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Anexa a studiului de nevoi de pe piata muncii- ADULT REG - rezultate , solutii

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Anexa a studiului de nevoi de pe piata muncii- ADULT REG - iunie 2016- Romania - Macedonia

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Anexa a studiului de nevoi de pe piata muncii- ADULT REG - rezultate , solutii

  1. 1. Assessment of labor market skills needs Valcea, Bihor, Southeast, and Polog Addressing the Regional Labour Market Needs through Development and Certification of New Programs for Adult Education Project Reference: 2015- 1-MK01-KA204-002828
  2. 2. Research Objective and Design • The objective is to identify region-specific skills needs on the labor market. • These needs should serve as basis for developing curricula for adult education (AE) • The research included: • a survey with at least 300 job seekers (current/recent) in each region (4 surveys) • interviews with at least 20 businesses (structured by size/field) in each region • interviews with at least 10 AE providers in each region • interviews with at least 10 AE students in each region • Target regions: Bihor county, Valcea county, Southeast and Polog Research performed by
  3. 3. Research Focus • The research focused on employability/ soft skills, in line with the requirements of the Erasmus+ program. • However, respondents in interviews and the surveys alike volunteered (they were no specifically asked to do so) relevant information on labor market needs of technical and job-specific skills. • The reason is that in general, respondents are primarily used to think about skills in terms of technical and/or specific occupational skills. • In addition, this is so because many respondents, in particular from the business sector, are not familiar with the concept of soft skills. • To the extent possible, this information was recorded and discussed. • The view of this report is that notwithstanding the key focus of the project on soft skills, the reports of other skills needs in the target regions should be noted. To the extent permitted by the regulation governing the project, they could also be considered. Research performed by
  4. 4. Research Focus • The assessment looks into the specificities of the four target regions, but it also considers the common needs across the regions. • This is relevant in view of the project objective to promote collaborative curricula development. • Whereas these curricula could be adapted to regional needs and realities, some of them, or some of their components, could possibly stem from common cross- regional needs. • The research departed from the proposition to explore regional differences. However, the results strongly indicate to common needs and challenges across the regions. Research performed by
  5. 5. Target Regions/Selected indicators Valcea County (Romania) Bihor County (Romania) Polog Region (Macedonia) Southeast Region (Macedonia) Population in 2015 405,543 620,777 319,916 173,560 Urban 195,009 (48.1%) 320,070 (51.6%) 57.1% 57.1% Rural 210,534 (51.9%) 300,707 (48.4%) 42.9% 42.9% Activity rate, 2014 79% (2014) 76.6% (2014) 46.1% 66.9% Unemployment rate, 2014, % 5.6 3.7 30.7 20.8 Men 5.8 4 27.3 21.0 Women 5.5 3.3 40.9 20.6 Average net wage per employee, 2014 1,337 RON 1,299 RON 20,425 MKD 16,729 MKD 300 EUR 291 EUR 332 EUR 272 EUR Research performed by
  6. 6. Selected indicators Share of employed persons by selected sectors, 2014 Valcea County (Romania) Bihor County (Romania) Macedonia (national level) Agriculture, forestry and fishing (2.3%) (1.8%) (18.5%) Manufacturing (22.2%) (33.8%) (19.3%) Construction (8.6%) (6.5%) (7.0%) Wholesale and retail trade.. (17.0%) (17.6%) (13.5%) Transportation and storage (4.1%) (6.7%) (5.6%) Accommodation and food service activities (4.2%) (2.9%) (3.6%) Education (9.1%) (7.8%) (5.8%) Research performed by
  7. 7. Availability of Labor Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Finding nonqualified labor Difficult (high) Difficult (very high) Difficult (medium- high; depending on sector) Difficult (medium-high; depending on sector) Finding labor (medium technical skills) Difficult (high) Difficult (very high) Difficult (medium) Difficult (medium) Finding qualified labor (engineers; general) Difficult (high-medium) Difficult (high) Difficult (high) Difficult (high) Finding qualified labor (social sciences) Not difficult Not difficult Not difficult Not difficult Finding labor for production vs. admin/management Production – difficult; A/M - easy Production – very difficult; A/M - easy Production – difficult; A/M - easy Production – difficult; A/M - easy Idea for import of workers Not expressed Expressed strongly by many managers Not expressed Not expressed Research performed by
  8. 8. Education factors Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Inflation in university education (overproduction of university diplomas combined with decline of quality standards) Reported as trend in recent past; at present reported as restrained Reported as trend in recent past; at present reported as restrained Very strong present trend Strong present trend Availability of vocational training Reported lack of schools; specific needed classes. Deindustrialization during early transition indicated as cause. Reported lack of schools; specific needed classes. Deindustrialization during early transition indicated as cause. Reported lack of schools/workers with relevant skills Reported lack of schools/workers with relevant skills Research performed by
  9. 9. Education factors Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Quality of formal vocational training Managers complain that schools only teach theory; that workers do not have the skills Managers complain that schools only teach theory; that workers do not have the skills Managers complain that schools only teach theory; that workers do not have the skills Managers complain that schools only teach theory; that workers do not have the skills Availability of AE vocational training Developed regulation and system; can be set up and accredited Developed regulation and system; can be set up and accredited The system is not well- developed The system is not well- developed Mandatory apprenticeship during studies Worked well in the past; at present only done formally Worked well in the past; at present only done formally Worked well in the past; at present only done formally Worked well in the past; at present only done formally University-business cooperation on apprenticeships Evidence of large companies agreeing internship programs with universities Evidence of large companies agreeing internship programs with universities Little evidence of such practice. Little evidence of such practice Research performed by
