World War I


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

World War I

  1. 1. World War I <ul><li>SETTING THE STAGE By 1914, Europe was divided into two rival camps. </li></ul><ul><li>One alliance, the Triple Entente, included Great Britain, France, and Russia. The other, known as the Triple Alliance, included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war against Serbia in 1914 set off a chain reaction within the alliance system. The countries of Europe followed through on their pledges to support one another in their Alliance system. As a result, nearly all of Europe soon joined what would be the largest, most destructive war the world had yet seen. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Note and Questions: <ul><li>1. Who were the three members of the Triple Alliance? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Who were the four members of the Triple Entente? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Who did Austria Hungary declare war on in 1914? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What was the Alliance system? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Study Blanks 1 <ul><li>The members of the Triple Entente were England, _____________and </li></ul><ul><li>_________________, and _________. </li></ul><ul><li>The members of the Triple Alliance were Germany, _____________, and _____________. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria Hungary declared war on ______________ in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>The Alliance system was formed when countries ____________ their support to each other in case of war. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Central Powers and their Colonies
  5. 5. The Great War Begins <ul><li>In response to Austria’s declaration of war, Russia, Serbia’s ally, began moving its army toward the Russian-Austrian border. Expecting Germany to join Austria, </li></ul><ul><li>Russia also mobilized along the German border. To Germany, Russia’s mobilization amounted to a declaration of war. On August 1, the German government declared war on Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia looked to its ally France for help. Germany, however, did not even wait for France to react. Two days after declaring war on Russia, Germany also declared war on France. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon afterward, Great Britain declared war on Germany. Much of Europe was now locked in battle. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study Blanks 2 <ul><li>Russia moved its army first on the _____________border. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia mobilized its troops secondly on the _____________border. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany believed that Russia’s mobilization of troops on the border was the same as a ____________of war. </li></ul><ul><li>_______days after declaring war on Russia, Germany declared war on France. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Response: Note and Questions <ul><li>1 In response to Austria declaring war on Serbia, Russia moved its troops to the borders of what two countries? </li></ul><ul><li>2. On what date did the German government declare war on Russia? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobilizing the troops
  9. 9. Mobilization
  10. 10. Nations Take Sides <ul><li>By mid-August 1914, the battle lines were clearly drawn. </li></ul><ul><li>On one side were Germany and Austria-Hungary. They were known as the Central Powers because of their location in the heart of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would later join the Central Powers in the hopes of regaining lost territories. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Study Blanks 3 <ul><li>The battle lines were drawn by __________________of 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>The countries of _____________and </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ joined the Central powers in hopes that they could gain back lost territories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Notes and Questions: <ul><li>What were the 4 countries that emerged in World War I as the Central Powers? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the Triple Alliance referred to as the Central Powers? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Central Powers
  14. 14. Allies <ul><li>On the other side were Great Britain, France, and Russia. Together, they were known as the Allied Powers or the Allies . Japan joined the Allies within weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy joined later. Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the Italians joined the other side after accusing their former partners of unjustly starting the war. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Study Blanks 4 <ul><li>The five countries of __________, ___________, ____________, ___________ and _________eventually made up the Allies. </li></ul><ul><li>The country of __________ was once an ally of Germany but changed sides during the war to become a part of the Allies. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Allies in Green and Grey
  17. 17. A Bloody Stalemate <ul><li>It did not take long for Sir Edward Grey’s prediction of “…the lights are going out all over Europe “to ring true. </li></ul><ul><li>As the summer of 1914 turned to fall, the war turned into a long and bloody stalemate, or deadlock, along the battlefields of France. </li></ul><ul><li>This deadlocked region in northern France became known as the Western Front . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Study Blank 5 <ul><li>Sir Edward Grey was afraid that the ______________ were going out all over Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 the war turned to a bloody______________ </li></ul><ul><li>The deadlocked region of northern France became known as the ___________ _____________. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Schlieffen Plan
  20. 21. The Conflict Grinds Along <ul><li>Facing a war on two fronts, Germany had developed a battle strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan , named after its designer, General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen . </li></ul><ul><li>The plan called for attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans felt they could carry out such a plan because Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in its railroad system and thus would take longer to supply its front lines. Nonetheless, speed was vital to the Schlieffen Plan. German leaders knew they needed to win a quick victory over France. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Study Blanks 6 <ul><li>Germany faced a war on ________fronts. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany developed a battle strategy called the ____________Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan called for attacking ________ in the West first and then attacking _________in the East. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany felt that Russia was the weaker ally because of a lack of _______________development. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Taxi to the Front
