The Bible was not written in a day or even in just a thousand years... ...rather, it GREW and developed out of the collective experience, learning and faith of a community. We reiterated that
Three words are concealed in the acronym: TANAK. These are the Hebrew names given to the three sections into which the Jewish people divide their Bible. TANAK is to the Jews as Old Testament is to the Christians. It is the acronym often used by the Jewish people to refer to their Bible. It reveals how the Old Testament is divided. Example 1: How people apply their experience and perceptions to sacred text and vice-versa.
4 main sources represented by the letters J E D P Yahwist Elohist Deuteronomist Priestly
NAME In Hebrew, it is called Shemot ( שְׁמוֹת ), based on its first words Ve-eleh shemot ( Hebrew : ואלה שמות ("And these are the names"). The Septuagint designates the second book of the Pentateuch as "Exodus" ( Greek : Ἔ ξοδος ), meaning “a going out”, “a marching out”, “a solemn procession”.
<ul><li>DATE </li></ul><ul><li>When did the events described in this book happen? </li></ul><ul><li>An early date: 15th century (1440) BC - working primarily from a literal reading of Scripture (e.g. 1 Kings 6:1; Judges 11:26) </li></ul><ul><li>A late date: 13th century (1290) BC during the reign of Pharaoh Rameses II (1290-1224 BC) - working primarily from the evidence of archaeological excavations (e.g. the Hyksos) </li></ul>
COMPOSITION The book is based on many ancient traditions- a combination of the J, E. and P sources. It is impossible to say when or by whom these sources were assembled together to form one book. Certainly much later than-- and not by-- Moses.
SUMMARY Based on many ancient traditions about the Israelites’ journey out of slavery in Egypt, initiated by God, to bring his people to the holy Mt. Sinai where he makes a solemn agreement (a.k.a. covenant) with them to be their God. There, in God’s presence, the people accept the gift of the Ten Commandments, pledging themselves to be a faithful and holy people. A special tent (Tabernacle) becomes the manifestation of God’s presence among his people .
The Burning Bush <ul><li>The Call of Moses- refusal, hesitance- a stammer </li></ul><ul><li>God revealing himself -persistence, assurance, fidelity and commitment- revealed name: </li></ul><ul><li>YHWH: “I AM WHO AM”- eternal, always there </li></ul>
Plagues (7:8-11:10) 1. cycle 1: magic for magic (7:8-8:15) 2. cycle 2: nothing on earth (8:16-10:20 3. cycle 3: nothing in heaven (10:21-29) 4. cycle 4: 10th plague announced (11:1-10) Each one of the 10 plagues came with a triple refrain to the Pharaoh: 1- Let my People go. 2- So that you know that I am Yahweh. 3- The Pharaoh hardened his heart, or God hardened it! It was not a contest between Moses and Pharaoh; it was Pharaoh and all the gods of Egypt vs. YHWH, the only God of Israel!
The Passover <ul><li>The central event of the Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>YHWH as the ultimate provider, bringing LIFE where death used to reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Passover symbolic of the Paschal mystery </li></ul>Spotless Lamb Blood Unleavened bread
Why did the Israelites take a circuitous route to Canaan?
Rameses Succoth Etham In front of Pi-hahiroth CROSSING THE SEA Wilderness of Shur -Mara -Elim Wilderness of Sin Rephidim Meribah and Massah Sinai
A pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of cloud by night
Crossing the Red Sea The Red Sea or the Reed Sea? The saga of Pharaoh vs. YHWH continues Another “Passover”-- figure for Baptism
The PRIESTS (Sons of Aaron and descendants of the tribe of Levi)
The Ark of the Covenant The Tabernacle was a sign of YHWH’s presence whenever the Hebrews encamped. The Ark signified His presence whenever the people were on the move. Symbols of YHWH’s enduring and eternal presence.
Guided Reflection The Exodus contains the big story of YHWH’s faithfulness, despite people’s hard-heartedness. It also depicts His persistence in His choices, no matter how fragile or flawed they may be.
In your prayer, reflect on how: God has been faithful and how he has manifested this in your LIFE. Homework
Read: THE BOOKs OF LEVITICUS and DEUTERONOMY. Try to avoid getting bored by all the legal stuff you find! Homework