and heading toward 120 (west). Distance: 0.5 cm on the map = 50 m on the ground = 35 paces Come down off the knoll. Pass the cliff on the right. The control feature is a trail junction. 57
  58. 58. Describe the route from 120 to 118 Distance = 2 cm = 200 m = 140 paces Orient the map and head south toward 118 along the trail. Make sure to take the left trail, not the one on the right. Cross a trail at about 60 paces. Pass a cliff on the right as we go up-hill. The control feature is a trail junction 58
  59. 59. Describe the route from 118 to 117Distance = 2 cm = 200 m = 140 paces Orient the map and head west along the big trail.Fence will be on our left.Trail will bend to the right at about 70 paces.At about 100 paces, there will be a large trail going off to theright.At the next trail junction, go right and we should see thecontrol.The control is at a trail junction. 59
  60. 60. Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 60
  61. 61. Working as a Team 61
  62. 62. Working as a Team: Ground Rules• Make your own• Examples – One person speaks at a time, and the others listen – We make decisions by consensus (everyone has to agree on the decision) – In discussions we do not have to agree - we want to hear everyones ideas – We use respectful language with each other – We value constructive feedback. We will avoid being defensive and give feedback in a constructive manner. 62
  63. 63. Working as a Team: Goals• Make your own• Examples – Everyone understands how to orient a map – We will get all the team controls and 5 landmark controls – We will have fun – We will work well together as a team – Everyone gets a chance to navigate 63
  64. 64. Working as a Team: Possible Roles• Possible Roles – Navigation: reading contours, matching features to the map, distance estimation, map orientation – Teamwork: facilitator, timekeeper, route selection – Garbage collector 64
  65. 65. Working as a Team: Dealing with Problems• What problems might come up?• Role playing exercise• Examples – Disagreement about which way to go – A team member wants to go faster; others do not – A team member is disrespectful of another team member 65
  66. 66. Calendar Mon 9/13 Tue 9/14 Wed 9/15 Thu 9/16 Fri 9/18 Lecture. Homework due Teams plan routes Start homework in Lab Mon 9/20 Tue 9/21 Wed 9/22 Thu 9/23 Fri 9/24Licensing Exam Team dynamics Last minute Field trip questions in Home Room Reflections Fri 10/1 Rain date for field trip 66
  67. 67. What preparations did your team make that were really important to your success on this trip?• Teamwork.• Listening.• Planning our route. (Prevented arguments.)• Marking the route on the map. Studying the map.• Ground rules.• Discussed what to do if one person got out of hand; if someone did not follow the rules.• Assigning roles.• Learning to orient the map. Practicing orienting the map.• Acting out possible situations. Someone getting hurt. Someone not following the ground rules.• Having someone keep time.• Agreed on how fast we would go.• Planning what to wear. What to bring for food.• Getting licensed.• Orienteering homework packet was useful.
  68. 68. Students’ Personal High Points• Finding team controls. Finding the first team • Knowing we were close to the finish. control. • Finishing. Finishing on time.• Starting off. Rush of excitement. • Socializing at the end. Socializing on the bus;• Working hard. sharing stories of the day.• Earning tickets. Getting prizes. Tickets • Working as a team. Coming together as a showed how hard we worked. team over the course of the day.• Sense of accomplishment. Pride. • Getting a high score.• The views. Seeing a snake. Just going into • Bushwhacking. the woods. • Having a license.• Recovering from being lost. • Coming up with names for the team.• Gaining confidence from finding the first • Realizing that the team controls were little control; over time. envelopes.• Learning more and more how to read the • Seeing who could find the envelope first map over the course of the day. once we were in the area.• Knowing where we were on the map and • Finding a control after looking for it for about where we were going. Not getting lost. 20 minutes.• Being on a roll finding controls. • Leading other groups to the finish; helping• Cheering my teammates up. other groups.