  23. 24. Going to War in Taxi-cabs <ul><li>Early on, it appeared that Germany would do just that. By early September, German forces had swept into France and reached the outskirts of Paris. A major German victory appeared just days away. </li></ul><ul><li>On September 5, however, the Allies regrouped and attacked the Germans northeast of Paris, in the valley of the Marne River. Every available soldier was hurled into the struggle. </li></ul><ul><li>When reinforcements were needed, more than 600 taxicabs rushed soldiers from Paris to the front. After four days of fighting, the German generals gave the order to retreat. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it was only the first major clash on the Western Front, the First Battle of the Marne was perhaps the single most important event of the war. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Study Blanks 7 <ul><li>By early September 1914 ______________ was on the outskirts of Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Over _________taxi cabs took troops from Paris to the front at the Marne. </li></ul><ul><li>After four days of fighting at the First Battle of the Marne the German Generals gave the order to ________. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Battle of the Marne was the most __________event of WWI. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Trench Warfare <ul><li>War in the Trenches By early 1915, opposing armies on the Western Front had dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. This set the stage for what became known as trench warfare . In this type of warfare, soldiers fought each other from trenches. And armies traded huge losses of human life for pitifully small land gains. </li></ul><ul><li>Military strategists were at a loss. New tools of war—machine guns, poison gas, armored tanks, larger artillery—had not delivered the fast-moving war they had expected. </li></ul><ul><li>The slaughter reached a peak in 1916. In February, the Germans launched a massive attack against the French near Verdun. Each side lost more than 300,000 men. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Study Blanks 8 <ul><li>In _________warfare armies traded huge losses of human life for pitifully small ___________gains. </li></ul><ul><li>The new tools of war during World War I were: ___________guns, poison _________, armored _______, and large pieces of _______________. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1916 near ___________the Germans launched a massive attack against the French- each side lost </li></ul><ul><li>___________ lives. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Trench Warfare
  28. 29. Early Fighting <ul><li>At the beginning of the war, Russian forces had launched an attack into both Austria and Germany. At the end of August, Germany counterattacked near the town of Tannenberg. During the four-day battle, the Germans crushed the invading Russian army and drove it into full retreat. More than 30,000 Russian soldiers were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia fared somewhat better against the Austrians. Russian forces defeated the Austrians twice in September 1914, driving deep into their country. Not until December of that year did the Austrian army manage to turn the tide. Austria defeated the Russians and eventually pushed them out of Austria-Hungary. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Study Blanks 9 <ul><li>At the beginning of the War Russian forces launched an attack on both ______________ and __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans counter attacked near________________ and sent the Russian army into full retreat killing _____________Russian soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Russians twice defeated the _____________ but eventually the _____________ drove the Russians out of their country. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Russian Troops Marching
  31. 32. The Battle on the Eastern Front <ul><li>Even as the war on the Western Front claimed thousands of lives, both sides were sending millions more men to fight on the Eastern Front . This area was a stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border. Here, Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians. The war in the east was a more mobile war </li></ul><ul><li>than that in the west. Here too, however, slaughter and stalemate were common. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Study Blank 10 <ul><li>In 1916 _______________ war effort was near collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>The area along the Russian and German border was known as the </li></ul><ul><li>___________ Front. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, ___________ and __________ </li></ul><ul><li>were also common. The Russians, Germans, Austria-Hungarians and Serbs battled. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Russian troops moving to the Front
  34. 35. Russia Struggles <ul><li>By 1916, Russia’s war effort was near collapse. Unlike the nations of western Europe, Russia had yet to become industrialized. As a result, the Russian army was continually short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, and blankets. Moreover, the Allied supply shipments to Russia were sharply limited by German control of the Baltic Sea, combined with Germany’s relentless submarine campaign in the North Sea and beyond. In the south, the Ottomans still controlled the straits leading from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Study Blanks 11 <ul><li>By 1916 ______________ war effort was near collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia had not yet ______________. </li></ul><ul><li>In the north the German’s controlled the ___________Sea and used submarines skillfully. </li></ul><ul><li>In the south the Ottoman empire controlled the entrance to the ___________Sea. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Russian Soldiers at the Eastern Front
  37. 38. Russian Front <ul><li>The Russian Army had only one asset—its numbers. Russia had an enormous population. There were nearly 2 million military deaths and 5 million wounded in WWI, with an estimated 1 and a half million civilian casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the war the Russian army suffered a staggering number of battlefield losses. For more than three years, the battered Russian army managed to tie up hundreds of thousands of German troops. As a result, Germany could not hurl its full fighting force at the west. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Study Blanks 12 <ul><li>There were nearly _____________ military deaths in Russia resulting from WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia also suffered __________ million wounded during WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Russia suffered a staggering amount of ___________ she kept German troops tied up on the ____________Front. </li></ul>
  39. 40. EASTERN FRONT 1914
  40. 41. Conflict to World War <ul><li>Germany and her allies, however, were concerned with more than just the Eastern or Western Front. As the war was fought with unrelenting intensity, fighting spread beyond Europe to Africa, as well as to Southwest and Southeast Asia. Now they were concerned about their colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>In the years after it began, the massive European conflict indeed became a world war. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Study Blank 13 <ul><li>_________________ and her allies, however, were concerned with more than just the __________ or Western Front. </li></ul><ul><li>The fighting spread beyond Europe to _____________, as well as to Southwest and _____________Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Now they were concerned about their ______________. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Russian Front 1917
  43. 44. The Frozen Front <ul><li>For soldiers on the Eastern Front, like those shown above, the overall misery of warfare was compounded by deadly </li></ul><ul><li>winters. “Every day hundreds froze to death,” noted one Austro-Hungarian officer during a particularly brutal spell. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian troops suffered too, mainly due to their lack of food and clothing. I am at my post all the time—frozen </li></ul><ul><li>[and] soaked . . . ,” lamented one soldier. “We walk barefoot or in rope soled shoes. It’s incredible that soldiers of the Russian army are in rope soled shoes!” </li></ul>
  44. 45. Russian Land Lost to Germany 1917 Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  45. 46. Conflict to World War <ul><li>For more than three years, the battered Russian army managed to tie up hundreds of thousands of German troops The Russian army had only one in the east. As a result, Germany could not hurl its full fighting force at the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and her allies, however, were concerned with more than just the Eastern or Western Front. As the war raged on, fighting spread beyond Europe to Africa, as well as to Southwest and Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the years after it began, the massive European conflict indeed became a world war. </li></ul>