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Lait (1996) 76, 303-309
© Elsevier/INRA

304                                       JG Grongnet et al

abondante effectuée très précocement après la naissance, le...
Colostrum,   immunoglobulins    and newborn calf                         305

Table 1. Body weight and sex of 50 newborn...
306                                           JG Grongnet et al

First mi/king       colostrum
     1   1) thawing
J,  ...
Colostrum,    immunoglobulins      and newborn calf                                      307

Table Il. Postnatal evolu...
308                                      JG Grongnet et al

values: always lower than 6 g/L instead of         compositi...
Colostrum,    immunoglobulins   and newborn calf                                  309

praved IgG plasma concentrations i...
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Influence Of Sorne Food Additives On Igg Plasma Concentrations In Newborn Calves Fed An Immunoglobulin Solution Extracted From Colostrum


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Influence Of Sorne Food Additives On Igg Plasma Concentrations In Newborn Calves Fed An Immunoglobulin Solution Extracted From Colostrum

  1. 1. Lait (1996) 76, 303-309 © Elsevier/INRA Original article Influence of sorne food additives on IgG plasma concentrations in newborn calves fed an immunoglobulin solution extracted from colostrum JF Gronqnett, GT Dos Santosè, M Piot3, R Toullec- 1 Laboratoire de sciences animales, Ensar, 65, rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes; 2Universitad Estadual de Maringa, Parana, Brasil; 3Laboratoire de technologie laitière, Inra; 4Laboratoire du jeune ruminant, Inra, 65, rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes, France (Received 6 March 1995 ; accepted 2 November 1995) Summary - A lot of newborn ruminants have no free access to their mother's colostrum, due to various reasons. For them, colostro-replacers are now on the market. These products contain immu- noglobulins but their capacity to pass through the intestinal wall is often doubtful. 50, an experiment has been designed to test the influence of three supplements on the absorption of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum by ultrafiltration. Fifty newborn ca Ives were divided into five groups of ten. The first group received three meals of colostrum, exactly 2, 10, and 18 halter birth. According to the same kinetics, the four other groups received the same amount of immunoglobulins but previously extracted from colostrum and diluted in a saline solution. The diets given to the last three groups were supplemented with isobutyric acid, caseino-macropeptide and colostrum extract, respectively. Immu- noglobulins extracted from colostrum were badly absorbed compared with control colostrum diet. In spite of Iiberal supply of immunoglobulins given soon alter birth, the IgG plasmatic levels of the calves fed immunoglobulin solution remained below what is usually admitled as a good passive immunity. Ali the three additives were unable to improve the immunoglobulins' absorption. calf 1 birth / colostrum 1 immunoglobulin Résumé - Influence de quelques additifs sur les taux plasmatiques d'immunoglobulines G mesurés chez le veau nouveau-né après ingestion d'immunoglobulines extraites de colostrum. De nombreux ruminants nouveau-nés n'ont pas accès au colostrum de leur mère, pour des raisons diverses. À leur intention, des substituts de colostrum sont maintenant commercialisés. Ils sont riches en immunoglobulines, dont l'aptitude à être absorbées par l'intestin du jeune animal, n'est pas soli- dement établie. Nous avons testé l'influence de trois additifs, sur l'absorption des immunoglobulines extraites du colostrum par ultrafiltration. Cinquante veaux nouveau-nés de race Holstein, ont été divisés en cinq groupes de dix. Le premier a reçu trois repas de colostrum 2, 10 et 18 h après la naissance, très exactement. Suivant une cinétique identique, les quatre autres ont reçu la même quantité d'immunoglobulines extraites du colostrum et remises en solution saline. Les régimes des trois derniers lots ont été supplémentés en acide isobutytique, caséino-macropeptide ou extrait pro- téique de colostrum. Les immunoglobulines extraites du colostrum ont été beaucoup moins bien absorbées que les immunoglobulines restées dans leur milieu d'origine. Malgré une administration
