A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

MONTEGO BAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Research Me...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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Submitted in partial fulfillment ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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2.5

APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE EV...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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4.1

INTRODUCTION ..................
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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ABSTRACT
It was John Selden who o...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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all the relevant and legal protoc...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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CHAPTER 1 - BACKGROUND TO THE PRO...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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in England and Wales with more th...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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locks” (dreadlocks) and “Rasta lo...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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which stress the dream of the mi...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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has the power to focalize and ev...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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will yield the kind of results t...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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further studies. Since the main ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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Chapter four deals with the pres...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW
2....
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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them to function properly and ef...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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Evaluation research does not tak...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

2.4

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TYPES OF QUALITATIVE EVALUA...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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shows progress in the implementa...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO EVALUATI...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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The researcher holds the view th...
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Rastafarians contribution to the...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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participated in all the stages o...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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contrary, they must be relevant ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

TYPES OF CULTURAL
TOURISM

Heritage Touris...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Religious tourism,
pilgrimage routes

Page...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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history, cultural heritage takes...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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committee will play an important...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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destination. This standard was d...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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Fourthly, the processes should b...
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CHAPTER 3 – METHODOLOGY
3.1

INT...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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was necessary since it leads to ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

3.3

Page: 33

STUDY POPULATION, SAMPLE AN...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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those who had not completed thei...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

3.5

Page: 35

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

3.6

Page: 36

DATA COLLECTION

Once the s...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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terminology then checked for cur...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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motivated by JTB’s presentation ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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participate. After gathering the...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

3.8.3

Page: 40

Provision of debriefing, ...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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participate and facts should not...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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CHAPTER 4 – FINDINGS
4.1

INTROD...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Females

Page: 43

40%

Males

60%

0%

10...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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60%

RESPONDENTS (N=249)

50%

4...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

45%

In Relationship

35%

Single

0%

Win...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 46

60%

RESPONDENTS (N=249)

50%

4...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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RESPONSES

CURRENTLY PRACTICING
...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

4.3

Page: 48

JTB AND RASTAFARIANS SHORTC...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Uncertain

Page: 49

0%

45%

No

55%

Yes...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

RESPONSES

NUMBER

Yes
No
Don't know/No an...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Uncertain

Page: 51

0%

5%

No

95%

Yes
...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Accurate information about Rastas'
culture...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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80%
70%

75%

60%
50%
40%
30%
20...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 54

No
comment,
25%

Comment,
75%

F...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 55

brand Jamaica. Band Jamaica shou...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

RESPONSES

NUMBER

Yes
No
Don't know/No an...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 57

90%
80%
70%

80%

60%
50%
40%
30...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Uncertain

0%

90%

No

Yes

Page: 58

10%...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

4.4

Page: 59

BENEFITS OF CULTURAL TOURIS...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

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benefits economic development fo...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

RESPONSES

NUMBER

Yes
No
Don't know/No an...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 62

100%
90%

RESPONDENTS (N=136)

8...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 63

Don’t know 5%

No

10%

Yes

85%...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Uncertain

Page: 64

15%

Eco-Tourism 5%

...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Don’t know

Page: 65

10%

5%

Disagree

8...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 66

90%
80%
70%
60%
50%

85%

40%
30...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 67

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%

70%

10...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 68

5%

25%

70%

Agree

Disagree

D...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

RESPONSES

NUMBER

Agree
Disagree
Don't kn...
A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica

Page: 70

35%

55%

10%

Yes

No

Don’t kn...
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica
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Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture to brand Jamaica

