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Blended Learning Meets Digital Media


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Research seminar communication presented at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz, Austria) on 17 November 2016

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Blended Learning Meets Digital Media

  1. 1. Blended Learning Meets Digital Media José Bidarra | Universidade Aberta | Portugal
  2. 2. The classroom today…
  3. 3. • 8 AM • 12 AM • 2 PM • 4 PM • 7 PM “ICTs are not mere tools but rather environmental forces that are increasingly affecting us. For instance blurring the distinction between reality and virtuality, and blurring the distinction between human, machine and nature” (L. Floridi)
  4. 4. Educational Technology According to the EU Commission initiative Opening Up Education, between 50% and 80% of students in EU countries never use digital textbooks, exercise software, podcasts, simulations or learning games.
  5. 5. Classroom Learning Online Learning Mobile Learning 4 Affordances facilitating b-learning processes 5
  6. 6. • STUDENT SUCCESS • PROGRAM QUALITY • MANAGEMENT • RESPONSIVENESS • IMPROVEMENT Today’s Agenda Creativity - the ability to develop from scratch new solutions to emerging problems (communication, digital literacy); Critical thinking - the capacity to read, interpret, and evaluate new information (citizenship, communication, digital literacy; Problem solving - the ability to make decisions and implement the best solutions (communication, collaboration, digital literacy); Productivity - the ability to be more productive and apply higher-level skills (ICT competences are important here). 21st Century Competences by Voogt & Pareja Roblin (2012)
  7. 7. WebTechnology 3D,AR,VRTechnologiesMobileTechnology Smartphones and tablets use is widespread. Many educational apps, ebooks, and videos are available. These more advanced technologies are now coming of age with new hardware and software. Inexpensive and user friendly. There are many educational tools available online and offline. Trends Showcase
  8. 8. Classic Teaching Model
  9. 9. Current Teaching Model
  10. 10. Connected Learning
  11. 11. Time-Space Matrix (Bidarra & Rusman, 2015) 11 (application example based on Johansen, 1988)
  12. 12. A Design Framework We propose an instructional design framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). This started as a response to complex changes in society and education (e.g. high turnover rate of knowledge, changing labour market, fast pace of technology renewal), which require a more creative response to the world problems that surround us. Many of these challenges are related to science and it would be expected that students are attracted to science, however the contrary is the case. Article to be published in Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning
  13. 13. Context 1 Technology 2 Pedagogy 3 Context usually refers to broad concepts such as society and organizations, knowledge domains, experts and peers, tools and techniques, time and location, among other aspects. Educational technology is concerned with connectivity, ubiquitous learning, web interface systems, and learning platforms. Many of these allow access to remote labs and equipment. New pedagogies are emerging every year and the account of the last years has been very prolific: scale, connectivity, reflection, extension, embodiment and personalisation.
  14. 14. MOOCs
  15. 15. MOOCs - Evolution
  16. 16. MOOCs - Dropout rate
  17. 17. Flipped class & SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses) (Brian White, edX) 20
  18. 18. Digital Storytelling Storytelling is based on a set of four elements that are still valid in the digital age, namely: • A narrator • A plot • A setting • Characters There is usually a conflict of some kind. Some common types of conflict may include: • Conflict between one person and another or between groups; • Conflict between a person and the natural environment; • Conflict between an individual and the society. 21
  19. 19. Content Gamification "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts" (Deterding et al., 2011, p.1) • Points: points are fantastic motivators and can be used to reward users/students across multiple levels or dimensions of a gamified activity. In general people love to be rewarded and, when interacting with a point system, they feel like they have gained something. • Levels: these are often defined as point thresholds, so the students (or users) can use them to indicate a higher status and have access to bonus content. • Challenges, badges, achievements, and trophies: the introduction of goals in an activity makes students (users) feel like they are working toward a goal. Normally, challenges should be configured based on specific actions and should include user/student rewards when they accomplish certain milestones with badges, achievements or trophies. • Leader boards or “high-score table”: in the context of gamification, high-score tables are used to track and display desired actions, using completion to drive valued behavior. In intrinsic motivation terms, they are one of the most important features of a game, bringing the aspiration factor to the process. 22
  20. 20. Game Mechanics, Dynamics and Emotions - MDE model Badges Avatars Votes Leaderboards Achievements Boss Fights Virtual GoodsGuilds Quests Rewards Progress Bars Skill Trees Experience Points Stat Points
  21. 21. Online Course on ICT
  22. 22. Online Course on ICT
  23. 23. Online Course on ICT
  24. 24. Games and Simulations
  25. 25. Virtual Worlds Odisseia, 2006
  26. 26. Sign Language Learning Serious Game
  27. 27. Translation through an Avatar Dynamic recognition of gestures
  28. 28. Virtual Sign Game 1 - Finite Automata 2 - Algorithms for Hierarchical Classification 3 - Sequence Alignment Algorithms
  29. 29. Saving Lake Wingra (ARIS) AR Game Mechanics Play on locationPlay on location Play on handheld Play on handheld collect clues and objectives collect clues and objectives Trigger game objects Trigger game objects For a $3.5M 2005-2008 STAR Schools grant with Harvard and MIT, my doctoral research group made location-based games using MITʼs Outdoor Augmented Reality platform. It was prety cool stuff.
  30. 30. Saving Lake Wingra (ARIS)
  31. 31. ARIS game engine 20 ARIS uses GPS to show you where to go
  32. 32. GameBook: text + images
  33. 33. GameBook: video + quiz
  34. 34. GameBook: Google Maps
  35. 35. GameBook: puzzle games
  36. 36. Mobile Learning Learning Anytime, Anywhere…
  37. 37. Mobile Learning • Basic model: SMS, MMS, images & text • Responsive Web: accessible via browser (online) • Educational Apps: installed in the device (offline) • Educational eBooks: installed in the device (offline)
  38. 38. Anytime, Anywhere Information Transfer DecentralizedCentralized Skills Transfer EmpoweredControlled Knowledge Creation Exchange Seamless Work & Learning Open up time and place for learning Data and analysis where and when you need it (Mauro Figueiredo)
  39. 39. M-Learning Research (Aberdour, 2013)
  40. 40. Moodle Mobile
  41. 41. Apps or eBooks?
  42. 42. 45 App MILAGE Learn+
  43. 43. Responsive Web vs. Native Apps One of the first decisions product designers have to make is whether they are going to just make a web product “friendly” for mobile screens or invest in developing a mobile application. Responsive Web: • Requires an Internet Connection; • Poor Performance (Browser Limitations); • Lack of Natural Navigation; • Lack of Push Notifications; • Lack of Other Functionality (QR codes, voice recognition, AR, …).
  44. 44. Responsive Web vs. Native Apps Native Apps: • Internet Connection Not Always Necessary; • Better Performance; • Increased Functionality; • Enhanced Security for Users; • Brand Awareness and Accessibility; • High investment in time and money.
  45. 45. Augmented Reality (AR)
  46. 46. Surgery with AR MITK pille - German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg.
  47. 47. Batlló House AR (Barcelona)
  48. 48. Music Teaching (AR) Aurasma application for music
  49. 49. Google Glass
  50. 50. Microsoft Hololens
  51. 51. Virtual Reality (VR)
  52. 52. Virtual Reality (VR)
  53. 53. Virtual Reality (VR) (accessible Google Cardboard)
  54. 54. Support the emergence of learners that are: • always connected, • in constant interaction, • accessing vast information, • making fast decisions, • integrating different media. Develop inclusive models: • about being onlife instead of just being online, • respecting diversity and Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). What future?