  2. 2. 304 JG Grongnet et al abondante effectuée très précocement après la naissance, les concentrations plasmatiques en IgG obtenues sont restées inférieures au taux de 10 g/L qui est habituellement considéré comme néces- saire pour assurer la protection immunitaire du nouveau-né. Les trois additifs testés se sont montrés sans effet positif sur l'absorption des immunoglobulines. veau / naissance / colostrum / immunoglobuline INTRODUCTION be considered but according to Grongnet et al (1986), in such conditions, immuno- Due to the absence of immunoglobulin pla- globulins appear to be poorly absorbed by cental transfer, young ungulates are born the intestine of the newborn calf. That's why agammaglobulinemic (Levieux, 1984) and, an experiment was made to test the ability consequently, are highly sensitive to infec- of some food additives to improve the ab- tions. To protect them, a sufficient amount sorption efficiency of immuglobulins ex- of colostrum weil provided with immunoglo- tracted from colostrum. Three products bulins should be given as soon as possible were used. Two of them, isobutyric acid (lA) (Dardillat et al, 1978). However, for many (Hardy, 1969) and freeze dried colostrum newborn calves, lambs, kids or foals, seve- extract (FOCE) (Balfour and Comline, rai reasons may impair colostrum intake: 1962) have already been favourably tested insufficient production in case of multiple in related conditions. The third one, caseino- births, acute mastitis, lack of adequate ma- macropeptide (CMP) cou Id reduce gastric ternai behaviour mostly at first parturition, secretion (Chernikov et al, 1974), thus limi- etc.These difficulties seem to be smoothed ting abomasal denaturation of immunoglo- out by giving frozen colostrum and more bulins. recently, colostrum replacers, which are essentially issued from the newly estab- ANIMALS, MATERIALS AND METHODS lished colostrum industry. Nevertheless, it is important to be very cautious regarding Animais these nutritional specialities because of low IgG plasma concentrations frequently ob- Fifty newborn Holstein calves (41 male, 9 fe- tained (Zaremba et al, 1993). Drying stand- male) were separated at birth from their dams, ard colostrum collected from farm to farm, housed in individual pens and affected, birth alter birth, by systematic circular permutation leads to products which are olten poorly (table 1)to one of five treatments: colostrum, im- provided with immunoglobulins because munoglobulin solution either alone or sup- farmers are tempted to deliver not only first plemented with lA, CMP or FDCE. Ali the ani- milking colostrum but also those from se- mais were born spontaneously, at term and cond or third milking. In order to preserve without dystocia. Calving was often slightly ac- an adequate concentration of immunoglo- celerated by a mild traction exerted on the fore- bulins, Iiquid reconstitution before sup- limbs of the animais. No chemical compound was used to facilitate parturition. plying the newborn, with a reduced amount of water, is attractive. This is not suitable, resulting in a beverage too viscous to be Diets delivered via a bucket or an artificial teat. First milking colostra were obtained from about Therefore, before drying, removal of the 40 cows of the EN8AR dairy herd. Colostra were major part of fat and other proteins is nee- frozen just after milking, ail thawed, at the end of ded. Extraction of immunoglobulins from the calving season, pooled and frozen again, for colostrum, followed by concentration, may 20% of the total amount, by aliquot fractions
  3. 3. Colostrum, immunoglobulins and newborn calf 305 Table 1. Body weight and sex of 50 newborn calves fed colostrum or immunoglobulin solution. Poids vif et sexe de 50 veaux nouveau-nés alimentés avec du colostrum ou une solution d'immunoglobulines. Diets Bodyweight Male Female (x± sem/kg) Colostrum 42.7±2.2 8 2 Immunoglobulin solution (15) 39.7 ± 2.4 7 3 Immunoglobulin solution + isobutyric acid (0.5%) (15 + lA) 38.3 ± 1.0 7 3 Immunoglobulin solution + caseinornacropeptide (0.4%) (15 + CMP) 43.4 ± 1.4 9 Immunoglobulin solution + freeze dried colostrum extract (15 + FOCE) 39.7±2.2 10 o of 1L. The immunoglobulin solution (15) was pre- 26 halter birth. It was immediately centrifuged pared with the remaining 80%, according to and resulting plasma was frozen at -20 "C till figure 1. Diafiltration was stopped when immu- analysis. IgG concentrations were measured on noglobulin G (lgG) concentration reached the in- a immunonephelemeter Behring