  1. 1. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica MONTEGO BAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Research Methods A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture in brand Jamaica Name: Bidroy Dixon Date: 1 December 2013 Page: 1
  2. 2. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 2 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the University of Birmingham for the award of the Master of Science in Hospitality Studies. TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................................................................................... 2 ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 1 - BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM ........................................................... 7 1.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 7 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE ...................................................................................... 12 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ..................................................................................... 12 1.4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND APPROACH .................................................................. 12 1.5 HOW THE REPORT IS ORGANIZED ...................................................................... 13 1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY .............................................................................. 14 CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 15 2.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 15 2.2 DEFINITIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ........................................................ 15 2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ............................................... 15 2.3.1 Evaluation research is directed at programme-derived questions ........................... 16 2.3.2 Evaluation research has a judgmental quality ........................................................ 16 2.3.3 Evaluation research takes place in an action setting ............................................... 16 2.3.4 Evaluation research may lead to role conflicts......................................................... 17 2.3.5 Evaluation research is often not published .............................................................. 17 2.4 TYPES OF QUALITATIVE EVALUATION. ............................................................... 18 2.4.1 Formative evaluation ................................................................................................ 18 2.4.2 Process evaluation ................................................................................................... 18 2.4.3 Outcome evaluation .................................................................................................. 19 2.4.4 Impact evaluation ..................................................................................................... 19
  3. 3. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 3 2.5 APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE EVALUATION .................................................... 19 2.6 EVALUATION STRATEGIES ................................................................................. 22 2.7 IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE TO TOURISM. .......................................................... 24 2.7.1 Types of Cultural Tourism ........................................................................................ 24 2.7.2 Benefits of Cultural Tourism .................................................................................... 26 2.8 KEY ROLE PLAYERS TO THE DESTINATION’S PROMOTIONAL POLICY. ................ 27 2.8.1 Destination Management Company (DMC) .............................................................. 27 2.8.2 Rastafarian cultural committee ................................................................................ 27 2.8.3 Human resources personnel .................................................................................... 28 2.8.4 Partners .................................................................................................................... 28 2.9 A CULTURAL DESTINATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .......................................... 28 CHAPTER 3 – METHODOLOGY .................................................................................... 31 3.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 31 3.2 CHOICE FOR RESEARCH DESIGN ....................................................................... 31 3.3 STUDY POPULATION, SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ............................. 33 3.4 MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES ......................................................................... 34 3.5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT ....................................................................... 35 3.6 DATA COLLECTION ............................................................................................. 36 3.7 DATA ANALYSIS .................................................................................................. 36 3.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................... 38 3.8.1 Confidentiality .......................................................................................................... 38 3.8.2 Informed consent ...................................................................................................... 39 3.8.3 Provision of debriefing, counselling and additional information .............................. 40 3.8.4 Voluntary participation............................................................................................. 40 3.8.5 No harm to subjects.................................................................................................. 40 3.8.6 Deception of respondents ......................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER 4 – FINDINGS .............................................................................................. 42
  4. 4. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 4 4.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 42 4.2 BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS .............................. 42 4.3 JTB AND RASTAFARIANS SHORTCOMING ON CULTURAL TOURISM TO BRAND JAMAICA. ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.4 BENEFITS OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. .................. 59 4.5 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 78 CHAPTER 5 – SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .............................. 79 5.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 79 5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ..................................................................................... 79 5.2.1 Findings related to the first research question ......................................................... 79 5.2.2 Findings relating to the second question of this study ............................................. 80 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................... 81 5.3.1 Recommendations for organizations ........................................................................ 81 5.3.2 Recommendations for other organizations/groups concerning the enhancement and preservation of Jamaica’s indigenous cultures to the destination’s brand. ........................ 82 5.3.3 Recommendations to the Ministry of Tourism and to the JTB. ................................. 82 5.3.4 Recommendations for further research .................................................................... 83 5.4 EVALUATION OF THE STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ................ 83 5.5 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 84 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 85 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................... 91 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE..................................................................................... 91 APPENDIX B: BUDGET ................................................................................................. 98
  5. 5. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 5 ABSTRACT It was John Selden who once said “ignorance of the law excuses no man: Not that all men know the law, but because ‘tis and excuse every man will plead, and no man can tell how to refute him” (Wallace, 2011). However, today we have situations where people for one reason or another choose to conveniently or otherwise remain in ignorance. However, it is also said that one should not judge a book by its cover but instead, open the book and get familiar with its contents; then and only then would one be armed with enough background information and evidence from which one could be considered ‘qualified’ to speak. The intent of this project is an attempt to accomplish just that. The potential of cultural tourism in Jamaica is somewhat marginalized because of the absence of a few intricate but vital pieces of research information one of which encapsulates the Rastafarian movement as a cultural/religious practice from mainstream research projects to date because of fear. This research takes the cognizance of the opinion that historically ignorance has had a rippling effect on many persons (including Rastafarians). Hence, there is a need for the development of a structure that will look very seriously at the implications of misrepresenting the Rastafarian cultural practices in Jamaica to the world as well as to present more of our indigenous cultural heritage to the forefront of the international. Thus, the very scope on which this research paper hinges. Extensive, scrutiny has gone into investigating, exploring and measuring the value of Rastafarian culture/religious practices to the brand Jamaica. From the researching of the topic’s background, defining the objective of the study, crafting the research questions and establishing the hypothesis; to examining the limitations of the study in comparison to what other experts are saying about the issue, the researcher left no stones unturned in ensuring that
  6. 6. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 6 all the relevant and legal protocols were observed. Under the watchful eyes of the most competent and thorough college professors at both the Western Hospitality Institute in collaboration with the University of Birmingham. The researcher is confident that rigorous analytical testing mechanism applied to the research methods from the design of the research method, to the very unique data collection process, sampling and data analysis methods that stakeholders and our destination management company; Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB) as well as the Rastafarian Movement of Jamaica can rely on the credibility of the findings reported to craft their own individual recommendations as well as to use the information to implement programmes to address the issue of undervaluing the prospective contribution of the true practices of the Rastafarians way of life and religion to brand Jamaica.
  7. 7. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 7 CHAPTER 1 - BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION The relatively small cultural phenomenon as Rastafari attracted so much attention from young people, the media and scholars in the fields of religion, anthropology, politics and sociology. The signature long, natty dreads on the heads of Rastafarians, with the help of reggae music, make Rastafari a highly visible movement and one of the most powerful cultural forces among youths in Jamaica and around the world; especially in countries where one least expects to find elements of an Afro-Caribbean culture. During the periods of the 1930s to the 1950s, very few people even bothered to study the significance of the political and ideological concepts in Rastafarian culture. Even Jamaicans who may have understood the philosophy of the movement regarded Rastafari as another passing fad, which would die a natural death once the novelty wore off. Prior to the 1970s, images of the unsanitary-looking, marijuana-smoking “Natty Dread” with unkempt dreadlocks, often controlling crime-infested streets of Kingston, New York City, or London were the most common perceptions of Rastafarian culture. These stereotypes still persist today among some people in the Caribbean, the United States, and Great Britain. Since the early 1970s, however, Rastafari (the movement's self-styled name) has been recognized not only as one of the most popular Afro-Caribbean religions of the late twentieth century, gaining even more popularity than Voodoo, but also as one of the leading cultural trends in the world; as such, it demands attention from those who study the religions of people who live at the economic and political margins of Western society. According to information carried by the BBC; “there here are approximately one million worldwide adherents of Rastafari as a faith. The 2001 census found 5,000 Rastafarians living
