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Ontologies and thesauri. How to answer complex questions using interoperability?

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Ontologies and thesauri. How to answer complex questions using interoperability?

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Présentation sur les ontologies et thesauri dans le cadre de la Training School COST-IRHT "La transmission des textes : nouveaux outils, nouvelles approches" (Paris), par Stefanie Gehrke

Présentation sur les ontologies et thesauri dans le cadre de la Training School COST-IRHT "La transmission des textes : nouveaux outils, nouvelles approches" (Paris), par Stefanie Gehrke

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Ontologies and thesauri. How to answer complex questions using interoperability?

  1. 1. Ontologies and thesauri How to answer complex questions using interoperability ? Stefanie Gehrke, Pauline Charbonnier, Eduard Frunzeanu, Anita Mazur (Équipe Données)
  2. 2. How to answer complex questions using current (open access) web facilities? etc.
  3. 3. Access point I: Medium Trame
  4. 4. Access point II: ●  The Union Catalog of France (Catalogue Collectif de France / CCFr) ●  BnF archives et manuscrits (BAM) ●  Catalogue Général de la BnF
  5. 5. Title ? Person ? Subject ? Shelfmark ? Date ? ...
  6. 6. Access point III: BVH BVMM Gallica
  7. 7. Access point IV: MESA
  8. 8. Query in MESA
  9. 9. Dump not available
  10. 10. Access point V: Manuscripta Medievalia Europeana / The European Library Manuscriptorium
  11. 11. Query in Europeana I
  12. 12. Query in Europeana II Dump available at: http:// data.europeana.eu/download/2.0/
  13. 13. Access point VI: Isidore
  14. 14. http://www.rechercheisidore.fr/data/ark:/12148/btv1b84473026.rdf
  15. 15. Access point VII: All specialised databases
  16. 16. Found in the Web Bibliotheca bibliothecarum manuscriptorum nova... du Mauriste Dom Bernard de Montfaucon, 1739 Version PDF: http://www.libraria.fr/fr/editions/la-bibliotheca-bibliothecarum-de- montfaucon-est-t%C3%A9l%C3%A9chargeable-en-mode-texte-sur-libraria
  17. 17. Conclusion I: There is no single access point specialised on the written heritage from the Medieval and Renaissance Europe
  18. 18. Conclusion II: Search possibilities regarding the history of collections and texts are limited
  19. 19. Vision Biblissima How to answer complex questions using interoperability ?
  20. 20. Federate databases ... … by establishing a common RDF framework: ●  Ontology ●  Data in RDF ●  Enable (complex) queries ●  Thesaurus
  21. 21. Ontology Definition I : “A conceptual map of the terms and relationships that constitute a domain. For example, a library ontology would likely include "books," and would note that books often have "authors," that authors have "birth_years," and that books also often have "titles," "subtitles," and "subjects." The terms and relationships in an ontology can then be used to determine the metadata to be recorded, as well as the ways in which data can be retrieved from a dataset. Although ontologies pre-date the Semantic Web, they have been brought to prominence by it.” Source : Getting Started Guide (Harvard University)
  22. 22. Ontology Definition II : “A formal model that allows knowledge to be represented for a specific domain. An ontology describes the types of things that exist (classes), the relationships between them (properties) and the logical ways those classes and properties can be used together (axioms).” Source : Linked Data Glossary (w3c)
  23. 23. Ontology Individual Individual Class Class S SS S S S S S S O O O O O O O O O n t o l o g y predicate (object-)property Data
  24. 24. Mapping S S S S S S O O O O O O O Structured data + URIs + Links to external resources Triples
  25. 25. Data alignment OpenRefine:
  26. 26. Datasets in a triplestore S S S S S S S S S O O O O O O p1 p1 p2 p3 p2 p3 p1 p1 O O O O p3 p3
