10 idei care au influentat dezvoltarea sistemului de educatie american


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10 idei care au influentat dezvoltarea sistemului de educatie american

  1. 1. TEN OR SO IDEAS That have influenced the development of American Education Connie Goddard, Ph.D. American Studies Class University of Oradea 3 December 2010
  2. 2. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS <ul><li>TEACHING IN ALESD AS A PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER </li></ul><ul><li>Among things I have to be thankful for is privilege of being here for two years </li></ul><ul><li>In education for most of my life, but primarily a teacher only for past decade </li></ul><ul><li>Before that, an editor and journalist </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topics for Today <ul><li>Ten Ideas – A brief historical survey of American education and the legacy of these ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Two short videos </li></ul><ul><li>Some differences between schools in Romania and in United States </li></ul><ul><li>And, please, LOTS OF DISCUSSION. I’m here to learn, too </li></ul>
  4. 4. IDEA I: 1640s <ul><li>Basic literacy for all, supported by all members of the community </li></ul><ul><li>The US settled by English and Scottish Protestants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most literate societies in the world at the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First colonies in Massachusetts / New England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing impact of their influence on American schools </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Colonial North America
  6. 6. Legacy I <ul><li>Literacy for boys and girls alike; schools controlled and supported financially by each local community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It took over 200 years before this idea to be adopted nationwide, but eventually it was widely accepted </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. IDEA II: 1780s <ul><li>Democratic government depends upon an educated citizenry </li></ul><ul><li>“ If a nation expects to be both ignorant and free, it expects what never was and never will be.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>(1743-1826) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Jefferson’s ideas <ul><li>Jefferson and others conceptualized statewide systems of education, beginning with primary schools and extending to university </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated by states but controlled and funded by town and cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing an aristocracy, not of birth, but of education and talent </li></ul>
  9. 9. Legacy II <ul><li>Education is essential to maintaining a democratic form of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A right for all Americans, not a privilege for the aristocracy or leisure class </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. IDEA III: 1790s <ul><li>Schools essential to defining what an American is </li></ul><ul><li>The American Spelling Book </li></ul><ul><li>The American Dictionary of the English Language </li></ul><ul><li>Both the work of Noah Webster (1758-1843), writer and educator </li></ul>
  11. 11. Defining what is American <ul><li>Webster’s efforts defined the differences between American and British English </li></ul><ul><li>He claimed that schools were the most important institution in American society </li></ul>
  12. 12. Legacy III <ul><li>Defining distinctly American institutions helped to unify the new nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly important as the American people continued to move into the new nation’s western territories, carrying the idea of the school with them </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. IDEA IV: 1800s on <ul><li>THE PUBLIC SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>a nonsectarian institution for an increasingly urban society </li></ul><ul><li>In major US cities, public schools began to replace the pauper schools that had been established by Protestant churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially an issue in growing urban centers like New York City and Philadelphia </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Public School Society of NYC <ul><ul><li>DeWitt Clinton (1769-1828) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New York mayor and governor redefined Jeffersonian ideal for a changing society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped establish the Public School Society of New York </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated free public schools supported by the city itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education as a way to ameliorate the social vices of growing cities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Legacy IV <ul><li>Nonsectarian public schools were essential to encouraging a generalized notion of Christian morality among all Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive to pay for schools now than for prisons later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of church and school </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. New York City in 1850
  17. 17. IDEA V: 1830s to 1900 <ul><li>THE COMMON SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>The great equalizer for an increasingly diverse society </li></ul><ul><li>All children – rich and poor alike – to attend public schools together </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread movement supported by a variety of social reformers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to threat of social fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of moral and cultural decay as the frontier moved west and the economy began to industrialize </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Common School <ul><li>Chief advocate was Horace Mann of Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyer and state legislator (1796-1859) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named first state superintendent of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled the state encouraging support -- one school for all children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for urban and rural society </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The “balance wheel of the social machinery” <ul><li>The common school as the means for turning all – native and foreign-born – into American citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literate, productive, and law-abiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the wealthy, Mann argued that their security depended upon having neighbors who had attended school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the poor, he claimed that education was a means for securing their own prosperity </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Legacy V: the schoolhouse