for plasma, co- itiai colostrum concentration, ie, 44 g/L. FOCE lostrum and immunoglobulin solution according issued from the first permeate, was prepared to Lebreton et al (1981) with an anti IgG (H + L) during the same technological operations (fig 1), Behring rabbit immunserum. During the extrac- in order to collect ail the low molecular mass tion process, HPLC on gel filtration column (GF soluble proteins, present in colostrum at the be- 250, DuPont) was used in order to control real ginning. Before use, FOCE was added to immu- time the evolution of immunoglobulin concentra- noglobulin solution in a proportion suited to re- tion in the solution. Rectal temperature was store the initial colostrum concentrations. noted before each blood sampling. Anova and Aliquot fractions of colostrum and immunoglo- test were used for statistical analysis. bulin solution were thawed in a warm water bath and supplemented if necessary with lA, CMP or RESULTS FOCE, just before feeding the animais. Exactly 2, 10 and 18 halter birth, the calves were fed either colostrum or one of the immunoglobulin solutions. Weight, vitality, appetite and health The meals were three times delivered at the rate ofcalves of 25 g/kg body weight and given in a bucket fitted with a teat at the bottom. In order to equalize the Vitality was excellent during the whole expe- quantities of immunoglobulin ingested,in case of rimental period except for two animais suffe- carefully recorded obvious inappetence, repeated ring from transient general atony after the se- pressure on the teat to force deglutition or oesoph- cond meal. They recovered about 4 h later. ageal intubation were practised. Colostrum was very weil accepted for the three meals but not the immunoglobulin so- Measurements, analysis and statistics lutions, whose acceptability dependEid on the nature of the additive. Highest refusai Blood was collected in heparinised vials by punc- occurred with isobutyric acid: 30% for the ture of a jugular vein just before each meal and first meal, 80% for the second and 70% for
  4. 4. 306 JG Grongnet et al First mi/king colostrum 1 1) thawing J, 2) dilution 1(2 with 35°C water SKIMMING ==========================================>cream J, skim colostrum 1 -dilution 1/3 with 35°C water J, PRECIPITATION OF CASEIN 1 -by lowering pH at 4.1 with HCI 6N 1 -decanting 10 rnn 1 -restoration of 4.6 pH with NaOH 5N J, SIPHONNING and DE·SLUDGING br CENTRIFUGATION ===>Caseins J, Whey from colostrum J, -CLARIFICATION DY FILTRATION 1 -on Seitz Supra EK frontal filter system J, ULTRAFILTRATION ========================> First permeate 1 1 1 -on Romicon PM 100 ultrafiltration system J, J, First retentate Second permeate f-- ULTRAFILTRATION 1 (to the waste) 1 on Romicon PM 10 J, 1 ultrafiltration system DIA FILTRATION J, 1 -Constant volume batch process Second retentate 1 by introduction of salted water solution 1 1 (KCI : 2.9 g/l ; NaCI : 1.27 g/l) J, 1 -on Romicon PM 100 ultrafiltration system FREEZE DRYING 1 -elimination of most lactose, minerai salts, 1 1 œ-lactalbumin and ~-lactoglobulin. J, J, Freeze-dried Immunoglobulin solution (rS) Colostrum extract (FDCE) Fig 1. Extraction process of immunoglobulin from colostrum. Procédé d'extraction des immunoglobulines à partir du colostrum.
  5. 5. Colostrum, immunoglobulins and newborn calf 307 Table Il. Postnatal evolution of rectal temperature (oC) of 50 newborn calves fed colostrum or immunoglobulin solution (x ± 80). Évolution postnatale de la température rectale (OC) de 50 veaux nouveau-nés alimentés avec du colostrum ou une solution d'immunoglobulines (moyenne ± écart type). Groups Time after birth (h) 2 10 18 26 Colostrum 37.9 ± 0.4 38.2 ± 0.1 38.7±0.1 38.7 ± 0.1 18 38.0 ± 0.4 38.0 ± 0.3 38.2 ± 0.2 38.6 ± 0.2 18+ lA 37.6 ± 0.2 38.0±0.1 38.2 ± 0.2 38.3 ± 0.1 18+CMP 37.8 ± 0.2 38.0 ± 0.1 38.3 ± 0.1 38.7 ± 0.2 18 + FOCE 38.2 ± 0.2 38.0 ± 0.2 38.4 ± 0.2 38.7 ± 0.1 the last. For immunogolulin solution alone, it stabilized thereafter. No significant diffe- was 30, 70, 40% and only 0,30,20% for CMP rences were observed among treatments. and FOCE, respectively. The strict rule used Before the first meal, IgG plasma concen- to affect the animais to the various treat- trations (table III) were below the detection ments, led to slight and non-significant diffe- level of the nephelemeter and considered rences in average weight of the five groups equal to zero. For ail treatments, feeding and to slightly unbalanced