Wk13 rev 22.6-21


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Wk13 rev 22.6-21

  1. 1. Closing Exhortations (22:6-21)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Revelation 22:6-21 is the formal conclusion to the entire book and it is connected thematically with the introduction 1:1-3 by identifying it as the communication of God given to John. In the introduction there was a blessing for all those who read the book, now we see a curse for those who disobey the message of Revelation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ The epilogue now shows clearly that the purpose of the book is to induce holy obedience among God’s people so that they may receive the reward of salvation” (Beale, Revelation, 1122). </li></ul><ul><li>Poythress adds, “The central, visionary part of Revelation ends with 22:5. Revelation now concludes with promise, exhortation, and confirmation, in order to drive home to our hearts the message of the visions, and to stir up hope for the coming of the Lord Jesus (22:20). The major themes of Revelation continue to be woven into this concluding section” (Poythress, The Returning King, 195). </li></ul>
  4. 4. First Exhortation to Holiness (22:6-7)
  5. 5. 22:6 <ul><li>Verse 6 is the formal conclusion of the vision of the new heavens and earth as well as for the entire book. Again we see the fact that this vision and God’s purpose if faithful and true. </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation 22:6 is also an allusion to Daniel 2:45. As we should recall from the introductory lectures and from chapter 1, Daniel 2 is formative on the structure of the entire book. Just as the dream in Daniel is true and its interpretation is trustworthy, so also the prophetic vision of revelation is true and it has divine authority behind it. </li></ul><ul><li>As Daniel 2 described the establishment of God’s kingdom, here we see Revelation functioning in the same manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The vision is shown to the “servants” and implies that this book has an application to the seven churches (chs. 2-3) as well as to all Christians. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 22:7 <ul><li>The preceding verse has already stated that these things must take place quickly, now we are introduced with the fact that Christ’s coming will be soon. “As in 1:1, the shortness of the time is from the standpoint of the Old Testament prophecy, especially Daniel. Daniel prophesied about things that were distant in time. John prophesies about things that are even now in the process of realization, since the resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ” (Poythress, The Returning King, 195). </li></ul><ul><li>This verse not only refers to Christ’s final second coming, but it also refers to inaugurated comings of Christ in which he visits the church for the purpose of purification. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Second Exhortation to Holiness (22:8-10)
  8. 8. 22:8-9 <ul><li>● John identifies himself as the witness of the book’s revelation. In this sense, John is in a long line of prophets who witnessed God’s covenantal regulations. Just as the OT prophets witnessed to the covenant community, John witness to the covenant community (the church). </li></ul><ul><li>The worship of God is the ultimate main point of Revelation, thus this angel is pointing us toward the most desirable glory in existence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 22:10 <ul><li>Daniel was told to seal up the vision that he had received (Dan. 12:4). “What Daniel prophesied can now be understood because the prophecies have begun to be fulfilled and the latter days have begun. That ‘the words of the prophecy’ are not sealed means that now, at last, the OT end-time prophecies, especially Daniel’s, have begun to be fulfilled and, in the light of that fulfillment, can now be understood better” (Beale, Revelation, 1130). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Third Exhortation to Holiness (22:11-12)
  11. 11. 22:11 <ul><li>Verse 11 is an allusion to Daniel 12:10. Theologically we have no problem with encouraging those who are righteous to continue to be righteous, but what do with do with those who are doing wrong? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ Increasing the difficulty is that Daniel’s statements are a prophecy and so appear to describe a predetermined situation. Commentators try to avoid these difficulties in a number of ways. (1) Some assert that the expressions are not deterministic because humans have free will, and there is always opportunity for anyone to repent until the last judgment. But such an analysis does not correspond well with the OT prophetic background of Rev. 22:11. (2) Wall contends that v 11 ‘refers to the inviolate nature of John’s prophecy such that any response to it, whether obdurate or obedient, does not change its message.’ But this dilutes the full force of the imperatives. John does not say that prophecy will be fulfilled regardless of whether or not people are sinful or righteous. Rather, despite the theological difficulty, the most straightforward reading of the imperatives is that sinners are commanded to continue sinning and the righteous to continue doing righteousness…(3) Hendriksen solves the problem by suggesting that v 11a is the ‘let of withdrawal’ whereby the wicked are no longer to be exhorted to obey God while the ‘let of positive exhortation’ is directed to true believers…(4) Mounce suggests that ‘from the perspective of the Seer the end is so close that there is no longer time to alter the character and habits of men.’…(5) Some propose that the bent of one’s choices forms an unchangeable character, so that the imperatives have the sense of ‘be what you always have been as you face judgment.’…” (Beale, Revelation, 1131-32). Beale concludes by saying that this fits into the “he who has an ear let him hear” formula. In this context unbelievers are encouraged not to hear, and believers are encouraged to hear. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Lack of understanding is part of God’s judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>In John’s day the church has become much like Israel of the OT. They are getting lazy and lethargic. The words of this prophecy are meant to shock the believing into a repent lifestyle; however, there is a negative side to this prophecy. In the same manner that there were some among national Israel who were not true Israel. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 22:12 <ul><li>This verse is the basis for the exhortation in verse 11. Christ is coming quickly. This should be understood as quick unexpected execution of judgment. Quickness could also point to the fact that the second coming is the next major event in salvation history. </li></ul><ul><li>Christ’s reward is with him. This is an allusion to Isa. 40:10 “Behold the Lord comes with strength…Behold, his reward is with him, and the work before him.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fourth Exhortation to Holiness (22:13-17)
