The Gospel Of Luke


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Slides for Jon Kohler's Amarillo College Bible Chair SW World Religions Class, Spring 2010.

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The Gospel Of Luke

  1. 1. “ The Gospel of Luke”
  2. 2. Group Questions from Luke 1:1-4 <ul><li>What is Luke writing about? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the writing process of this Gospel entail? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does he write? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of the name Theophilus? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multi-volume work: Luke-Acts (Acts 1:1)
  4. 4. Authorship: <ul><li>All early evidence points to Paul’s traveling companion…Luke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcion also affirms this: </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Who is Luke? <ul><li>Luke was a well-educated Gentile, a doctor and close friend of Paul (Col 4:14). </li></ul><ul><li>He traveled with Paul extensively and was with him near the end of his life (2 Tim 4:11). </li></ul><ul><li>The sections in Acts where Luke becomes part of his own narrative are easily indicated by the “we” statements. (Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-21:18; 27:1-28:16). </li></ul><ul><li>Luke is mentioned in two epistles that were written from Rome (Col 4:14; Phlm 24). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Date: <ul><li>It is believed that Luke was written before Acts… </li></ul><ul><li>Acts was probably written before A.D. 62, 63 </li></ul><ul><li>The book of Acts ends with Paul’s first stay in prison, and Rome is still at peace. This would date the book before Nero’s persecutions in A.D. 64. </li></ul><ul><li>Luke was probably written in the late 50s or early 60s. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critical scholarship and the Date: <ul><li>Critical scholars look at the prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem by Jesus and say that it is too precise to be “prophecy.” (Lk 19:43, 44; 21:20-24). </li></ul><ul><li>Another argument based on the primacy of Mark is that Luke used it and that it should be dated to roughly the same time as Matthew. </li></ul><ul><li>The theology of Luke reflects a Catholicism that would have been late. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Place of Writing: <ul><li>Most likely places would be Greece, Caesarea, Alexandria, or Rome </li></ul><ul><li>It was intended for Christians who had a pagan background. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Outline: <ul><li>Prologue (1:1-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus’ Early years (1:5-2:52) </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus in Galilee (3:1-9:50) </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus in route to Jerusalem (9:51-19:27 </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus in Jerusalem (19:28-24:53). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Purpose and Characteristics: <ul><li>He wants Theophilus to know that faith in Jesus rests on historical facts that stand up under the most sever scrutiny, by firsthand testimony. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Major themes: <ul><li>God’s Universal Work: “…his concern with the disadvantaged in society, the poor and outcast, women, children, Samaritans, and Gentiles, all of whom are seen in Luke’s writings as the special objects of God’s concern.” Ladd, 237. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Luke’s genealogy goes back to Adam (3:38). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angels announcement was peace for all on whom God’s favor rests (2:14). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is a light of revelation for the Gentiles (2:32). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luke records the OT Gentiles who experienced God’s grace (the widow of Zarephath and Naaman the Syrian 4:25-27; 1 ki 17:8-24; 2 Ki 5:1-14). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen of the south and the men of Nineveh (Gentiles) who had spiritual discernment (11:31-32). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Samaritan who is hated by the Jews is accepted (10:25-37). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel is the means that God used to reach the nations. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Themes: Jesus as Savior of the World. <ul><ul><ul><li>Angel announcements (2:11) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus’ last appearance on earth (24:46-47). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is the only one who can provide forgiveness of sins (Luke 5:21; Acts 4:12). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus in the synagogue in Nazerath reading from Isaiah the Prophet (Lk 4:18-19). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus preached the Good news. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus resolutely sets out for Jerusalem…he has a great mission which is accomplished in and through the cross (Lk 9ff). Transfiguration: theophany scene, exodus, deliverance…death </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Themes: Events of Jesus’ Early life. <ul><ul><ul><li>Luke has more interest in Jesus’ early life than any other gospel. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fact that Elizabeth is Mary’s relative (1:36). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annunciation to Mary (1:26-38) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visit to Elizabeth (1:39-45), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Magnificat of Mary (1:46-55). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth and childhood of John (1:57-80) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The coming of the shepherds and the angelic announcement (2:8-20) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision of Jesus (2:21) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Jesus in the Temple (2:22-24) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Praise of Simeon and Anna (2:25-38) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthetical comments about Jesus’ childhood (2:40, 51-52; cf. 1 Sam 2:26) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The trip to Jerusalem as a boy (2:41-50). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Place of Women in Jesus’ Ministry <ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is exceptional for the way that he treated women. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anna in the temple (2:36-38) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widow’s son at Nain (7:11-17) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Magdalene (8:1-3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mary and Martha (10:38-42) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healing of a crippled woman (13:10-17) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Ministry of the Holy Spirit. <ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Spirit overshadows Mary at the inception (1:35) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John the Baptist is filled with the Holy Spirit (1:15), so was his mother Elizabeth (1:41), and his father Zechariah (1:67). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simeon was guided by the Spirit (2:25-27) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is the Mediator of the Holy Spirit to the world (3:16). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus was endowed with the Spirit in a special way at his Baptism (3:22)…from then on Jesus’ life is characterized by the power of the Holy Spirit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus left the baptism filled with the Holy Spirit (4:1). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Spirit led him into the wilderness (4:1) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Ministry of the Holy Spirit. <ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus returned to Galilee in the Power of the Spirit (4:14) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus began his ministry as the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy about the Spirit of the Lord who would anoint God’s special servant (4:18; Isa 61:1-2). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus lived his life full of Joy though the Holy Spirit (10:21) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus promised the Holy Spirit as God’s supreme Gift, who will supply our deepest needs (11:13; 12:12). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus warns of the dire consequences of blaspheming the Holy Spirit (12:10). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts shows the power of the Spirit in the followers of Jesus (1:2, 5, 8, 16; 2:4, 17, 18, 33, 38). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Reversal of kingdom values <ul><ul><ul><li>Seek and save the lost (19:10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax collectors are welcomed in the kingdom (5:27-32; 19:1-10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little children are welcomed (18:15) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The wealthy elite will not come in (18:18-30; 27) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shepherds (social outcast) have a place in the kingdom (2:8-20) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Reversal of kingdom values <ul><ul><ul><li>Home town will not accept him (4:14-30) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man with Leprosy is welcome (5:12-16) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A centurion is welcome in the kingdom (7:1-10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus honors the humble while being anointed by a sinful woman (7:36-50) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The least is the greatest in the kingdom (9:46-48) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. (Luke 22:47-62)