Plagas que amenazan a las palmas en Puerto rico Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues [email_address] Casa Abierta UPR EEA CID Rio Pied...
Acknowledgment <ul><li>Aixa Ramirez (DAPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Alejandro Segarra (UPR) </li></ul>
The generalist Needed: a New generation of problem solvers John W. MCarthur Jeffrey Sachs The Chronicle  Jun/2009
The Big Fish Eat the Small Ones  by  Peter Brueghel the Elder  ( 1556 ).
Adult coconut palm showing “drought syndrome”  Humacao/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Coconut palm
Coconut damage by  Raoiella
Introduction <ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>The red palm mite (prey) </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoseiid (preda...
Background information <ul><ul><ul><li> Coconuts, bananas and several species of ornamental palms are important componen...
Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Feeding behavior  ----->>>> Stomatal conductance Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Stomatal conductance Mite - feeding behavior 21 days after infestation 1 mite/ cm2 Mite’s stylets Guard cells stomata mmol...
Does the reduction on conductance associated with RPM feeding damage is affecting plant grown? 3 months  after treatment E...
“ Coconut palm” Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Red palm mite damage - Luquillo and Dorado/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Pruning
Coconut and banana
Damage in plantain by  Raoiella
Red palm mite damage in banana Loiza/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica  - red palm mite
Number of  Raoiella indica  mites on the second youngest expanded leaf of different  Musa  spp. hybrids. Data are averaged...
Status of  Raoiella  - Caribbean  2007 Florida (Nov) (Oct) 2009 Brazil  (Roraima) 2007 2008 (May)
October 2006 - First detection  in Puerto Rico and Culebra January 2008 (Source Aphis)
Photographer of bison hides; JR Douglass; 1874 Prey- predator relationships
Prey-predator relationships A -  Amblyseius largoensis  (Muma),  B - Mitochondrial DNA COI fragment, ( C )  Raoiella indic...
Raoiella indica  vs.  Amblyseius largoensis Sampling Unit 10 leaflets/plant ETOH 80% FAO
Total number of arthropods collected 07/08 Average of 10 leaflets/plant Raoiella indica Amblyseius largoensis Thrips Other...
Credits: USDA/ARS
Chemical composition of mite’s drops NMR GC-MS
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Example 2. Palms’ dieback Lethal Yellowing symptoms PCR and Nested PCR detection 1.4Kb
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Real Palm
Example 2. Palms’ dieback
Example 2. Palms’ dieback Insects PCR and Nested PCR detection
Remarks <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Detection/Etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics & interactions </li></ul><ul><l...
New Quarantine  and Invasive Species Center for Excellence Jardin Botánico Sur, Río Piedras Agricultural Experiment Statio...
Birds at Real Palm
Acknowledgment <ul><li>BNDES </li></ul><ul><li>CAPES </li></ul><ul><li>CRB </li></ul><ul><li>CBA  </li></ul><ul><li>CENA/U...
2011 APS-CD & ESA-SEB join meeting March 19-22  San Juan, PR
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Plagas que amenazan a las palmas en Puerto Rico – Dr. José C. Rodrigues

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Plagas que amenazan a las palmas en Puerto Rico – Dr. José C. Rodrigues
Casa abierta EEA - Río Piedras
30 de abril de 2010

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  • Why working in Puerto Rico?
  • 39027 Raoiella indica on Coconut Palm leaves from St. Lucia, West Indies. Dr. Ron Ochoa
  • Because of the mite feeding habits - through the stomata, the stomatal conductance is quickly and drastically affected
  • The mite was described originally from India and here is the status on Caribbean
  • We extrated DNA from single potential predators and were able to recover Raoiella (DNA) from them.
  • We established 10leaflets as sampling unit and notice a positive correlation between Amblyseius and Raoiella
  • We sampled mites all around the islan and determine the temporal dynamics for each place
  • Plagas que amenazan a las palmas en Puerto Rico – Dr. José C. Rodrigues