  8. 8. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 8 in England and Wales with more than twice that number of sympathizers and many million more reggae fans, (BBC, 2009). What is it about this movement-developing in the slums of West Kingston, Jamaica- that makes it so appealing to people of very different nationalities, ethnic backgrounds, socioeconomic standings, and academic interests? Rastafarians has invited myriad questions in popular culture and the academy, especially as part of the recent surge of interest in this once “insignificant” twentieth-century phenomenon. The terms Rastafari, Rastafarians and Rasta synonymously; the nomenclature Rastafari, with or without the definite article, describes the movement as a collective whole and the combined expression “Jah Ras Tafari” refers specifically to Emperor Haile Selassie I, the deity. Rastafarians often replace the title Jah with Rastafari, a designation coined by the early founders of the movement (especially Leonard Howell), who recognized Emperor Haile Selassie I-Ras Tafari, an imperial title used by Ethiopian emperors- as divine, (Moyston, 2012). Rastafarians often argue that every true black person is “Rasta,” a category that suggests unity and connection to Africa rather than cultic or religious affiliation. Seretha Rycenssa of Jamaica defined a “true Rasta” as one who “believes in the deity of the Ethiopian monarch . . . , sees black liberationist Marcus Mosiah Garvey as his prophet . . . , sticks to (his) path, does not shave, cut or straighten the hair, rejects the customs of ‘Babylon’ society,” and “looks on his blackness and sees that it is good and struggles to preserve it.” (Hailson, 1999) Not included among these, of course, are persons whom Rex Nettleford calls “designer dreads” – middleclass youths and yuppies who adopt the dreadlocks hairstyle, carry a “ragamuffin” appearance, and listen to reggae music but have no commitment to the teachings of Rastafari. (Owens, 1976), Nor do the brethren (Rastafarians) regard as true Rastas persons they call “wolves in sheep’s clothing” or “rascals” and “impostors”-unsavory characters who hide behind “the
  9. 9. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 9 locks” (dreadlocks) and “Rasta looks” (Rasta appearance) in order to commit crime and smoke marijuana. Rastas or Rastafarians are, therefore, followers of Ras Tafari or persons who believe in the Rastafari ideology. Notwithstanding these simple explanations, Rastafari defies traditional ways of conceiving and knowing. As a result, many researchers and media persons have been unsuccessful in their attempts to pigeonhole the movement into preconceived, stereotypical categories, such as “religious cult;” “escapist movement”; “reactionary anachronistic, eccentric Judeo-Christian heresy;” “apocalyptic Christian movement;” “messianic millennial cult;” “African-Caribbean religious myth” and “West Indian Mafia” in England-or, as Claudia Rogers recorded with approbation, “religious fanatics,” a “nuisance (and) an embarrassment to the Jamaican people, or (even) treacherous criminals who should be jailed or hung for their traitorous acts against Jamaican society, (Edmonds, 2003).” The hit movie Marked for Death, regarded in Jamaica and among Jamaican Americans as antiJamaican and anti-Rastafari, “identifies Rasta characters as a brutal segment of the Jamaican ‘posse’ and links Rastafarians with “obeahism.” Hollywood has thus “further embedded the stereotype in the American psyche, Marked for Death (Grais, 1990)” While the Rastafarian ideology contains elements of some of the above characterizations, they are all limiting stereotypes and in many cases, uninformed misrepresentations that do not grasp the movement’s definitive character and ethos. For example, Rastafarians, whose theology is rooted in Judeo-Christian scriptures, have a very strong millennialism orientation; they believe in the possibility of social, political and religious reform. As Claudia Rogers says, the movement can be considered “millennial in the sense that brethren constantly refer to a hoped for period of peace, joy and justice. (Edmonds, 2003) That is, “typical of other groupings . . .
  10. 10. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 10 which stress the dream of the millennium, Rastafarians stress positive change” in a variety of tenets. The belief in an imminent, this worldly, total salvation wherein the white world and its oppressive political institutions will fall, after which Blacks will reign in the new millennium, is only one of those tenets. To limit the still-evolving Afro-Caribbean phenomenon only to Christian ideas of an apocalyptic end of the world is, therefore, nearsighted and misinformed. There is no denying that Rastafari is a legitimate religion for legal purposes (with regard to religious freedom), as recognized in Jamaica and other parts of the world. In spite of Rastafarians religious character and the attempt to make it a reform Christian movement, it is neither a Christian nor an African traditional religion; it is a tertium quid, a different kind or religious species among nontraditional religions, one that is distinctly Caribbean. Like its antecedents within the African diasporas such as (Voodoo (Voodoo) in Haiti and New Orleans; Santeria in Cuba; Yoruba, Kabala, and Orica in Trinidad and Tobago; Shango in Grenada; and Candomble in Brazil.) Rastafari is a modern Afro-Caribbean cultural phenomenon that combines concepts from African culture and the “Caribbean experience” (social, historical, religious and economic realities) with Judeo-Christian thought into a new sociopolitical and religious worldview. So while Rastafarian beliefs and practices are influenced by such African practices in Jamaican culture as Myalism, convince cult, revivalism (Zion), Bedwardism, Pocomania, and Burro (all Afro-Jamaican religious and cultural traditions), Rastafari's rise and ethos are driven by social, economic, and political forces in the region. In this regard, Rastafari is more than a religion. It is a cultural movement, “a system of beliefs and a state of consciousness, that advances a view of economic survival and political organization and structure that challenges the dominant cultural political narrative (ideology). According to Carole Yawney, Rastafari is “a constellation of ambiguous symbols which today
  11. 11. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 11 has the power to focalize and even mediate certain socio-cultural tensions that have developed on a global scale, (Yawney, 2008). Rastafarians regard themselves as members of a legitimate religious movement and a Cultural Revolution for world peace, racial harmony, and social, economic, and political reform. Two of the Rastafarians’ stated policies of the 1960s were: “To promote educational progress of the African continent, its languages, culture and history, “and” “To recognize the hurt suffered by the Continent of Africa through colonialism and to devote time and energy towards the development of Africa by all possible contributions.” The researcher confers that reggae music has been one of the most powerful force behind the international spread and popularity of Rastafarian culture. This is not discussed in depth here; since it is not the focus of the study; except to mention that in 1978, Nettleford said, “The music has gone beyond fulfilling the universal need for entertainment to attract acute interest in its deep significance for Jamaican and Caribbean cultural search for form and purpose, (Owens, 1976). In many ways, to feel the reggae beat is to think Rastafari, as well as to celebrate the life and works of Robert Nester (Bob) Marley, who made reggae music and Rastafari so internationally accessible. Youths from different parts of the world who understand very little, if any, of Rastafarian culture celebrate its reggae rhythms. However, it is imperative to note that the practices of Rastafarians goes way beyond just the melodious and lyrical vibrations of the reggae beats and this should be captured and communicated within the cultural/religious elements of the brand – Jamaica. It is the intention of the researcher that the findings and recommendation herein, will form the foundation for further studies of this nature and that implementations resulted from the studies
  12. 12. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 12 will yield the kind of results that give stakeholders especially Rastafarians the kind of positive vibrations that reflects who they are as a people, their culture and religious practices (to summarize it; their way-of-life) as a vital part of cultural tourism to brand Jamaica thus extending encouragement to the kind of atmosphere that will enhance the growth and further development of Jamaica number one foreign exchange earner – The hospitality industry. 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The objective is to conduct an investigation to critically and rigorously assess the value of the Rastafarian culture in brand Jamaica. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study was designed to provide answers to the following questions: 1. What are Rastafarianism, Tourism and Rastafarian Tourism? 2. How much of the Rastarian culture is reflected within Jamaica Tourism official and/or unofficial destination marketing and promotional campaigns. 3. What strategies/recommendation can be developed and suggested to the Jamaican Tourist Board on how industry personnel can capitalize on the Rastafarian Culture? 4. What aspect(s) of Rastafarian culture’s evolution is present within Jamaica’s culture tourism brand? 1.4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND APPROACH According to Alzheimer, a qualitative approach prefers structured data collection, whereby the researcher can pose the same question to several respondents (Alzheimer, 2009). There was no researched information available and very little general information on value of the Rastafari culture in brand Jamaica within St. James, Jamaica. A survey-type approach enabled the gathering of baseline information. Such data was needed to act as reference information for
  13. 13. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 13 further studies. Since the main emphasis of a qualitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specific; the validity of conclusions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises (prior statements, findings or conditions) being valid. Hence, the qualitative study intended to create baseline information hinged on a very solid research objective stated prior to gathering the data. The full details of the methodological decision taken for the research are given in chapter three of this study. Here, the general approach is outlined and substantiated in terms of the purpose and objectives of the study. Moreover, the research objectives, the question items and the sampling strategies were influenced by the literature reviewed by the researcher in chapter two. 1.5 HOW THE REPORT IS ORGANIZED Chapter one consists of the introduction and rationale for the dissertation. It also provides a problem statement, the research questions as well as the aims and objectives of the research, the research design and research methods used, an explanation of the concepts pertaining to this research. In addition, it also contains a discussion of the perspectives on the research issues. It also contains a division of the chapters in this study. Chapter two provides a review of the relevant literature that places the research theme in context. The aim was to find further information on the various issues pertaining to this study to shed light on the topic under study. A further aim was to determine if there were gaps in previous studies so that this study could address those aspects where applicable. Chapter three provides a description of the research methodology used by the researcher. The focus fell on the research design, the research instruments used, the sampling methods used and the data collection and analysis procedures.
  14. 14. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 14 Chapter four deals with the presentation and discussion of the findings derived from an analysis of the data collected as well as a description of the statistical methods used to analyze the data. Chapter five gives a brief summary of the study’s findings and presents conclusions drawn from these findings. It also contains the recommendations derived from the findings and conclusions. In addition, it identifies areas where further research is as well as the identification of themes on which further investigation is recommended. 1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The limitations expressed here are in two folds respectively; one from the perspective of what is already out there and the other is based on expected threats encountered during the execution of this study. Based on previous studies carried out in Jamaica on Rastafarians’ contribution to brand Jamaica, there is very little evidence of researched information on Rastafarian’s contribution to Jamaica’s tourism sector. While on the other hand; Rastafarians are hesitant to participate in the studies since they believe that what is being promoted is a mere pigment of Rastafarians' believes and practices.
  15. 15. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 15 CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher provides a review of literatures pertaining to the evaluation of the value of the Rastafari culture in brand Jamaica. The following topics are covered: definitions of term “evaluation,” characteristics of evaluation, types of evaluations, approaches to evaluation, evaluation strategies and the minimum requirements for a Rastafarian cultural programme to be included in Jamaica’s destination management company’s promotional plan. 2.2 DEFINITIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH K.R. Hope defines evaluation as the: “systematic examination and assessment of the features of an initiative and its effects, in order to produce information that can be used by those who have an interest in its improvement or effectiveness.” In terms of policy and programme evaluation, evaluation can be regarded as a systematic process that produces a trustworthy account of what was attempted and why, (Hope, 2003). Examining the results of an evaluation can answer the following questions: What was done? To whom? How? In addition, which outcomes were observed? Well-designed evaluations yield evidence to address the question of the outcomes and how this can inform future practice (Hope, 2003). For the purpose of this study, the researcher defines evaluation of the implementation of an effective marketing strategy to include more of the Rastafarian’s contribution to cultural tourism in brand Jamaica. 2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH According to M.K. Trochim, the ultimate goal of evaluation is to provide useful feedback to decision-makers about observable features and results about the object of the evaluation. In turn, feedback on evaluation enables groups to restructure or amend their policies to enable