sex-ratios. triggered an obvious increase which lasted during the whole experimental period ex- Rectal temperature and IgG plasma cept for lA group which exhibited the same concentrations values at 18 h and 26 h of life. The colos- Rectal temperature (table Il) rose slightly trum group differs strongly from ail the other and significantly from the beginning and groups characterized by dramatically weak Table III. Postnatal evolution of plasma IgG concentrations (g/L) of 50 ca Ives fed colostrum or immunoglobulin solution (x ± 80). Évolution post-natale de la concentration plasmatique en immunoglobulines G de 50 veaux nouveau-nés alimentés avec du colostrum ou une solution d'immunoglobulines (moyenne ± écart type). Groups Time after birth (h) 2 10 18 26 Colostrum 0 5.8 ± 2.6 A 11.0±3.7A 12.8 ± 4.4A 18 0 2.3 ± 0.7Ba 4.2 ± 2.8Bab 5.6 ± 3.7Ba 18+IA 0 1.4 ± 0.9Bb 2.8 ± 1.9Ba 3.3 ± 2.6Bb 18+CMP 0 1.9±1.4Ba 4.2 ± 2.6Bab 4.9 ± 2.8Bab 18+ FOCE 0 2.1 ± 1.2Ba 4.9 ± 1.6Bb 5.6 ± 2.8Ba For every lime, values wilh differenl capilalletters are significantly differenl al P < 0.001; values wilh differenl small letters are significantly differenl al P < 0.05. Pour chaque temps, les valeurs avec des lettres majuscules différentes sont significativement différentes àp <QaJ1 .- les valeurs avec lettres minuscules différentes sont significativement différentes à p < 0,05.
  6. 6. 308 JG Grongnet et al values: always lower than 6 g/L instead of composition of the solution seems to be the 12.8 g/L in colostrum group 26 h after birth. only factor involved in the insufficient ab- sorption. DISCUSSION Additives were ail ineffective. Isobutyric acid was even injurious, disagreeing with A concentration of 44 g/L IgG in the first the results of Hardy (1969) who observed milking colostrum pool used here is weak an improvement with this compound under when compared with 100 g/L recorded by quite similar experimental conditions. CMP Levieux (1984). But his result was obtained is a 64-aminoacid peptide, released in the in Charolais cows producing a scarce but abomasum, following action of chymosin highly concentrated colostrum. Today, in on x-casein. In the preruminant calf, CMP high-producing Holstein cows, 40 to 50 g/L enters rapidly the duodenum (Guilloteau et may be considered as an average (Grongnet, al, 1987). Vasilevskaya et al (1977) estab- unpublished data; Levieux, personal com- lished, in the dog, that CMP injection re- munication). stricted gastric secretions, previously sti- Good general vitality emphasizes that the mulated by histamine or gastrin C-terminal immunoglobulin solution,except for ifs di- tetrapeptide. As reduction of hydrochloric sappointing bad absorption efficiency and secretion, pepsin and other proteases supplemented or not, was harmless, as op- would have a favourable effect on acquisi- posed to the results obtained by Grongnet tion of passive immunity in mammals et al (1986). Similar evolution of rectal tempe- (Chernikov et al, 1974), addition of CMP to rature in ail groups shows that the low amount immunoglobulin solution was attractive but of energy provided by immunoglobulin solu- this hypothesis was not confirmed by the tion did not impair thermoregulation. results presented here. FDCE was tested Colostrum-fed animais exhibit maximal with reference to Balfour and Comline IgG plasma concentrations lower th an (1962). A positive effect was obtained by those recorded in quite similar conditions these authors with a low molecular mass by Grongnet et al (1986) but in agreement protein, from colostral origin but not identi- with Stott et al (1979), Gay et al (1983) and fied. Our negative result seems to indicate enough for ensuring a satisfactory protec- that this component has a molecular mass tion. Taking into account such weak levels below 10 000 kDa, level of eut-off of the registered with the immunoglobulin solu- half-permeable membrane here used to re- tion, it can be said, first of ail, that oeso- tain our FDCE (fig 1). phageal intubation needed by frequent Colostrum has an antitryptic activity, inappetence cannot impair so strongly the exerting probably a protective effect on absorption mechanism. This particular way IgG in the guI. Grongnet et al (1986) have of colostrum administration has been sys- established that this beneficial property tematically and successfully used by some was preserved in an immunoglobulin solu- authors (AI-Jawad and Lees, 1985). Birth tion prepared in the same way as described