    1. 1. Plagas que amenazan a las palmas en Puerto rico Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues [email_address] Casa Abierta UPR EEA CID Rio Piedras 2:10-2:50PM April 30’2010
    2. 2. Acknowledgment <ul><li>Aixa Ramirez (DAPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Alejandro Segarra (UPR) </li></ul>
    3. 3. The generalist Needed: a New generation of problem solvers John W. MCarthur Jeffrey Sachs The Chronicle Jun/2009
    4. 4. The Big Fish Eat the Small Ones by Peter Brueghel the Elder ( 1556 ).
    5. 5. Adult coconut palm showing “drought syndrome” Humacao/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    6. 6. Coconut palm
    7. 7. Coconut damage by Raoiella
    8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>The red palm mite (prey) </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoseiid (predator) </li></ul><ul><li>Predator-prey relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Population dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Remarks </li></ul>
    9. 9. Background information <ul><ul><ul><li> Coconuts, bananas and several species of ornamental palms are important components of the nut, fruit and ornamental industries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palms and bananas are an important part of the aesthetic scenario integral to the multi-billion dollar tourist industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Puerto Rico has a unique banana and palm germoplasm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Puerto Rico has a diverse environment, which will allow for natural experiments, i.e. observations of the pest in a range of ecological settings: from sea level to up 1000 meter altitude and climates with 30 to 160 inches of annual precipitation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    11. 11. Feeding behavior ----->>>> Stomatal conductance Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    12. 12. Stomatal conductance Mite - feeding behavior 21 days after infestation 1 mite/ cm2 Mite’s stylets Guard cells stomata mmol/cm2.s
    13. 13. Does the reduction on conductance associated with RPM feeding damage is affecting plant grown? 3 months after treatment Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    14. 14. “ Coconut palm” Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    15. 15. Red palm mite damage - Luquillo and Dorado/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    16. 16. Pruning
    17. 17. Coconut and banana
    18. 18. Damage in plantain by Raoiella
    19. 19. Red palm mite damage in banana Loiza/PR Example 1. Raoiella indica - red palm mite
    20. 20. Number of Raoiella indica mites on the second youngest expanded leaf of different Musa spp. hybrids. Data are averaged for ten replicates. Significance p<0.05. T3 = 3months post infestation
    21. 21. Status of Raoiella - Caribbean 2007 Florida (Nov) (Oct) 2009 Brazil (Roraima) 2007 2008 (May)
    22. 22. October 2006 - First detection in Puerto Rico and Culebra January 2008 (Source Aphis)
    23. 23. Photographer of bison hides; JR Douglass; 1874 Prey- predator relationships
    24. 24. Prey-predator relationships A - Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), B - Mitochondrial DNA COI fragment, ( C ) Raoiella indica DNA sequence __ 400pb A B C
    25. 25. Raoiella indica vs. Amblyseius largoensis Sampling Unit 10 leaflets/plant ETOH 80% FAO
    26. 26. Total number of arthropods collected 07/08 Average of 10 leaflets/plant Raoiella indica Amblyseius largoensis Thrips Others N 20 km
    27. 27. Credits: USDA/ARS
    28. 28. Chemical composition of mite’s drops NMR GC-MS
    29. 29. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    30. 30. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    31. 31. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    32. 32. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    33. 33. Example 2. Palms’ dieback Lethal Yellowing symptoms PCR and Nested PCR detection 1.4Kb
    34. 34. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    35. 35. Real Palm
    36. 36. Example 2. Palms’ dieback
    37. 37. Example 2. Palms’ dieback Insects PCR and Nested PCR detection
    38. 38. Remarks <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Detection/Etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics & interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process & Products </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. New Quarantine and Invasive Species Center for Excellence Jardin Botánico Sur, Río Piedras Agricultural Experiment Station Welcome / Bienvenidos Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues [email_address]
    40. 40. Birds at Real Palm
    41. 41. Acknowledgment <ul><li>BNDES </li></ul><ul><li>CAPES </li></ul><ul><li>CRB </li></ul><ul><li>CBA </li></ul><ul><li>CENA/USP </li></ul><ul><li>CNPq </li></ul><ul><li>CREC/IFAS </li></ul><ul><li>DPI, Florida </li></ul><ul><li>DAPR </li></ul><ul><li>PRDNR </li></ul><ul><li>EMBRAPA </li></ul><ul><li>FAPESP </li></ul><ul><li>FAPEAM </li></ul><ul><li>Fundecitrus </li></ul><ul><li>IAC - CCSM </li></ul><ul><li>INPA </li></ul><ul><li>UN/FAO </li></ul><ul><li>NSF </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Foreign Agricultural Service </li></ul><ul><li>USDA APHIS CPHST </li></ul><ul><li>USDA NIFA </li></ul><ul><li>USDA ARS </li></ul><ul><li>Univ of Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Univ de São Paulo </li></ul><ul><li>Univ do Estado do Amazonas </li></ul><ul><li>Univ of Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>Univ of California </li></ul><ul><li>Petrobras </li></ul>
    42. 42. 2011 APS-CD & ESA-SEB join meeting March 19-22 San Juan, PR

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