  10. 10. AE specifics Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast AE training certificate Adult vocational training diploma. This is a strong motivation for obtaining it. It is needed for migration. Adult vocational training diploma. This is a strong motivation for obtaining it. It is needed for migration. Some diplomas (Goette Institute for German language, etc.) recognized in some EU countries. Needed for migration. Some diplomas (Goette Institute for German language, etc.) recognized in some EU countries. Needed for migration. AE training certificate Needed for getting a job or opening a businesses. Needed for getting a job or opening a businesses. Not needed/or it is much easier to obtain the certificate Not needed/or it is much easier to obtain the certificate AE regulation Comprehensive regulation on training for adults. The system is functional. Standards are respected. Comprehensive regulation on training for adults. The system is functional. Standards are respected. Absence of standards in delivery of vocational training for adults Absence of standards in delivery of vocational training for adults Research performed by
  11. 11. AE specifics Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Cooperation between AE providers and Employment agencies There is evidence of regular cooperation. Some AE providers complain the AE does not pay on time. There is evidence of regular cooperation. Some AE providers complain the AE does not pay on time. No evidence No evidence Cooperation between AE providers and businesses Very little-to no evidence Some evidence Very little-to no evidence Very little-to no evidence Research performed by
  12. 12. Regional economic specifics Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Presence of large multinationals Very few foreign companies. Strong influx over the past decade (mostly in manufacturing) Very few foreign companies. Very few foreign companies. Local large industries A few large ones (CET, Oltchim) Closing/downscaling Present Very few Very few Construction Reported strong need of construction workers. Reported need of construction workers. There is evidence of construction boom. Requires significant unqualified labor. No evidence of construction boom. There is increased construction. There is evidence of increased demand for operators of machines used in construction. Research performed by
  13. 13. Regional economic specifics Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Tourism and hospitality Strong Strong Medium Medium ICT industry Not strong. Very few ICT service companies Strong and growing. Not strong-very few ICT companies Not strong Research performed by
  14. 14. Worker age Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Worker age/tech vs. admin jobs Younger staff in admin and management jobs; older staff in technical jobs Younger staff in admin and management jobs; older staff in technical jobs Younger staff in admin and management jobs; older staff in technical jobs Younger staff in admin and management jobs; older staff in technical jobs Worker age/by sector Textiles Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Worker age/ mid-level tech jobs ( welder. CNC operator, mechanic, electrician) Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Older workers/ young people have no interest Research performed by
  15. 15. Entrepreneurship Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Business startup No indication. Medum- high interest can be assumed. Managers do not agree these is a culture of entrepreneurship. Stakeholder agree there is a culture of startup. Most startups are in ICT and creative industries. Low-medium interest in startup, usually in low-tech fields Low interest in business startup Business startup/red tape Business startup involves more red tape. Business startup involves more red tape. Business startup involves very little red tape. Business startup involves very little red tape. Business startup training Generally available Available. Supply financed by donor projects. Available. Strong supply financed by donor projects. Available. Strong supply financed by donor projects. Research performed by
  16. 16. Demand for soft skills training Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Interest in soft skills training No interest in paid classes in soft skills. There is interest if the classes are free. Confirmed by AEs and EA No interest in paid classes in soft skills. There is interest if the classes are free. No interest in paid classes in soft skills. There is interest if the classes are free. No interest in paid classes in soft skills. There is interest if the classes are free. Offer of soft skills training by AEs Very limited to none. Exists only if financed by projects. Limited to none. Exists only if financed by projects. The EA says they only come if there is an allowance Limited to none. Exists only if financed by projects. Limited to none. Exists only if financed by projects. Interest in foreign language classes Little interest, because (according to AEs) language is taught in school Little interest, because (according to AEs) language is taught in school Medium interest. Medium interest. Interest in ICT classes Medium-Low Medium-Low Medium-Low Medium-Low Research performed by
