WHO? traditionally attributed author? WHO? implied author? "John Mark of Jerusalem" (Acts 12:12; 15:37; Col 4:10; Phlm 1:24; 1Pet 5:13) bilingual (Aramaic & Greek) Christian of the 2 nd generation; "young man" of 14:51-52? tax collector & apostle (Mark 3:18; Matt 9:9; 10:3; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13 ) multi-lingual (Aramaic & Greek) early Jewish Christian; trained "scribe"of 13:52? physician & companion of Paul (Col 4:14; 2Tim 4:11; Phlm 1:24 only ) Gentile Christian convert; well educated Greek "historian"; client of Theophilus (1:1-4)? John, son of Zebedee; one of 12 apostles (Mark 1:19;3:17; cf. John 21:2) the "beloved disciple" and his Jewish Christian followers (19:35; 21:20-24)
TO WHOM? implied audience? WHY? community circumstances & author's purpose? mostly Gentiles, fairly new in their faith, and facing persecutions to encourage a group undergoing difficult trials and persecutions better educated Jews who believe in Jesus, but argue over the Law to teach a community with internal divisions and external enemies wealthier Gentile Christians in an urban setting, becoming complacent to challenge believers to put their faith into practice more fully very mixed: mostly Jews, some Gentiles, Samaritans, etc. to strengthen a group ostracized by other Jews for their faith
Genealogy of Jesus 1:1-17 3:23-38 ROYAL LINE BLOOD LINE
Matthew who was deeply rooted in the Jewish traditions, addressed his gospel to the Jews in dispersion around the world who were looking forward to a Messiah. He wanted to show that Jesus was indeed the Messiah as foretold in the scriptures and that he fulfilled all the rigid criteria that were laid down by the scriptures for the three fold anointing of Prophet, Priest and King. Jews were highly conscious of their origin from Abraham
Luke was writing to the gentiles who did not understand the Jewish traditions and customs. Legalism of the Jews and the custom of counting the lineage by legal right whether by levirate marriage or by kinsman-redeemer marriage or even ghost marriage was not understood by outsiders. Hence it is natural for him to adopt the blood relation as the basis of tracing the lineage.
Matthew traces the royal line through Solomon to Joseph. Joseph is the legal heir to the throne of David and as the legal son according to levirate or ghost marriage custom Jesus is the King of the Jews. Thus when Jesus claimed that he is the King of the Jews he was the rightful King in the line of David. Since Jesus is still alive Jesus is the rightful KING OF THE JEWS
Luke on the other hand traces the blood line through another son of David -- Nathan. While Solomon was the heir to the throne, Nathan was the spiritual heir to David.
It is interesting to note that Matthew deviates from the tradition to mention four women in the genealogy of Jesus. Why did Matthew refer to these ill reputed non-Jewish women? MATTHEW’S FOUR WOMEN Tamar Rahab Ruth Bethsheba
It also has the significance that Jesus was not a pure Jew. He was born with the blood of all nations, borrowed from around the world. Jesus belongs to the world. MATTHEW’S FOUR WOMEN It is not only to emphasize that Jesus was not born in a line of saints or sinless people. Matthew emphasizes the fact that Jesus was the son of Eve who was fallen. He was to be born of Eve to be the saviour of mankind.
Birth and Infancy 1:18 - 2:23 1:5 - 2:52 Jesus' heritage: David (royal), Abraham (Jewish), Emmanuel (God with us) parallel birth stories: John the Baptist & Jesus 1:14 incarnation: " Word became flesh and dwelt among us"
Birth and Infancy 1:18 - 2:23 1:5 - 2:52 men: David Joseph Herod Magi power: King of Jews? murder of infants! flight to Egypt women: Elizabeth, Mary divine presence : angels Holy Spirit human witnesses: shepherds Simeon & Anna
Last Words on the Cross 15:34 27:46 22:34 19:26-27 "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” "Father, into your hands I commend my Spirit” "Father, forgive them...” 23:43 23:46 "You will be with me in Paradise" "It is finished” "Woman, behold, your son"; "Behold, your mother" 19:28 19:30 "I am thirsty"
16:1-8 28:1-8 24:1-12 20:1-13 Empty Tomb Story
Last major event 16:1-8 28:16-20 24:50-53 20:19-29 Empty Tomb, outside of Jerusalem Great Commission, on Mountain in Galilee Ascension, from Bethany just East of Jerusalem 21:1-23 disciples & Thomas Peter & Beloved Disciple
Christ/Messiah Son of God Suffering Son of Man Eschatological Judge Son of David & Son of Abraham New Lawgiver Great Teacher (like Moses) Emmanuel; King of Jews a great Prophet (in word & deed); Lord (of all nations); Savior (esp. of the poor) Eternal Logos Divine Word made Flesh Only-begotten Son, sent from Father Passover Lamb; "I Am” ; "Equal to God
miracles overcoming evil powers; arguing with religious authorities teaching disciples; decrying religious hypocrisy healing sick & impaired people; forgiving sinners & debtors speaking God's words; doing God's works; revealing God and himself
persevere in faith despite suffering follow Jesus "on the way" to the cross be ready for his return Discipleship be righteous; forgive always live ethically (Golden Rule) fulfill God's commands, esp. in charitable deeds see, believe, know, remain in Jesus & God, despite hostility love one another; be in unity serve humbly leave everything to follow Jesus share with poor accept everyone, esp. outcasts, women, enemies
imminent and suddenly, but no one knows when; so "Keep awake!" false prophets will arise; many will fall away; Gospel must first be preached to all after Jerusalem is destroyed & Gentiles' time is fulfilled; not so soon; pray! realized eschatology; all who hear & believe have eternal life already now and are not judged Eschatological Expectations 13:1-37 24:10-14 21:20-24,28, 36 5:21-25
whether you persevere in faith despite persecutions what you do for "the least” people Sheep & Goats parable how you use wealth / possessions parables of Rich & Poor whether or not you believe in Jesus Basis for Final Judgment 13:13 25:31-46 16:1-31 3:16-18 5:19-24 12:44-50
Messianic secret: main disciples don’t understand, but minor characters do believe fulfillment of Scripture divisions within the community final separation of good vs. bad fulfillment of God's plan eschatological reversal tax collectors & sinners favored "eternal life" = "life in his name” Paraclete = Holy Spirit Christian unity mutual indwelling of God/Jesus/us Other Major Themes