  16. 16. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 16 them to function properly and effectively. Importantly, evaluation is undertaken for the ultimate purpose of making policies more effective and for working to achieve what they were intended to achieve, (Trochim, 2006). The questions that the evaluation considers are those directed at finding evidence for decision-making. In this regard, four dimensions of evaluation should be considered, namely the questions that drive the evaluation, the judgmental character of evaluation research, the setting in which the evaluation occurs, role conflicts that arise from evaluation research and the issue of publishing evaluation research. Each of these factors is discussed below. 2.3.1 Evaluation research is directed at programme-derived questions C.H. Weiss points out that evaluation research tend to champion the questions that interest decision-makers above those that might interest researchers, (Weiss, 1972). In addition, unlike basic research that can be hypothesis-driven, evaluation research is often directed towards finding evidence to address programme concerns. This study was derived from the need to evaluate the Jamaica Tourist Board’s policy implementation on Rastafarian’s contribution to brand Jamaica and thus this dimension of evaluation research features in this research. 2.3.2 Evaluation research has a judgmental quality C.H. Weiss explains that evaluation compares “what is” with “what should be.” Thus, evaluation research tends to subscribe to a value-free epistemology in which the investigator remains detached and is chiefly concerned with finding evidence to test whether the programme/policy/intervention is achieving its intended goals, (Weiss, 1972). This judgmental quality of evaluation research entails measuring objectives against outcomes. 2.3.3 Evaluation research takes place in an action setting
  17. 17. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 17 Evaluation research does not take place in a vacuum; it happens in the location under investigation. This implies that it is embedded in the context in which programme implementation takes place. In this case, the context in which the programme was implemented was the Jamaica Tourist Board publications and advertisement materials and the Rasta Village, St. James Chapter; whose staffs/members often controls access to records and files. 2.3.4 Evaluation research may lead to role conflicts Conflicts are common between implementers and evaluators of programmes/interventions. Implementers might be subjective and loyal to their programmes/interventions, which they might view as effective and progressive. They might have blind spots regarding problems related to their programmes/interventions. Moreover, they could argue against the need for evaluation or be afraid of being blamed for mistakes or shortcomings in their programmes. Evaluators may also face the problem of having to maintain a good relationship with their clients or sponsors. C.H. Weiss states that evaluation research is not likely to make a meaningful contribution to the improvement of programme service where such role conflicts are not addressed. Where they do occur, such role conflicts must be negotiated and cannot be allowed to contaminate the objectivity of the evaluation task, (Weiss, 1972). Fortunately, during the current study, the researcher did not encounter any inhibiting fears amongst the respondents or any role conflicts. 2.3.5 Evaluation research is often not published Many evaluation research studies go unpublished, due to a lack of confidence in the veracity of the results (Weiss, 1972). This is confirmed by the researcher experiencing major challenges in locating any type on former researched documentation carried out on the subject in question.
  18. 18. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 2.4 Page: 18 TYPES OF QUALITATIVE EVALUATION. Four types of evaluation are discussed below, namely formative, process, outcome and influence evaluation respectively. 2.4.1 Formative evaluation According to (Rehle, Saidel, Mills, & Magnani, 2006), formative evaluation is done during the design stage and early phases of a project to determine which interventions are effective and to define practical goals and objectives. In the current study, the researcher focused on evaluating the degree to which the results/objectives had been achieved. This study is a type of formative evaluation because it was carried out during the early phases; the interventions could be designed goals and objectives could be formulated. 2.4.2 Process evaluation (Rehle, Saidel, Mills, & Magnani, 2006), stipulate that process evaluation should be conducted during the project (at the beginning, during the process and at the end) and provides information regarding the project implementation progress; the actual project impacts on and identifies the need for adjusting the project implementation processes. (UNAIDS, 2000), defines process evaluation as the assessment of programme content, scope or coverage, together with the quality and integrity of implementation. Both (UNAIDS, 2008) shared the same ideas regarding the (Rehle et’al 2006) and implementation of the programme/project. In addition, (UNAIDS, 2008) emphasizes the fact that during process evaluation, the content, scope and approaches should be defined and selected. In the current study, the researcher set out to assess the extent to which Rastafarian culture adds value to the brand Jamaica. (UNAIDS, 2008), emphasizes that if process evaluation
  19. 19. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 19 shows progress in the implementation of the programme as planned, it is worth proceeding with an evaluation of the degree to which the set objectives have been met. 2.4.3 Outcome evaluation Outcome evaluation is defined as the type of evaluation that takes place when the project is finished and the extent to which it reaches the set objectives (Rehle et ‘al 2006). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS, 2000; outcomes are those results that are brought about directly or indirectly by a programme. (WHO & UNAIDS, 2000) 2.4.4 Impact evaluation Impact evaluation is conducted at the end of the project. It is intended to assess the project’s sustainability and whether the broad aims and objectives have been achieved, (UNAIDS, 2000). 2.5 APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE EVALUATION According to Shapiro (quoted in Rehle et’al 2006, p60), and as shown in the table below, there are different possible approaches to the evaluation of Rastafarians’ contribution to brand Jamaica. Goal-based and decision-making approaches were used in this study as the researcher set out to evaluate the management of Jamaica’s destination as a brand.
  20. 20. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 20 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO EVALUATION APPROACH 1.Goal-based MAJOR PURPOSE Assessing achievements goals objectives of and TYPICAL FOCUS QUESTIONS LIKELY METHODOLOGY Were the goals achieved efficiently? Were they the right goals? Comparing baseline and progress data. Finding ways to measure indicators. 2.Decision-making Providing information Is the project effective? Should it continue? How might it be modified? 3.Goal-free Assessing the full range of project effects, intended and unintended What are all the outcomes? What value do they have? 4.Expert judgment Use of expertise How does professional project? an outside rate this Assessing range of options related to the project context, inputs, processes and products. Establishing some kind of decision-making consensus. Independent determination of needs and standards to judge project worth. Qualitative and quantitative techniques to uncover any possible results. Critical review based on experience, informal surveying and subjective insights. Figure 1Source: (Rehle, Saidel, Mills, & Magnani, 2006) Rwhle, Saidel, Mills & Morgani (2006) S.I. Donaldson & M. Scriven, state that evaluation research should be theory-driven and those suitable theories of evaluation practice should meet the following five criteria: It should take cognizance of the research approach used to produce reliable information. It should be able to describe how social programmes flow from policies and are implemented. It should take cognizance of the role of values in evaluation. It should account for practice in the implementation of programmes and projects. The nature of social programmes and their role in solving social problems should also be taken into account, (Donaldson, S. I. & Scriven, M., 2003).
  21. 21. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 21 The researcher holds the view that evaluation research in the area cultural tourism to Jamaica’s destination management should also include an annual evaluation and planning of Rastafarian’s cultural awareness activities, departmental annual reports reflecting Rastafarianism as a cultural/religious movement in Jamaica, client satisfaction surveys, impact evaluation as well as a review of destination marketing policy implementation within the Ministry of Tourism. Mark Scriven provides six reasons why practicing evaluators should take note of the following regarding evaluation theory: It provides a means of communication, which evaluators can use in talking to each other about evaluation. It raises many issues about which evaluators seem to care most deeply. It defines the topics that are used in evaluation professional conferences. It provides evaluators with credibility that is different from other professionals. It provides the evaluators an opportunity to present worldwide. It is the basis of the profession, (Donaldson, S. I. & Scriven, M., 2003). Evaluation theory helps evaluation practitioners understand and share the best practices and provide the reasons for the various procedures evaluators recommend and use in practice, (Donaldson, S. I. & Scriven, M., 2003). S.I. Donaldson & L.E. Gooler indicate that before undertaking an evaluation, the theory driven evaluator should be knowledgeable about the kind of programme he/she wants to evaluate and the reasons should be clearly defined, (Donaldson, S. I. & Gooler, L. E., 2003). Importantly, the place where the evaluation it is going to be conducted should not impose any constraints on the study, which could have a negative impact on the process. This study used quantitative methods for collecting, analyzing and using information to answer questions about the value of
  22. 22. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 22 Rastafarians contribution to the currently existing JTB programmes. This study aimed to formulate a programme impact theory; in addition, it aimed to prioritize evaluation questions and answer evaluation questions neutrally. The decision regarding the choice of the methods is determined by the programme theory while taking cognizance of the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods (Donaldson, S. I. & Gooler, L. E., 2003). Besides using a qualitative approach as the research method to gather information from the respondents, the researcher had to take the timeframe and the scope of work into consideration as well. The researcher feels that this study is relevant, since evaluation of how the existing policy is implemented will help Rastafarians in Jamaica as well as employees and management of the Jamaica Tourist Board to make better decisions and justify the existence of the currently existing programme. 2.6 EVALUATION STRATEGIES K.R. Hope explains that the evaluation of healthy promotional initiatives entails four core features, namely participation, multiple methods, capacity building and appropriateness. Participation pertains to the involvement, in appropriate ways, of all those who have a legitimate interest in the promotion initiative. Stakeholders’ participation is crucial during evaluation as stakeholders can contribute by giving their views and opinions regarding the issues that concern them, (Hope, 2003). Furthermore, the researcher holds the view that stakeholder involvement may enhance the acceptance and commitment on the part of decision-makers within an organization. According to K.R. Hope, there is substantial evidence to indicate that the recommendations stemming from programme evaluations are more likely to be implemented when key stakeholders have