weight differences can no more be invol- here. Therefore, large differences in ab- ved: they are very small among groups and sorption efficiency do not appear to be re- colostrum-fed animais are neither the hea- lated to variations of antitryptic activity. viest nor the lightest. Besides, influence of Many hypotheses can be advanced to ex- birthweight on Ig absorption has always plain these low IgG plasmatic levels. Lack been recorded as slight or negligible (Be- of energy must be considered. Immunoglo- kele et al, 1992). It is the same for influence bulin solution was free of fat and lactose. of sex (Villette et Levieux, 1981; Donovan Grongnet et al (1986) found that the addi- et al, 1986; Bekele et al, 1992). Finally, the tion of milk powder to such a solution irn-
  7. 7. Colostrum, immunoglobulins and newborn calf 309 praved IgG plasma concentrations in new- Gay CG, McGuire TC, Parish SM (1983) Seasonal va- riation in passive transfer of immunoglobulin G1 to born calves. Secondly, it must be taken into the newborn calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183, 566- account that before joining blood, a great 568 part of IgG is found in the Iymphatic system Grongnet JF, Grongnet-Pinchon E, Levieux D, Piot M, (Kiriyama, 1992), a way also used by lipids. Lareynie J (1986) Newborn calf intestinal absorption This may suggest that IgG leaves the ente- of immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum. Re- prod Nutr Dev26, 731-743 racytes via a mechanism involving lipids. Guilloteau P, Chayvialle JA, Mendy F, Roger L, Toullec Colostrum is a complex biological me- R, Bernard C, Mouats A, Faverdin P (1987) Effet du dium still insufficiently known. Precise phy- CMP sur la sécrétion gastrique et les taux circulants sico-biochemical conditions seem to be d'hormones digestives chez le veau préruminant Reprod Nutr Dev27, 287-288 needed for an efficient IgG transport fram Hardy RN (1969) The influence of specific chemical fac- intestinal lumen to Iymph and blood. Addi- tors in the solvent on the absorption of macromole- tional research is still required to ensure cular substances from the small intestine of the new- valuable utilization of colostrum substitutes born calf. J Physio/204, 607---B32 in field conditions. Kiriyama H (1992) Enzyme Iinked immunosorbent as- say of colostrallgG transported into Iymph and plas- ma in neonatal pigs. Am J Physio/263, R976-980 REFERENCES Lebreton JP, Joisel F, Boutleux S, Lannuzel B, Sauger F (1981) Dosage immunonéphélométrique des im- AI-Jawad AB, Lees JL (1985) Effects of ewe's colostrum munoglobulines G dans le lait de vache. 1. Mise au and various substitutes on the serum immunoglobu- point technique du dosage. Lait 61, 465-480 lin concentration, gut closure process and growth Levieux D (1984) Transmission de l'immunité passive rate of lambs. Anim Prod40,123-127 colostrale: le point des connaissances. In: Physiolo- Balfour WE, Comline RS (1962) Acceleration of the ab- gie et pathologie périnatales chez les animaux de sorption of unchanged globulin in the new-born calf ferme (Jarrige R, ed) INRA, Paris by factors in colostrum. J Physio/160, 234-257 Stott GH, Marx DB, Menefee BE, Nightengale GT Bekele T, Otesile EB, Kasali OB (1992) Influence of pas- (1979) Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves. sively acquired colostral irnrnunity on neonatallamb 1: Period of absorption. J Dairy Sei 62,1632-1638 mortality in Ethiopian highland sheep. Small Rumi- nant Res 9,209-215 Vasilevskaya LS, Stan EY, Chernikov MP, Shlyhin GH Chernikov MP, Stan EY, Shygin GK, Vasilevskaya LS (1977) Inhibitory action of CMP on gastric secretion (1974) Problem of biological activity of CMP (in Rus- stimulated by some humoral components. (in Rus- sian). Vop Pitan 2,21-25 sian). Vop Pitan4, 21-24 Dardillat J, Trillat G, Larvor P (1978) Colostrurn imrnu- Villette Y, Levieux D (1981) Etude de l'influence de l'âge noglobulin concentrations in cows: relationship with de la mère sur la transmission de l'immunité passive their calf mortality and with the colostrum quality of colostrale chez l'agneau. Ann Rech Vet 12,227-232 their female offspring. Ann Rech Vet 9, 375-384 Zaremba W, Guterbock WM, Holmberg CA (1993) Effi- Donovan GA, Badinga L, Collier RJ, Wilcox CJ, Braun cacy of dried colostrum powder in the prevention of RK (1986) Factors influencing passive transfer in disease in neonatal holstein calves. J Dairy Sei 76, dairy calves. J Dairy Sei 69, 754-759 831-836