  69. 69. Summary of Key Skills• Map reading – Topography – Legend – Describing where you are – Planning a route• Navigation – Orienting the map – Distance estimation – Matching map features to terrain – Recovering from errors• Team work – Including everyone – Resolving disagreements – Having fun
  70. 70. Working with Staff and Parents• Staff – Three before-school meetings with staff – Full partnership• Parent chaperones – Coordinator – Recruitment, CORI forms, communication – Pre-reading – Assigned roles – Invited to classroom sessions – Meeting at the woods before kids arrive – Debriefing afterwards
  71. 71. Variations on the theme Map Navigation TeamworkLearn PlanExecuteReflect Developed over several years in collaboration with teachers
  72. 72. Variation: 1st grade mix-in 72
  73. 73. Variation: 1st grade mix-in
  74. 74. Variation: 1st grade mix-in
  75. 75. Practice map reading atnearby parks
  76. 76. 5th Grade at Fresh Pond Map Navigation Teamwork Students specialize in distance A team leader learns facilitationLearn estimation, map features or and role plays situations. compass. Plan Teams plan routes. Achieve consensus. (1) Street orienteering to get to Fresh Pond.Execute (2) Execute plan to collect controls. (3) Put puzzle together to find the prize.Reflect How did we do? What did we learn?
  77. 77. Variation: 5th grade trip to Fresh Pond
  78. 78. Variation: 5th grade trip to Fresh Pond• Single-session training: – (1) skills (2) team
  79. 79. Variation: Harbor Island Orienteering and Citizen Science Dr. Jessica Rykken
  80. 80. We learned about invertebrate diversity at Harvard
  81. 81. 1st & 2nd graders
  82. 82. We planned our routefrom school to the T station.
  83. 83. T
  84. 84. We colored the land and navigation buoys in a harbor map.
  85. 85. Field trip!
  86. 86. On the boat
  87. 87. Biodiversity survey
  88. 88. Ant
  89. 89. Habitats
  90. 90. Classification
  91. 91. Ranger
  92. 92. Orienteering
  93. 93. Variation: 4th graders and science
  94. 94. 4th grade Fells Trip: Erosion
  95. 95. What shaped these rocks?
  96. 96. (But the living things were more interesting!)
  97. 97. Variation: Scout-O• See Dave’s writeup (handout)
  98. 98. Variation: Orienteering Meet• See for upcoming schedule!
  99. 99. Resources for educators• (SEE HANDOUT)••
  100. 100. 100
  101. 101. 101
  102. 102. 102
  103. 103. Appendix: Learning Frameworks
  104. 104. Frameworks: Science• Earth and Space Science Standard for K-2 – 1. Recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earth’s surface.• Life Science Standards – PreK-2: Differentiate between living and nonliving things. Group both living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share. – 3-5: Classify plants and animals according to the physical characteristics that they share. – 6-8: Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.
  105. 105. Frameworks: Math• Number sense standards from PreK-K – K.M.2 Make and use estimates of measurements from everyday experiences. – K.M.3 Use nonstandard units to measure length, area, weight, and capacity.• Exploratory concepts and skills for 1-2 Geometry – Create mental images of geometric shapes using spatial memory and spatial visualization. – Recognize geometric shapes and structures in the environment and specify their location. – Identify relative positions, e.g., closer, farther, higher, lower, etc. – Find and name locations on maps and express simple relationships, e.g., near to, far away from.
  106. 106. Frameworks for 3-5• Earth and Space Science – 4. Explain and give examples of the ways in which soil is formed (the weathering of rock by water and wind and from the decomposition of plant and animal remains). – 12. Earth’s surface changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
  107. 107. Frameworks for 6-8• Learning Standard, Earth and Space Science – Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth’s common physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.• Learning Standards, Math – 6.G.9 Match three-dimensional objects and their two- dimensional representations – 6.M.3 Solve problems involving proportional relationships and units of measurement, e.g., same system unit conversions, scale models, maps, and speed.