  21. 21. IDEA VI: 1840s 1950s <ul><li>THE SCHOOLMARM </li></ul><ul><li>Canonization of the female schoolteacher </li></ul><ul><li>Leading advocate was Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) from Connecticut </li></ul><ul><li>Sister of Harriett Beecher Stowe (Uncle Tom’s Cabin) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Women as schoolteachers <ul><li>Contemporaneous with common school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More schools meant more teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s salaries were lower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of teacher education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “normal school” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men remained as principals and administrators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionalizing of their role </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Legacy VI: Another icon
  24. 24. United States in 1850 <ul><li>Schools spread along with population </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast then Midwest were centers for migration and immigration </li></ul><ul><li>New England’s influence on schools spread across the northern tier </li></ul><ul><li>Schools less influential in South </li></ul>
  25. 25. IDEA VII: 1870s on <ul><li>UNITY IN DIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilating the children of immigrants while respecting their ethnic identity </li></ul><ul><li>Addressed in two ways – </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and settlement houses </li></ul><ul><li>“ How can the school fuse all these diverse elements so as to produce the unity essential to a democracy? . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>That can only be attained by spreading intelligence and a sense of responsibility for the control of the social whole.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ella Flagg Young </li></ul><ul><li>(1845-1918) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Schools one solution <ul><li>Ella Flagg Young </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago teacher and superintendent of schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School as social harmonizer </li></ul><ul><li>The school as a matrix of many nations </li></ul><ul><li>Children sit side by side and learn to become citizens and to respect each other </li></ul>
  27. 27. Settlement houses another <ul><li>Hull House in Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1889 as a place for immigrants to learn skills and practice crafts learned in native lands </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Addams (1860-1935) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Art classes and kindergartens
  29. 29. Legacy VII: multiculturalism <ul><li>Americans – both early arrivals and more recent immigrants – began to be comfortable with the idea of a multicultural society </li></ul>
  30. 30. IDEA VIII: 1900s on <ul><li>PROGRESSIVE SCHOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>For a </li></ul><ul><li>PRAGMATIC SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>PRAGMATISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be of value, ideas must have meaning for beneficial human activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROGRESSIVISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wise policies and good schools could improve the lives of average people and society as a whole </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Developing the whole child <ul><li>Leading advocate was John Dewey (1859-1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Author of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My Pedagogic Creed (1896) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School and Society (1900) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child and the Curriculum (1902) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And many other books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established Laboratory School </li></ul>
  32. 32. Progressive Education <ul><li>Debt to ideas from Germany and Britain </li></ul><ul><li>How to present content while engaging student interest </li></ul><ul><li>Educating students to develop their talents while helping them define a productive role for themselves in the broader society </li></ul><ul><li>The activity / occupations method </li></ul>
  33. 33. Legacy VIII <ul><li>The development of the child as an individual became a function of the school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty of doing this well on a large scale – very time-consuming for teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive techniques can interfere with inculcation of essential information </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. IDEA IX: 1950s <ul><li>SCHOOL INTEGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>Black and white children to attend school together </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court in 1954 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed unworkable policy of separate but equal schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to bitter confrontations in the South, but also in Northern cities where segregation a product of residential patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of segregation remain contentious six decades later </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Lead campaign through the courts to end discriminatory practices <ul><li>Thurgood Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>(1908-1993 ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The government they [founding fathers] devised was defective from the start requiring [social transformations to attain] the freedoms and individual rights we hold as fundamental today.” (1987) </li></ul>
  36. 36. But it happened with little deliberate speed <ul><li>School integration often happened only after federal court orders </li></ul><ul><li>At left – a picture that changed a nation’s mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Legacy IX <ul><li>Not only ended state-sponsored discrimination in schools, but led eventually to affirmative action practices to undo legacy of segregation </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government now has an ongoing role in funding schools and in determining what is taught and how </li></ul>
  38. 38. IDEA X <ul><li>MEASUREMENT </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNTABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Role of educational psychology, studies of learning and cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Research an essential aspect of American education </li></ul><ul><li>Leave No Child Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Barack Obama & Arne Duncan
  40. 40. ONGOING LEGACY <ul><li>Is it the student or is it the school that is chiefly responsible for what children learn in the process of education? </li></ul>