  23. 23. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 23 participated in all the stages of the evaluation. This, in turn, helps to increase the credibility and subsequent use of the evaluation results, (Hope, 2003). Participation and empowerment need the use of different mechanisms, for example, interviews and the completion of questionnaires for people to express their opinions and in this way, influence the issues under study. Such mechanisms allow them to make their own decisions, whether big or small. In this study, Rastafarians shared their knowledge and experiences regarding the implementation of their respective destination policy. As the Rastafarians are the beneficiaries of their cultural practices; they have the right to make contributions regarding the successes, failures and challenges in specific marketing-related situations. Enhancement of capacity building should be one aspect of the evaluation process so that expertise in the evaluation of destination promotional initiatives can be developed and sustained (Hope, 2003) The researcher concurs with such a statement; however, he wishes to add that skills transfer is important in the evaluation of a policy or programme and can work effectively if important roles and responsibilities are clearly defined; for example, responsibilities need to be assigned for carrying out training programmes. This could mean bringing in outside training skills, building the capacity of existing trainers to integrate Rastafarian culture into training programmes, or developing specialist trainers on cultural/religious practices in Jamaica. According to K.R. Hope, programme methods and approaches should be relevant, appropriate, empowering and take into consideration the social, cultural and human or natural resources so that the future generation can benefit and learn from the results of this study. The researcher feels that it is pointless to have policies that are not addressing the needs of the people; on the
  24. 24. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 24 contrary, they must be relevant to the circumstances of the targeted group, Hope (2003) (Hope, 2003). 2.7 IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE TO TOURISM. 2.7.1 Types of Cultural Tourism According to (Hofstede 1997) the core of a culture is formed by the values which in terms of tourism will be the basics for the attraction of a given destinations well. The different levels of culture will be the rituals, the heroes and the symbols of the given culture which again would serve as a basis for tourism purpose travels, (Hofdtede 1997) Based on the above mentioned we can state that culture is part of the lifestyle which a multitude of people are sharing. The similarities in spoken and written language, behaviour, lifestyle, customs, heritage, ideology and even technology connect the individuals to groups of people in a certain culture. So now if we take into consideration cultural tourism these groups will constitute on the demand side on the one hand those tourists who are possessing cultural motivation during their travel and on the other hand from the supply side the destination which is disposing those attraction which are capable to desire the attraction of a culturally motivated tourists or visitor. In light of the foregoing, the researcher holds the opinion that the altering explanations of cultural tourism could also be derived from the altering meanings and interpretations of the term culture. At this point, it is necessary for the researcher introduce and highlight the most important types (or elements) of cultural tourism from a thematic perspective in order to showcase their importance to economical, social and cultural importance. According to this standardization the researcher classified cultural tourism in the following way:
  25. 25. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica TYPES OF CULTURAL TOURISM Heritage Tourism Cultural Thematic Routes Cultural city tourism, cultural tours Page: 25 TOURISM PRODUCTS, ACTIVITIES Natural and cultural heritage (very much connected to naturebased or ecotourism); Material - Built heritage, - Architectural sites, - World heritage sites, - National and historical memorials Non material - Literature, - Arts, - Folklore Cultural heritage sites - Museums, collections, - Libraries, - Theatres, - Event locations, - Memories connected to historical persons Wide range of themes and types: - Spiritual, - Industrial, - Artistic, - Gastronomic, - Architectural, - Linguistic, - Vernacular, - Minority “Classic” city tourism, sightseeing. Cultural Capitals of Europe. “Cities as creative spaces for cultural tourism.” Traditions, ethnic tourism Local cultures’ traditions. Ethnic diversity. Event and festival tourism Cultural festivals and events. - Music festivals and events (classic and light or pop music) - Fine arts festivals and events.
  26. 26. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Religious tourism, pilgrimage routes Page: 26 Visiting religious sites and locations with religious motivation. Visiting religious sites and locations without religious motivation (desired by the architectural and cultural importance of the sight). Pilgrimage routes. Traditional cultural and artistic activities. - Performing arts, - Visual arts, - Cultural heritage and literature. Creative culture, creative tourism As - well as cultural industries Printed works, Multimedia, The press, Cinema, Audiovisual and phonographic Productions, Craft, Design and cultural tourism Invalid source specified. The major (directly) connected tourism products for cultural tourism are rural tourism (traditions, lifestyle, local gastronomy), wine tourism (grape and viticulture), conference tourism and eco-tourism (local culture, lifestyle). 2.7.2 Benefits of Cultural Tourism Heritage tourism and its different forms as mentioned in the table above is one of the most important forms of cultural tourism. To this truth, confers (Yawney, 2008) who explains that in agreement with (Moyston, 2012), the benefits of heritage tourism hinge on “a global, integrated approach in which nature meets culture, the past meets the present, the monumental and movable heritage meets the intangible, the protection of cultural heritage, as an expression of living culture, contributes to the development of societies and the building of peace. By virtue of its multifarious origins and the various influences that have shaped it throughout
  27. 27. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 27 history, cultural heritage takes different tangible and intangible forms, all of which are invaluable for cultural diversity as the wellspring of wealth and creativity, (BBC, 2009) 2.8 KEY ROLE PLAYERS TO THE DESTINATION’S PROMOTIONAL POLICY. The following role players have an important role to play in the evaluation of the value of Rastafarians’ cultural contribution to brand Jamaica, since they are the drivers and direct or indirect beneficiaries of and to some extents users of an effective cultural programme to the brand: 2.8.1 Destination Management Company (DMC) Jamaica Tourist Board as Jamaica’s DMC can ensure that the various stakeholders are committed to not just integrating their policy principles into their publications but to ensure that in-depth training on their respective cultural practices are being captured. This can be done through the appointment of a resource person from each cultural group so as to facilitate intricate knowledge, culture and practices of these groups without misrepresenting their way of life. This is particularly crucial for the destination management company for the implementation of both the policy and the programme as they have decision-making powers and can provide direction to the programme/policy. Furthermore, they have to account for the resources utilized and they have to measure whether the programme is having a positive impact on the nation as a destination. 2.8.2 Rastafarian cultural committee The Rastafarian groups established along with the DMC should develop and implement and effective Rastafarian cultural operations policy, which speaks to a uniformed approach that will be responsible for monitoring and guiding the policy review and will fulfill a similar function regarding the implementation of benefits. Similarly to the DMC’s structure, the Rastafarian
  28. 28. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 28 committee will play an important role in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the policy because it monitors responses and gives advice on Rastafarian issues. 2.8.3 Human resources personnel The human resources personnel for both the DMC and the Rastafarian cultural groups will have to hold dialogue so as develop a mutual understanding with regards to the marketing and promotional elements of the policy; this will enable both DMC and Rastafarians to identify policy gaps and ensure the equitable implementation of Jamaica’s Rastafarian cultural policy. 2.8.4 Partners Partners such as the Ministry of Tourism, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), along with the private sector are vital to the success of an effective Rastafarian cultural programme or policy. Importantly, resources and expertise can be shared regarding the various elements of a cultural programme so that there is collaboration in order to avoid duplication of the services to enhance the brand, (Rehle, Saidel, Mills, & Magnani, 2006). 2.9 A CULTURAL DESTINATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The researcher is of the opinion that the destination’s management system is important since the policies and programmes have been developed and implemented, but they are not being evaluated to determine their efficiency, effectiveness and relevancy regarding the changing circumstances of those who are affected. In most cases, evaluation of policies and programmes takes place at the end of the programme, without considering the fact that evaluation is a continuous process and the policies and programmes need to be managed on a continuous basis. A destination management system is the set of interrelated elements used to establish the various policies and objectives and to achieve those objectives of Jamaica’s cultural
  29. 29. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 29 destination. This standard was developed to assist, encourage and support the DMC – Jamaica Tourist Board as an organization to implement minimum standards for a destination system, characterized by a philosophy of continual improvement in terms of working towards best practices carried out in countries such as the United States of America, Dubai and other parts of the world. Although many private organizations have been implementing cultural programmes they have not all been evaluated to ascertain whether they serve any purpose. In fact, the minimum standards require that the programmes should be audited to check whether they meet the required standard. Importantly, the Ministry of Tourism must first approve these standards, (Gordon, Jeneva, 2012). The country’s destination management system standard ought to be based on the management systems methodology/cycle known as Assess-Plan–Implement–Monitor–and Evaluate (APIME), (South African Government, 2002)” The APIME model is implemented as follows: Firstly, an assessment of organizational vulnerability and susceptibility to programme plan must be carried out. There are several assessment tools that can use, for example, organizational situational analysis, needs assessment, actuarial economic impact surveys and prevalence surveys. This is followed by the development of a destination’s policy, procedures, processes, targets, objectives and success criteria based on the assessment of the vulnerability, susceptibility and programme plan in accordance to the country’s legislation. Third, the statements of intent contained within the Rastafarian cultural policy are to be implemented. Implementation must be carried out to comply with the country’s legislation.
  30. 30. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 30 Fourthly, the processes should be monitored using policy, objectives, targets, legal and other requirements as benchmark. In addition, records must be maintained and results reported. Finally, the evaluation of the achievement of targets and objections for efficiency should be undertaken. Actions taken to improve the performance of the destination management system continuously include a commitment to continual improvement.
  31. 31. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 31 CHAPTER 3 – METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter has discussed, by means of a literature study, issues pertinent to the evaluation of the management JTB’s marketing and promotional plans to identify how Rastafarian culture could add value to for brand Jamaica. In this chapter, the methodology of the study is described. In this chapter, the focus falls on the following aspects: the research design, research population, sample and sampling techniques, measurement of variables, data collection procedures, the data analysis, ethical considerations, the pre-test of the questionnaire, pilot study and ethical considerations of the study. 3.2 CHOICE FOR RESEARCH DESIGN The aim of this study was mostly descriptive in order to find answers to the questions posed in the objectives, which were what the respondents (Rastafarians) knew, felt and perceived about the respective marketing/promotional approach of Jamaica Tourist Board and how they were implemented. This evaluation study was thus intended to gauge baseline information in order to do further investigation to evaluate the value of the Rastafarian cultural contribution to Jamaica as a destination brand. The researcher chose a qualitative research approach. Structured, questionnaires were used to gather the information from respondents selected on a first-come, first-serve basis using the snow ball sample method to the approach Closed-ended question items were set up to yield quantifiable answers that could easily be administered to a large number of respondents. As explained by P. Maykut, “Research studies that are qualitative are designed to discover what can be learned about some phenomena of interest, particularly social phenomena where people are the participants (or as traditionally referred to – subjects).” Hence, the qualitative method