  17. 17. Demand for soft skills training Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Availability of supply- based AE training Medium amount of supply-based training available for free and usually financed by donor projects, available. Significant amount of supply-based training, offered for free and usually financed by donor projects, available. Some AE providers consider this a problem. Significant amount of supply-based training, offered for free and usually financed by donor projects, available. Significant amount of supply-based training, offered for free and usually financed by donor projects, available. Career orientation (recognition) Relevant stakeholder (AE providers, business managers) have a strong understanding of the concept. The idea that a person has too like her/his job, to know what s/he is good at, is widespread. Relevant stakeholder (AE providers, business managers) have a strong understanding of the concept. The idea that a person has too like her/his job, to know what s/he is good at, is widespread. There is no clear idea of the concept of career orientation. There is no clear idea of the concept of career orientation. Research performed by
  18. 18. Common findings • Results strongly indicate to common needs and challenges across the regions. • One key finding is that the major labor force problem for businesses in all four target regions is the inability to find labor force. This is an interesting finding, especially considering the differences in unemployment rates across these regions. This difficulty, varies in intensity and it is strongest in Bihor. • Target groups (such as small business managers, workers, farmers, young labor market entrants, etc.) are in some cases not aware that they need certain skills or they need to develop or enhance them • The conclusion hence is that the need is preceded by the awareness, that is, the recognition of that need. • In some cases the skills needs observed and indicated in the report result from the direct self-assessment of the respondents, but in some cases they result from what, in the view of this report, the respondents could not observe as needed. Research performed by
  19. 19. Small business • Many smaller businesses do not appreciate the importance of soft skills. This also depends on the sector they are in. It also strongly depends on the recognition of the importance of this skillset by the management. • This is consistent across all 4 target regions. • Asked about soft skills, managers replied bluntly with “there is no need of that” • Hence, the focus should be on small business as their needs is stronger. • Large businesses, and foreign-owned or foreign-managed businesses, usually have a systematic approach to assessing skills needs and providing training. Smaller businesses do not. • A small business manager is proud to report that he has "never taken any training in sales or management" (and yet he is doing great). Research performed by
  20. 20. Small business • One clear need which emerges very strongly is that of management skills in small businesses. Most managers have no management training and what more, they are proud to emphasize this fact. They feel they do not need it. • Many local companies are family owned and managed. There are specific issues related to the management of a family business. • Many small businesses are ICT-illiterate. Managers are not aware that if they mainstream ICT into work processes, it can improve their productivity. Training on the benefits of ICT optimization is needed for small businesses. • There are many areas where small businesses can benefit from increased use of ICT, including but not limited to: document management, communication with staff, communication with clients (web, social networks, etc.), client relationship management, project and process management, and so forth. Research performed by
  21. 21. Small business • It has been reported that micro businesses, which are usually run by older and ICT unprepared management, cannot be taught to use the email, but respond well to text messages. The possibility for training on business use of various mobile applications should be explored, especially for managers who do not possess the standard ICT skills. This need is strongest in Polog, then Valcea and Southeast. • As finding workers becomes harder, companies need to get better at recruitment. Many smaller companies are not ready to accept the new reality. This points to an evident need of training in recruitment, combined with labor market assessment. This need is obviously strongest in Bihor, then Valcea. • Small local companies are change-resistant. This indicates to a relevant training need. Research performed by
  22. 22. Labor market analysis • Most of the business managers feel that there is an oversupply of young economists and lawyers whereas at the same time there is critical deficit of metal workers, CNC operators, welders, electricians, and so forth. There is a strong mismatch between labor supply and demand. • Business managers almost feel hostility to the new generation of social science (law, economics, political science) graduates, who in their view "cannot do anything", yet have high expectations. • Should it continue, over the long term, such a trend will have serious negative consequences. • Yet, there is no institution for early analysis of labor market needs. • EAs are often not equipped to do this. Recruitment companies do not do this in general. • This is a key need. Labor market analysts are needed. This is a clear training need. Research performed by
  23. 23. Young job entrants • Practical experience for young people is a key area of need. As with other skills, it is not the lack of opportunity, but the lack of interest. Many young people do not have interest in traineeships. • This is the case even where formal education (secondary or tertiary) mandatorily requires practical work for young persons. • There are two aspects of this issue. • First, attitude of young persons towards practical work during studies, and • second, their attitude after having completed the studies and when they are looking for work. In this second phase, the issue relates to the mismatch of expectations. Managers want a prepared worker before they offer pay; young job entrants refuse to work without pay. Research performed by