  27. 27. Query via SPARQL PREFIX Bbissima: <http://purl.org/NET/Bbissima#> SELECT ?subject WHERE { ?subject p2 Bbissima:Manuscript. ?subject p1 } S S S S S S S S S O O O O O O O p1 p1 p3 p2 p1 p1 O O O O p3 p3 p2 p1 p1 p2 p2 p2 p3
  28. 28. Biblissima SPARQL endpoint (test)
  29. 29. RDF/XML data (simplified) <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:Bbissima="http://purl.org/NET/Bbissima#"> <Bbissima:Expression> <!-- subject --> <Bbissima:is_carried_by> <!-- predicate --> <Bbissima:Manuscript rdf:about="http://data.biblissima.fr/ark:/00000/BnF_Mss_Grec1432"> <!-- object / subject --> <Bbissima:consists_of> <!-- predicate --> <Bbissima:Material rdf:about="http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_bombycin"/> <!-- object --> </Bbissima:consists_of> </Bbissima:Manuscript> </Bbissima:is_carried_by> </Bbissima:Expression> </rdf:RDF>
  30. 30. …. + sample data thesaurus <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:Bbissima="http://purl.org/NET/Bbissima#" xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"> <Bbissima:Expression> <Bbissima:is_carried_by> <Bbissima:Manuscript rdf:about="http://data.biblissima.fr/ark:/00000/BnF_Mss_Grec1432"> <Bbissima:consists_of> <Bbissima:Material rdf:about="http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_bombycin"/> </Bbissima:consists_of> </Bbissima:Manuscript> </Bbissima:is_carried_by> </Bbissima:Expression> <skos:Concept rdf:about="http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_bombycin"> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Bombycin</skos:prefLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_papier"/> </skos:Concept> </rdf:RDF>
  31. 31. All the manuscripts (in the triplestore) that carry a text in greek on paper: PREFIX skos:<http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> PREFIX Bbissima:<http://purl.org/NET/Bbissima#> SELECT ?manuscript WHERE { ?manuscript Bbissima:has_language <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/iso639-5/grk> . ?manuscript Bbissima:consists_of <http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_papier>.} UNION {?manuscript Bbissima:consists_of ?material . <http://data.biblissima.fr/thesaurus/resource/ark:/00000/support_papier> skos:narrower ?material.} } Complex query
  32. 32. Build on the outcomes of the Europeana Regia project (2010 - 2012) (BnF, BSB, BHUV, HAB, KBR) (3 historical collections)
  33. 33. ●  Crosswalk EAD, TEI, Marc21, ESE 3.4, EDM ●  Reference Transformation ●  Data ingestion ●  5 partners (BnF, BSB, BHUV, HAB, KBR)
  34. 34. Data Sources for 33 Europeana Display Fields
  35. 35. Medieval Manuscripts in Europe(ana) Transformation published at Sourceforge: http://sourceforge.net/projects/eregia2eseedm
  36. 36. Medieval Manuscripts in Europe(ana) One XSLT module contains controlled multilingual vocabulary for the Europeana display fields
  37. 37. Medieval Manuscripts in Europe(ana) Lessons learned: ●  build reliable relations ●  share transformation code ●  modelisation experience
  38. 38. Ontology and thesaurus Biblissima ●  Build on CIDOC-CRM and FRBRoo ●  Ontology: Publication of v0.1 May 2014
  39. 39. Ontology Biblissima See also: http://doc.biblissima-condorcet.fr/sites/doc.biblissima-condorcet.fr/files/interoperabilite/schemaontologieamflorence.pdf
  40. 40. Ontology Biblissima Modelisation of the events “Acquisition”, “Transfer of Custody” and “Move” in CIDOC CRM and Biblissima
  41. 41. Ontology Biblissima Modelisation of the event “Expression Creation” related to a manuscript in CIDOC CRM and Biblissima
  42. 42. Thesaurus Biblissima ●  to build a thesaurus in the fields of the transmission of books and texts ●  focus on the vocabularies needed for the scientific description of manuscripts and early prints: codicology, paleography, textual criticism etc.
  43. 43. Tools used by Biblissima 4store GINCO OpenRefine Protégé Sesame XXE Virtuoso
  44. 44. Merci ! See you on Wednesday 02/04/2014 at the Workshop about RDF data Campus Condorcet, IUT, 3-7 rue de la Croix Faron, Saint-Denis, 14:30-18:00

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