  32. 32. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 32 was necessary since it leads to gather in-depth understanding of human behaviours and gives logics to the reason(s) of the “WHYs” and “HOWs” in decision-making. However, because of the nature of the topic being studied the researcher felt there were some benefits to be had from the application of the scientific method, which on the other hand described, explained, predicted and somewhat influenced the mental processes of behaviours through observations from our findings. Hence, the scientific method was used to analyze psychological study of this research. The scientific method can be defined as a set of principles and procedures that are used by researchers to develop questions collect data and reach conclusions about behavioural science, (Maykut, 1994). This approach was regarded as the most appropriate approach in order to measure the occurrence and interrelatedness of key variables and to describe these in terms first-come, firstserve selected snow-ball sample of employees to various organizations within Montego Bay in a controlled data collection situation. To achieve the research objectives as stated in the first chapter, the researcher chose to implement a qualitative survey-type research design. This was a baseline, descriptive, qualitative study and the intention was not to develop hypotheses and test them, or test statistical strengths between variables. A survey design was chosen in preference to a qualitative study, because the researcher wanted an overview of the perceptions of various persons about various issues related to the workplace policy and programme at a given moment in time (Babbie & Mouton, 2004). The various subsections of the research design are discussed below.
  33. 33. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 3.3 Page: 33 STUDY POPULATION, SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES For this study, the population established was the Rastafarians within the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The researcher established the population size of the 1,325 Rastafarians who are residents of the parish. The existing population size formed the sampling frame for the random selection of respondents. The basis of my sample size of 255 was then established; using the (Raosoft Sample Calculator, 1991) of which the first 255 persons who responded positively to volunteering their participation in the study were elected. The sampling method for the primary data collected was carried out on the sample size of Rastafarians living within the parish. However, some of these members were not active in practicing their cultural/religious believes. Consequently, with the knowledge that Rastafarians are not all together in one place it was felt by the researcher that participants would have been reluctant to volunteer any sensitive information; hence, assistance was sought of the St. James Rasta Village with whom the sampling was collaboratively executed; using the snowball sampling method to reach those members in other parts of St. James. To this method, Dr. Ashley Crossman states; it is “a non-probability sampling technique that is appropriate to use in research when the members of a population are difficult to locate.” (Crossman, 2011). From the list of randomly selected respondents, the researcher developed a mailing list. The selected respondents were informed electronically via email of their random selection for participation in this study. They were also informed that participation in the study was voluntary; what the goals of the study were and that management of St. James Rasta Village had given permission for the study to be conducted under their auspices. Only 249 respondents consented to participate in the study. Thus, 6 respondents did not reply to the call to participate in the study, despite follow-up mail, which served as a reminder to
  34. 34. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 34 those who had not completed their questionnaires. Therefore, the final sample of 249 respondents represents a 95, 4% return rate on the questionnaires. Since this was deemed a good return rate, the researcher decided not to send out further follow-up requests to the 6 randomly selected respondents who failed to complete their questionnaires. 3.4 MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES The qualitative design enabled the researcher to measure the frequency of responses and to examine differences between key variables, such as gender, age, years of practice, educational qualification and population group. These biographical variables are used to give an overview of the profile of the respondents and to compare and contrast those with the actual profiles of the various groups throughout the rest of the island. In addition, these variables were used as independent variables for the knowledge and attitude items. Knowledge and attitudes regarding the JTB’s brand Jamaica policy were tested in various question items and were regarded as the dependent variables in the study. Moreover, a link between knowledge of the policy and attitudes was assumed. The specific items intended to measure the knowledge of the respondents included: • Rastafarians’ knowledge of the JTB publications. • How accurately Rastafarians’ practices are being captioned by the JTB • To ascertain what level of improvement can be made (if any) • To ascertain if Rastafarians are satisfied with their practices as carried by JTB to the international market. • To ascertain Rastafarians’ willingness to participate in improving the brand Jamaica
  35. 35. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 3.5 Page: 35 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT The researcher used closed-ended and opened-ended question items in a structured questionnaire, since this enabled greater uniformity of responses and greater ease in coding, processing and comparison of responses. The questionnaire included an introductory statement, which briefly summarized the purpose of the study, motivating the recipients to participate and giving clear guidelines on how to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed in English, since it is the medium of communication within the geographic domain of the area studied. The questionnaire included a biographical section, intended to gather relevant biographical data on the respondents. A section that focused on JTB’s shortcomings in managing the incorporation of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica and contained questions aimed at gauging the knowledge and opinions of the respondents about JTB’s policy and programmes. The researcher took into consideration the objectives of the study and the insights gained from a review of the relevant literature to develop the questions. (Babbie, E., 2007) , suggests that: ...some of the disadvantages of closed-ended question items are that they can suggest ideas that the respondents would not otherwise have thought of, that respondents with no opinion or no knowledge regarding the question item are forced to respond and that the misinterpretation of a question can go unnoticed. It was essential to pretest the questionnaire to identify any ambiguities in the questions and to identify the range of possible responses for each question. Five of the researcher’s former classmates from Western Hospitality Institute, Montego Bay were selected to assess the first draft of the questionnaire. Feedback was received that the questionnaire was too long. The researcher made amendments to the first draft based on the feedback received.
  36. 36. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 3.6 Page: 36 DATA COLLECTION Once the sample size was established a thirty-five questions interview was administered to each of the 255 individuals over a one month period (September, 2013 to December, 2013) with the assistance of the parish’s Rasta Village, Rastafarian group; spearheaded by the researcher. An electronic version of the questionnaire was emailed to each respondent who consented to participate in the study. Since all respondent had their own email addresses, it was the most appropriate way to reach all the respondents. The respondents were given a month to complete the questionnaires. Most of the questionnaires were emailed back to the researcher, but some respondents preferred to print out their questionnaires and have the researcher collect these in person. The data generation took place from September to December 2013. 3.7 DATA ANALYSIS The collected information was then sorted and analyzed against the focus of the benefits of this study to the St. James Rastafarian community as well as the Jamaica Tourist Board. Thereafter, the raw data from the manual completed interview question forms were then entered into the Web Survey Master survey quiz tool from which the data was coded and transferred into the QDA Miner 4 Lite data analysis software; where the data structure was identified and the unit of measurement defined according to the structured questionnaires used as data collection instrument; to determine and differentiate qualitative and quantitative information. Upon achieving this goal, the exercise of information summarization and visualization was applied and linked to the concept of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) as the approach employed to analyze the information using a variety of graphical techniques. This permitted the data to dictate the techniques of analysis that identified the patterns of behaviour, concepts and
  37. 37. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 37 terminology then checked for currency and validity. A quantitative data analysis was done to obtain the following information: Descriptive statistics including frequencies, measures of central tendencies and dispersion. Inferential statistics including correlation analysis, a t-test and analysis of variance. After which the data was placed in a structural form that is suitable for further examination by the said software (QDA Miner 4 Lite data analysis software) before being organized into coherent categories that brought meaning to the text. Having completed this process, the relevant statistical and visualization techniques were applied; guided by the research objective; in providing answers to the research questions: 1. What are Rastafarianism, Tourism and Rastafarian Tourism? 2. How much of the Rastarian culture is reflected within Jamaica Tourism official and/or unofficial destination marketing and promotional campaigns. 3. What strategies/recommendation can be developed and suggested to the Jamaican Tourist Board on how industry personnel can capitalize on the Rastafarian Culture? 4. What aspect(s) of Rastafarian culture’s evolution is present within Jamaica’s culture tourism brand? All; in an effort to arrive at solid conclusion at evaluating the value of Rastafarians’ culture/religious practices to the brand Jamaica. The study had a margin error of 5%, with a 90% confidence level that the information gathered represented the entire 1,325 population size along with a 50% level of frequency distribution of responses, which means, if 50% of all the people in the population of 1,325 Rastafarians were de-motivated by JTB’s promotional strategies, when the survey question was ran with 255 people (“As a Rastafarian, are you de-
  38. 38. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 38 motivated by JTB’s presentation of the Rastafarians’ culture?”), then 90% of the time, the survey revealed that between 45% and 55% of the people in the sample answered “Yes.” The remaining 5% of the time, or for 1 in 20 survey questions, it was expected that the survey response to more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The results were then compared with the secondary data which were gathered mainly from peer-reviewed journals, periodicals and previous research on the subject to confirm the professionals and theorists position concerning the topic studied. Subsequently, the researcher documented the findings, which formed the basis for the conclusions and recommendations. The information was thereafter compiled, typewritten, bounded and the final report presented in printed manuscript in accordance to the University College of Birmingham’s Reference Guide. Specimen of the data collection instrument is attached for your perusal. 3.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS It is important to consider certain ethical aspects, such as, confidentiality, informed consent, provision for debriefing, counselling and additional information, voluntary participation, no harm being done to subjects and no deception of respondents. 3.8.1 Confidentiality (Singleton, Straits, & Straits, 1993) observe that, “no matter how sensitive the information, ethical investigators should protect the right to privacy by guaranteeing anonymity or confidentiality regarding the respondents.” Information given anonymously ensures that the privacy rights of individuals are not infringed, but this safeguard is usually only possible in surveys using self-administered questionnaires where no names are attached. It is essential that confidentiality be maintained at all times. In the event that confidentiality and anonymity cannot be guaranteed, the participants must be warned of this in advance before they agree to