  16. 16. 22:13 <ul><li>Revelation has already called God the “Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end” (1:8; 21:6), now John uses this title for Jesus. Christ has the ability to conclude history at his second coming. Therefore, we are right in saying that the climax of prophecy is the person of Christ and not exclusively an event. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 22:14 <ul><li>The metaphor of believers washing their robes comes from 7:14, which relates to believers steadfastness through persecution. </li></ul><ul><li>Literally the saints receive “authority” over the tree of life, they are given power to use its redemptive benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>The images that are combined here together relate to salvation. John is developing OT allusions of the tree of life in the Garden of Eden (Gen 3) and the open gates of Isaiah 62. See also Psalm 118:20. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 22:15 <ul><li>Unbelievers are blocked from entering into the paradise of God. Keener talks about the background of those listed in this verse, ““Dogs” probably refers to the sexually immoral, specifically unrepentant prostitutes (Deut 23:17–18). Elsewhere in Revelation the imperial cult, combined with sorcery, martyrs Christians; immorality (both literal and spiritual) characterized the lifestyle of Gentile men. See also comment on 21:8 and 27; cf. also Genesis 3:24” (Keener, IVP Background Commentary: New Testament). </li></ul><ul><li>This list describes those who say that they are Christians but are not. We have seen similar descriptions in 21:8, 2:7. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside of the city is probably associated with the Lake of fire (21:8). </li></ul>
  19. 19. 22:16 <ul><li>This verse brings us back to the very beginning of the Apocalypse (1:1-2). The revelation of Jesus is not only directed to John, but it is also directed to you (pl. the churches). </li></ul><ul><li>The self-identification of Jesus in this verse echoes back to several identifications throughout Revelation. </li></ul><ul><li>Root and off-spring of David (5:5). </li></ul><ul><li>Bright and morning star (2:28). </li></ul><ul><li>Root of David (Isa. 11:1 and Num 24:17) Messianic reference </li></ul>
  20. 20. 22:17 <ul><li>The bride represents the true people of God who say through the Holy Spirit, Come! </li></ul><ul><li>The image of the bride has been used in Revelation to describe the community of believers in a fully consummated state awaiting their groom (19:7-9; 21:2). However, there is also an application to the present day church and to our own time (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27). In a sense the church today is already the bride but we have not yet experienced the fully consummated marriage </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Only those who have ears to hear can say, “come.” This should draw us back to the original message to the seven churches. In John’s address to each church there was a repeated refrain, “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” Not all who are in the church are really in the church; the privilege of entering into God’s presence (salvation) is for those with spiritual functioning ears. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Before Jesus can give water, the thirsty one must ‘come’ to Jesus. This coming must be an entire life of faith by which one has ‘overcome’ temptations to compromise…Therefore, the exhortations are not an open-ended ‘invitation’ to the world in general but commands to the people of God to persevere. Indeed, the same imagery serves in 21:6-7 to inspire believers to endure and overcome until the end, so that they will receive the reward of ‘water’ and an ‘inheritance’ (cf. similarly the imagery in 7:17)” (Beale, Revelation, 1149). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fifth Exhortation to Holiness (22:18-20)
  23. 23. 22:18-19 <ul><li>Verses 18-19 serve as a new law code for the new Israel. In the OT, God declares that his Torah (law) must be preserved intact. There can be no additions or subtractions from God’s law (Deut. 4:2; 7:32). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Revelation 22:18-19 reminds us that God’s word is holy; it is distinguished from all merely human words. No person is authorized to add or to subtract from the word of God (Deut. 4:2; 12:32; Prov. 30:6; cf. Eccl. 3:14). Revelation underlines its character as the word of God by explicitly prohibiting tampering” (Poythress, The Returning King, 197). </li></ul>
  24. 24. 22:20 <ul><li>There is a legal nature to John’s Revelation. John has been charged to give his witness (1:9) and here we see Jesus giving his witness to these things. Jesus now assures the churches of the veracity of this complete vision and of his final coming. </li></ul><ul><li>“ For the third time in this epilogue the voice of Jesus is heard uttering the promise, ‘I am coming soon’. But here the promise has a new and distinctive note. It stands in the liturgical setting of the eucharist, and is answered by the Eucharistic prayer Maranatha —Come, Lord Jesus (cf. 1 Cor. xvi. 22)” (Caird, The Revelation of St. John, 285). </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Conclusion of the Book (22:21)
  26. 26. 22:21 <ul><li>Revelation began as any typical Greek letter, and it ends in the characteristic fashion of a Greek letter (1 Cor. 16:22). John’s point is that it is his desire that God’s grace will enable the churches to understand and obey what has been written in his letter. </li></ul>