-A potentially fatal disease infecting the spleen, liver, and bone marrow-The second most deadly parasite behind Malaria-An epidemic infecting approximately 500,000 people each year-Often accompanies AIDS and malaria-Side effects include fatigue, high fever, weight loss, anemia, and inflammationof infected organs-treatment includes daily vaccinationscontinuous for one month-An urgent concern for the World Health A microscopic image of Kala-Azar Organization, and most recently for thepeople of Sudan
Disturbing examples of side effects and symptoms of Kala-Azar
-A recent outbreak of Kala-Azar has manifested itself in Southern Sudan-Over 6,300 cases of the disease have appeared in the region this year, more than ten times higher than last year and the year before that-In this year alone there have been more than 300 fatalities in Sudan due to contraction of Kala-Azar-The disease is known to spread rapidly throughout impoverishedcommunities whose citizens are malnourished-Sudan has the potential to spread the disease rapidly inside its ownborders, as well as outside them.-The World Health Organization urges immediate action before the virus becomes uncontrollable
Patients suffering from Kala-Azar disease Patients awaiting treatment at arest outside Malakal Hospital, Upper Nile temporary hospital service in Sudan beingState, in Southern Sudan coordinate by Doctors Without Borders
On October 8th 2010, theWorld Health Organization stated in an official reportthat approximately $700,000 was needed to fund the effort to eradicate the virus in Sudan.
Map of Southern Sudan showing the 2 foci of visceral leishmaniasis.Shaded areas represent regions where primary cases were reported. Insetshows location of Sudan in Africa. Shaded areas would be prime locationsfor establishment of medical facilities (Adapted from World HealthOrganization).
Amount of Funds(Minimum) Purpose Provided by Training in specific procedures of medical International Development Agency, International RedUS $70,000 personnel Cross, Doctors Without Borders Additional research of controlling Kala-Azar in International Development Agency, WHO-sponsoredUS $20,000 Sudan research facilities Planning of specific implementation process byUS $10,000 WHO International Development Agency Hosting, conducting, and generating conferencesUS $75,000 with Sudans government International Development Agency Acquiring of nutritional aid and medical International Development Agency, International RedUS $110,000 equipment Cross, Doctors Without Borders Obtaining of materials necessary to construct International Development Agency, International RedUS $90,000 temporatry health facilities Cross, Doctors Without Borders Sustainment of facilities for approximately 9US $95,000 months International Development Agency International Development Agency, International RedUS $100,000 Sustainment of personnel operating in facilities Cross, Doctors Without Borders International Peacekeeping Forces protectingUS $85,000 facilities International Development Agency Transportation of personnel, peacekkepers, WHO International Development Agency, International RedUS $35,000 representatives Cross, Doctors Without Borders Separate emergency allocation in case of fundUS $10,000 shortage for particular purpose International Development AgencyTotal: US $700,000
Commencement of medical training and research Nov./Dec. 2010 preparations.Negotiations initiated with Sudan’s government December 2010Completion of training and research February 2011Completion of legal negotiations Summer 2011Establishment of temporary medical facilities August 2011Sustained WHO presence in area Aug 2011 - May 2012Gradual removal of WHO presence, an estimated September 2012 completion of project
-Training/acquiring of medical personnel-Research for specific implementation precautions-Establishment of temporary health facilities in Sudan-Conferences with The Red Cross and Doctors Without Borders-Negotiations with Sudan’s government over legal concerns-Supplying of nutritional aid for victims-Providing medical equipment and transportation-Protection of WHO operations in Sudan-Sustainment of personnel and facilities
-Reduce an additional danger threatening the people of Sudan-Fight impoverished living conditions for citizens in the region-Prevent the disease from spreading to other nations-Replace death and misery with revival and hope-Provide nutritional and medical aid to people in need-Save civilians from being destroyed from the inside and out by the virus-Restore a healthier environment for the people of Sudan