  39. 39. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 39 participate. After gathering the information, the privacy of the participants needs to be protected, by not disclosing their identities and by ensuring that no one beside the researcher will have access to the completed questionnaires. Importantly, the respondents were reassured that no names would appear in the research report. In addition, the respondents were informed that the completed questionnaires and consent forms would be stored safely so that no one could have access to them to avoid the respondents being victimized for participating in the study. Confidentiality was guaranteed on the consent form so that when the respondents made a decision to participate, they would know that they were being protected; because the respondents were given a guarantee that the information they would be providing would be kept confidential, they felt safe to participate. It is important that this fact be stated before the study is conducted because the respondents might otherwise feel anxious about participating. 3.8.2 Informed consent The essence of the principle of informed consent is that the human subjects of the research should be allowed to either agree or refuse to participate in the light of comprehensive information concerning the nature and the purpose of the research, (Homan, 1991). The participants need to be informed about the objectives of the study as well as all the aspects that might reasonably be expected to influence their willingness to participate, R. Homan, points out that: Failure to make full disclosure prior to obtaining informed consent requires additional safeguards to protect the welfare and dignity of the respondent, (Homan, 1991). The respondents were given the consent form to complete in order to make an informed decision as to whether they would like to participate or not in the study.
  40. 40. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 3.8.3 Page: 40 Provision of debriefing, counselling and additional information In studies where the participants are aware that they are taking part in an evaluation, after the data has been collected, the researcher should provide the participants with any necessary information to complete their understanding of the study. In this study, the researcher indicated to the participants that if there be a need for counselling, debriefing and additional information there are resources personnel within the Jamaica Tourist Board and the Ministry of Tourism along with myself in order to deal with the concerns that they might have. 3.8.4 Voluntary participation The basic rule of social research is that participation should be voluntary; therefore, it is unethical to force people to participate in research. The researcher informed the respondents that participation was voluntary and that they could withdraw at any time, as was also stated on the consent form. 3.8.5 No harm to subjects The fundamental ethical rule of social research is that it must cause no harm to the research subjects. An ethical researcher anticipates risks before beginning with the research. In addition, the privacy of the participants should be respected. The researcher stated clearly in the consent form that there were no known medical risks or discomforts associated with this study, so that they could feel free and safe to participate. 3.8.6 Deception of respondents The researcher informed the respondents of the purpose and benefits of the study in the consent form and that participation was voluntary. According to W.L. Neuman, the social researcher follows the ethical principle of voluntary consent; therefore, no one should force anyone to
  41. 41. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 41 participate and facts should not be misrepresented – unless this is required for a legitimate research reason, (Neuman, 1991).
  42. 42. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 42 CHAPTER 4 – FINDINGS 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the findings of the study. As was mentioned above, data was generated by asking 249 randomly selected (Rastafarians) as respondents to complete a structured questionnaire and the goal of the study was to critically evaluate the value of the Rastafarian culture to the brand “Jamaica.” The questionnaire comprised three subsections, namely: Biographical data of the respondents. Question items intended to measure the respondent’s knowledge of and attitudes towards the implementation of the JTB’s strategies on the promotion of Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica. Question items intended to measure the respondent’s opinions about the implementation of JTB’s policy and programmes that would embrace a more sustainable method Jamaica’s brand as tourists’ destination and to elicit recommendations for further refinement of those programmes/policies. 4.2 BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS In this section, the biographical characteristics of the respondents are presented. In particular, the distribution of the respondents in terms of gender, age groups, years of practicing the Rastafarian culture, educational level and population group is discussed.
  43. 43. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Females Page: 43 40% Males 60% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Figure 4.1: Respondents by gender (N=249) Figure 4.1, indicates that more than half (60%) of the respondents were Males and 40% were females. This is an indication that during the period under review, St. James Rasta Village had more males than females. While random sampling was used to select respondents who participated in the study, the higher marginal percentage of males than females may be attributed to their programme’s implementation of participation equity.
  44. 44. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 44 60% RESPONDENTS (N=249) 50% 40% 30% 50% 20% 30% 10% 20% 0% 18-35 36-55 56 & Over Figure 4.2: Respondents by age group (N = 249) Figure 4.2 shows that half of the respondents (50%) were between the age of 36-55 years old, 30% were in the age group of 18 to 35 years old, while 20% of them were 56 years and older. The researcher noted that the lower percentage of the older respondents could be attributed pessimistic.
  45. 45. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 45% In Relationship 35% Single 0% Windowed Divorced Page: 45 5% 15% Married 0% 10% 20% 30% RESPONDENTS (N=249) 40% 50% Figure 4.3: Respondents by age group (N = 249) Figure 4.3 shows that more than half of the respondents (60%) were involved in an intimate relationship, while (15%) of those involved in an intimate relationship were married, (45%) were not yet married, (5%) of them are divorced, leaving only (35%) single but none of them were widowed. The researcher noted that based on the responses stated in figure 4.3 Rastafarians relationships could be attributed to loyalty and commitment to their relationships.
  46. 46. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 46 60% RESPONDENTS (N=249) 50% 40% 30% 50% 20% 45% 10% 5% 0% Post Matric Secondary University Figure 4.4: Respondents by educational level (N=249) Figure 4.4 shows that half (50%) of the respondents had post-metric qualifications, 45% had completed secondary school, while 5% had completed university level education. The results show that St. James has more Rastafarians with a fairly high level of education thus affording respondents the academic competence to coin an effective team to lobby at the JTB forum for their stake in promoting Rastafarians cultural tourism at a national level.
  47. 47. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 47 RESPONSES CURRENTLY PRACTICING RASTAFARIAN FORMER RASTAFARIAN OF RASTAFARIAN PARENTAGE JAMAICAN BY BIRTH Yes No Don't know/No answer 80% 20% 0% 90% 10% 0% 60% 40% 0% 95% 5% 0% TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100% Table 4.1: Views on Respondents’ Rastafarian and ethnic backgrounds (N = 249) Table 4.1 shows that most of the respondents (80 %) were practicing their culture/religion up to the point of conducting this study, while 20% were not active in the movement. 90% of those respondents whom weren’t active Rastafarians in the movement at time of this study were former believer while 10% of them were never Rastafarians and has never practiced the religion but of that amount, 60% of them were introduced to the practice by either one or both of their parents while the other 40% of the ten percent that has never practiced before have an interest in the religion. The study revealed that 95% of the respondents were Jamaicans by birth while 5% of the respondents have migrated to Jamaica. The research did not investigate at what point in their lived did they became an immigrant to Jamaica.
  48. 48. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 4.3 Page: 48 JTB AND RASTAFARIANS SHORTCOMING ON CULTURAL TOURISM TO BRAND JAMAICA. The first research question that guided the research was to gauge knowledge of JTB’s shortcomings in managing the incorporation of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica. To this end, respondents were asked to respond to question items that measured: Whither they were familiar with the publications of the Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB). Whither they believe that the advertisements carried by Jamaica Tourist Board reflect the true cultural practice of the native Jamaican people to our visitors and potential visitors. Whither they would be willing to participate in contributing to the enhancement of the brand Jamaica as a Jamaican Rastafarian. Whither they believe Jamaica Tourist Board could do more to highlight cultural tourism in Jamaica. Whither they were aware of the Jamaica Tourist Board’s ‘Meet the People’ programme. Whither they believe the ‘Meet the People programme incorporates/reflects enough of the Rastafarian Culture to our visitors Whither they Whither they believe that the Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB) is doing enough to incorporate the practices of Rastafarian within the brand Jamaica. It sought to ascertain how much they know about the brand Jamaica as it relates to reflecting the Rastafarian culture. The findings in terms of these issues are discussed below.
  49. 49. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Uncertain Page: 49 0% 45% No 55% Yes 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Figure 4.5: Responses to the question: “Are you familiar with the publications of Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB)” (N = 249) As can be seen in figure 4.5, that 55% of the respondents indicated that they knew about the existence of the JTB publications; while 45% of the respondents answered that they did not know about the publications. However, no one was unsure whether they knew of such publications and what they entailed. The one hundred and thirteen respondents who did not know about the policy were excluded from the analysis of the question items that asked them to comment on the content of the publications observed for the presence of Rastafarian culture.
  50. 50. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica RESPONSES NUMBER Yes No Don't know/No answer 61 68 7 PERCENTAGES (%) 45% 50% 5% TOTAL 136 Page: 50 100% Table 4.2: Views on whether current JTB publications carried Rastafarian culture (N = 136) Table 4.2 shows that a half of the 136 respondents (50%) who knew of the JTB publications did not agree that the current publications carried a true reflection of the Rastarian culture in the brand Jamaica; 45% of the 136 respondents agreed that JTB publications did reflect the Rastas culture, while 5% were uncertain. During the period of this study, the researcher did ascertain whether there were current updates of publications produced by JTB.
  51. 51. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Uncertain Page: 51 0% 5% No 95% Yes 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Figure 4.6: Views on whether the Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB) could do more to highlight cultural tourism in Jamaica (N = 136) As shown in Figure 4.6, the majority of the respondents (95%) concurred that the JTB could do a lot more in highlighting the culture of Jamaica for the purpose of tourism, only 5% disagreed while no one was uncertain about this; based on this finding, the researcher holds the view that effective advertisement within the local market is needed.
  52. 52. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Accurate information about Rastas' culture Page: 52 10% Limited information about Rastas' culture 75% 15% Knows nothing about the brand 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Figure 4.6: Views on how much respondents knew about the brand “Jamaica” (N = 136) As shown in Figure 4.6, the majority of the respondents (75%) have very limited information about what JTB is doing with brand Jamaica, 10% concurred that they were aware of the brand and that it reflects accurate information about Rastafarians’ culture while 15% claimed they know nothing about the brand. The researcher holds the view that the 15% who knows nothing about the brand is comprised of those individuals whose parents were never Rastafarians and neither are they themselves are not Rastafarians but they are curious to the practice.
  53. 53. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 53 80% 70% 75% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 20% 10% 5% 0% Yes Uncertain No Figure 4.7: Views on whether the Jamaican Rastafarians would be willing to participate in contributing to the enhancement of the brand Jamaica (N = 136) The majority of the respondents (75%), as shown in figure 4.7, indicated their willingness to participate in conducting activities that will contribute to positive enhancement of the brand, 5% were uncertain they would want to engage in activities that would result in brand Jamaica’s enhancement and the remaining 20% said no, they would not engage themselves in any such activities. It is the view of the researcher that the respondents who said no to their involvement in brand Jamaica enhancement activities are frustrated.