  24. 24. Young job entrants • It is important for young people to get the initial work experience during their studies. This will help them in the school to work transition (SWT). This is accepted as common knowledge and yet it is not practiced. It is not accepted by young people. • There is agreement among business managers that young people lack the perseverance. They have higher expectations and do not want to stay overtime. • Career orientation is more important than ever. There is a strong mismatch between labor supply and demand. This is consistent across all the 4 target regions. • There need is stronger in Macedonia, obviously because of the much higher unemployment rate. Research performed by
  25. 25. Older workers • The large majority of business managers agree that it is more difficult to have older workers adapt, to accept new ways of doing things. • On the other hand there is a clear indication that many businesses rely on older workers for different mid-level technical jobs. • This indicates to a clear need of training related to adaptation, change management, and lifelong learning. • Such training could be adjusted to the specific needs of sectors, regions, workers of different age, etc. Research performed by
  26. 26. Older workers • With migration of primarily younger workers, many companies are left with older workers. • These workers are less likely to have ICT skills. • One particular target group of interest can be workers in their 40s or early 50s who have poorer ICT skills. • ICT training can have relevant positive effect on their productivity and adaptability. • The key challenge is that these workers refuse to learn on the job. The refusal is often passive, when they try to avoid the disliked task or pass it on to someone else. • The phenomenon is consistent across the target regions. Also, consistently, there is no evidence of systematic training (apart from what is delivered in-house in companies). • This need is the strongest in Polog, followed by Southeast and Valcea. Research performed by
  27. 27. Rural population/farmers • Stakeholders (mostly in the Southeast region) indicated to the need of agriculture training for farmers. Farming is generally learned within the family. Many farmers lack basic knowledge in agriculture, such as for example, use of pesticides, fertilization, etc. • Farmers in the Polog region have indicated that they often look for information on the Internet, for example on how to sow certain crops, such as for example wheat, on fertilization, etc. They note that they have to read on Serbian, Croatian, or Albanian chats and forums since there is very little to no content in Macedonian, given the small size of the country. • This is a clear indication of training need. The format of online training/webinars is also indicated. Research performed by
  28. 28. Rural population/farmers • Farmers have a relevant need of knowledge on marketing of farming produce. • Farmers, particularly in Macedonia, need basic knowledge on developing and managing cooperatives. There is indication that the regions in Romania are more advanced in this regard. • Related to this, farmers who grow produce which can be sold on local market, retail, or which needs to be packaged, have the need of developing better packaging of their produce (for example, honey, forest fruits, strawberries, almonds, etc.) as well as its branding (labels, etc.). • There are relevant skills needs in the areas such as honey production (bee keeping), growing of mushrooms, wild mushroom foraging, tea and herb foraging, as well as forest fruits marketing (Polog and Valcea). Research performed by
  29. 29. Rural population/farmers • Farmers and AE providers alike indicate to the need of education on EU funding for agriculture, as well as related government regulation and subsidy programs. This need is stronger in the regions in Macedonia. • Respondents have indicated rural tourism, in particular rural tourism development and management as a relevant educational need. At present there is little systematic education on rural tourism. This can be particularly relevant for Polog and Valcea. It can also be of relevance for the other regions. • Of growing interest to farmers and food producers is the organic farming and organic food production. Reportedly, there is at present no adult education curricula on organic farming and food production in Macedonia. Some AE providers in Bihor and Valcea have also indicated their intention to develop similar programs. Research performed by
  30. 30. Vulnerable categories • Polog and Valcea have sizeable Roma communities. • In Romania, Roma who often do not have the mandatory 10 years of formal education, cannot enroll in certified vocational courses. They need to first complete basic education. • Roma suffer from poor literacy and numeracy skills. They primarily need training in these basic competencies. Research performed by
  31. 31. Most needed work profiles Valcea Bihor Polog Southeast Electrician Strongly needed Very strongly needed Needed Needed Mechanic Strongly needed Very strongly needed Needed Needed Professional driver Very strongly needed Very strongly needed There is no strong need. There is no strong need. Welder Strongly needed Very strongly needed Needed Needed CNC operator Strongly needed Very strongly needed Needed Needed Carpenter/Mason Strongly needed Very strongly needed Needed Needed Textile worker Strongly needed Strongly needed Very strongly needed Strongly needed Research performed by
  32. 32. Conclusions • Soft skills needs are consistent across the target regions. They depend on: • sector, • type of job, • worker age and education, etc. • The 4 target regions demonstrate strong similarity in the types of technical skills they lack. The most needed are the medium-level technical skills. The extent of need depends on a number of factors including: • level of migration • types of manufacturing present, sector growth (size) • number of graduates with mid-level technical skills, etc. Research performed by
  33. 33. Conclusions • There is strong supply of AE training in some soft skills, primarily languages and ICT. • There is no market supply of other soft skills due to lack of interest. • Small businesses to a large extent do not recognize the concept of soft skills. Research performed by
  34. 34. Thank you

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