  54. 54. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 54 No comment, 25% Comment, 75% Figure 4.8: Views on what respondents would change about the brand as Jamaican Rastafarians who are willing to participate in contributing positively to brand Jamaica (N = 136) To this question thirty four respondents (25%) provided no response; while the remaining one hundred and two (75%) respondents who acknowledged the question had this to say. Respondents believe that there need to be more involvement of the local culture and indigenous people by including not just the Rastafarian culture in the marketing efforts of brand Jamaica but to promote in grass root culture of the island. Respondents have indicated that there is a need for JTB to find the Rastafarian communities first and since it all starts with the people; then it would only be prudent to place the culture of the people at the forefront of
  55. 55. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 55 brand Jamaica. Band Jamaica should not exclude the majority of the local indigenous culture of the people; they must be included. Then will persons (not just our visitors) have more concise knowledge about Jamaica and its cultural values and give more exposure about the Rastafarian and other local cultures practiced on the island; including all the minority religious/cultural groups of the country into the brand and invest in effective marketing campaigns. Respondents are of the view that The Jamaica Tourists Board and the Ministry of Tourism should visit the authentic cultural sites of the true spiritual aspect of religious faiths practiced in Jamaica gather accurate information and documentaries of these practices in an effort to promote natural awareness of the local culture of the Jamaican people since as it is currently, some Rastafarians are of the view that Rastafarians should be compensated by brand Jamaica because they are being used as baits. Therefore, the government should see to it that Jamaicans make some money from brand Jamaica by promoting the real indigenous cultural nature of the Rastafarian and other cultures in their most natural forms through carefully researched initiative supported by effective robust marketing/promotional campaigns.
  56. 56. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica RESPONSES NUMBER Yes No Don't know/No answer 95 41 0 PERCENTAGES (%) 70% 30% 0% TOTAL 136 Page: 56 100% Table 4.3: Views on whether JTB is doing enough to highlight cultural tourism (N = 136) Table 4.3 shows that, most of the respondents (70 %) of whom indicated that they are knowledgeable of JTB’s publications believed that further indicated that JTB is doing allot to highlight Jamaica’s cultural tourism; to this 30% of respondents believe that JTB could do a lot more to highlight the nation’s culture.
  57. 57. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 57 90% 80% 70% 80% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Figure 4.9: Views on whether respondents were aware of JTB’s “Meet the People” programme (N = 136) As shown in Figure 4.9, one hundred and nine of the respondents (80%) of the respondents who know about JTB’s publications were aware of the ‘”Meet the people” programme, while twenty seven (20%) of those respondents who knows about JTB’s publications had no knowledge of a “Meet the people” programme at JTB, the researcher holds the view that JTB lacks effective communication with local citizens.
  58. 58. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Uncertain 0% 90% No Yes Page: 58 10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Figure 4.10: Views on whether the “Meet the People” programme incorporates and reflects enough of the Rastafarian culture to our visitors (N = 109) The majority of the one hundred and nine respondents whom indicated that they were aware of the “Meet the People” programme, (90%) of them do not agree that the programme incorporates and /or reflect enough of the Rastafarian culture to visitors; to this only (10%) said yes they do, the researcher did not include the twenty seven respondents who were not aware of JTB’s “Meet the People” programme.
  59. 59. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica 4.4 Page: 59 BENEFITS OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Section C questions are aimed at ascertain the opinions and knowledge of the respondents concerning how much of the brand Jamaica highlighted Rastafarian cultural practices for the benefits of economic development. It addressed questions such as: Tourism’s beneficial to Jamaica Are the authorities doing enough to strategically market the brand Jamaica for economical benefits to the nation? Is Bob Marley the face of cultural tourism in Jamaica? Do cultural events (such as Reggae Sumfest) bring the most tourists/foreign exchange to Jamaica? Is cultural tourism one of the main vehicles that could be employed by JTB to boost economic development? Should Jamaica Tourist Board include more local ideas in their marketing plans for Brand Jamaica? Should Sustainable Tourism be made a mandatory subject within the curriculum at all secondary schools in Jamaica? Has the rate of crime/violence negatively impacted the Jamaican tourism sector? Is there a need for an official body of people approved by the Jamaica Tourist Board who stands ready to represent each cultural group in Jamaica? Does training programmes currently exist on Cultural Tourism offered by HEART Trust/NTA and other tertiary level institutions across the island? Are the current Jamaica Tourist Board’s programmes as you understand those holds benefits for you as Jamaican Rastafarian? The questionnaire included various question items directed at generating data to answer the research question from Rastafarians about their opinions on how cultural tourism could
  60. 60. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 60 benefits economic development for Jamaica. This section went beyond just testing the respondents’ awareness and knowledge of existing economic programmes and policies and their contents, but seek to indentify drawbacks that can be remedied in future ones. The first question item in this subsection tested opinions on whether the programmes/policies adequately address Rastafarians related issues.
  61. 61. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica RESPONSES NUMBER Yes No Don't know/No answer 102 27 7 PERCENTAGES (%) 75% 20% 5% TOTAL 136 Page: 61 100% Table 4.4: Views on whether tourism is beneficial to Jamaica (N = 136) Table 4.3 shows that, it is evident that most of the respondents (75 %) of whom indicated that they are familiar with JTB’s programme are optimistic that tourism is beneficial to Jamaica while 20% are not and 5% of them are either unsure or the don’t know.
  62. 62. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 62 100% 90% RESPONDENTS (N=136) 80% 70% 60% 50% 95% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5% Yes No Figure 4.11: Views on whether the authorities are doing enough to strategically market the brand Jamaica for economical benefits to the nation (N = 249) Figure 4.11 indicates that most of the respondents who participated in the study (95%) were of the opinion that the authorizes are not doing enough to strategically market the brand Jamaica for economical benefits to the nation, while 5% of then indicated that their view are of the contrary.
  63. 63. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 63 Don’t know 5% No 10% Yes 85% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Figure 4.12: Views on whether Bob Marley is the face of cultural tourism in Jamaica (N = 136) Figure 4.12 indicates that (85%) of the respondents were of the opinion that the Bob Marley is only reflection of what exist for Rastafarians in Jamaica, 10% of the respondents said that was not so, while the remaining 5% are unsure as to wither this is true or not.
  64. 64. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Uncertain Page: 64 15% Eco-Tourism 5% Community Based Tourism 5% Cultural Events 75% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Figure 4.13: Views on the elements of tourism’s most tourists/foreign exchange generator in Jamaica (N = 249) Figure 4.13 indicates that cultural events such as Reggae Sumfest, Air Jamaica Jazz and Blues Festivals, Rebel Salutes and ATI Dream weekends generate more foreigners and foreign currency than Eco-Tourism and Community Based Tourism. To this 75% of the respondents say this was so, 5% claimed that it isn’t cultural events that generates the most visitors and foreign currency but Community-based tourism; while another 5% indicated that Eco-tourism generates the most visitors and foreign currency while 15% of the respondents were uncertain about which of the cultural elements of tourism generates the most visitors and foreign currency exchange. The researcher is of the view that while the cultural events mentioned would account for the outpour of visitors and foreign currency exchange at any one point in time; the other areas of tourism that were not mentioned in the studies may be generating equally in the spread; over a period of time.
  65. 65. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Don’t know Page: 65 10% 5% Disagree 85% Agree 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Figure 4.14: Opinions on whether cultural tourism is one of the main vehicles that could be employed by the government to boost economic development (N = 249) According to figure 4.14, it is evident that 85% of the respondents agreed that cultural tourism is one of the main vehicles that could be employed by the government to boost economic development for Jamaica, with 5% disagreeing with such assertion and 10% expressing that they don’t know whether or not this is so.
  66. 66. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 66 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 85% 40% 30% 20% 5% 10% 10% 0% Agree Disagree Don’t know Figure 4.15: Views on whether Jamaica Tourist Board should include more local ideas in their marketing plans for Brand Jamaica (N = 136) Figure 4.15 indicates that more than three quarters of the respondents (85%) who are familiar with JTB’s publications agreed that the JTB should include more local ideas in the marketing plans of brand Jamaica, to this (5%) disagreed while 10% claimed that they don’t know if JTB should include more local ideas in the marketing plans of brand Jamaica. The researcher is of the view that the respondents that indicated that they don’t know are not fully familiar with JTB’s publications, thus it curtails their ability to make a fair judgment of the destination management company’s marketing initiatives.
  67. 67. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 67 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 70% 10% 15% 0% 15% Agree Disagree Don’t know Figure 4.16: Opinions concerning the statement that Tourism should be a mandatory subject within the secondary schools (N = 249) Figure 4.16 shows that 70% of the respondents concurred that in order for tourism to be sustainable, then it should be mandatory that it is taught in all secondary schools within Jamaica, 15% were not in agreement with this while another 15% were unsure whether or not it was a good idea by indicating that they don’t know. The researcher is of the view that for it to be fully effective; it should be evaluated for efficiency and effectiveness on a regular basis just like any other programmes, Stine (2010). (Stine, 2010)
  68. 68. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 68 5% 25% 70% Agree Disagree Don’t know Figure 4.17: Views on whether the rate of crime/violence has very serious negative implications for the Jamaican tourism sector (N =249) As indicated in Figure 4.17 70% of the respondents agreed that the rate of crime/violence has very serious negative implications on the Jamaican tourism sector, 25% disagreed and 5% indicated they don’t know that crime/violence has an impact on the tourism sector. The researcher is of the view that respondents also took into consideration domestic violence and the high rate of police killings in consideration while responding to this question since this is becoming an increasing an issue of concern in recent years.
  69. 69. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica RESPONSES NUMBER Agree Disagree Don't know 199 37 13 PERCENTAGES (%) 80% 15% 5% TOTAL 249 Page: 69 100% Table 4.5: Views on whether there is a need for an official body of people approved by the Jamaica Tourist Board who stands ready to represent each cultural group in Jamaica (N = 249) Table 4.53 shows the evidence that there is a need for an official body of people approved by the Jamaica Tourist Board who stands ready to represent each cultural group in Jamaica as agreed by 80 % of the respondents, to this opinion 15% of the respondents disagreed while the remaining 5% indicated that they don’t know if it is so or not.
  70. 70. A Critical evaluation of the value of the Rastafarian culture to brand Jamaica Page: 70 35% 55% 10% Yes No Don’t know Figure 4.18: Views on whether training programmes currently exists on cultural tourism offered by HEART Trust/NTA and other tertiary level institutions in Jamaica (N =249) Figure 4.18 indicates that more than a half of the respondents (55%) hold the opinion that there are specialized training programmes in tourism/hospitality offered by tertiary institutions in Jamaica, 10% of the respondents don’t believe this and 35% indicated that they don’t know that any such programme exists.

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