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MODULE- 3



Diversion head works


              Prepared by
         Bibhabasu Mohanty
       Dept. of Civil Engineering
Content…
 Types- selection of the suitable site for the
 diversion headwork components of diversion
 headwork- Causes of failure of structure on
 pervious foundation- Khosla’s theory- Design of
 concrete sloping glacis weir.
Introduction…

Any hydraulic structure which supplies water to
 the off-taking canal is called a headwork.

  Headwork may be divided into two
    1. Storage headwork.
    2. Diversion headwork.
Storage head works
 Dam is constructed across a river valley to
 form storage reservoir, known as storage head
 works.
 Water is supplied to the canal from this
 reservoir through canal regulator.
 These serves for multipurpose function like
 hydro- electric power generation, flood control,
 fishery.
Diversion head works

 Weir or barrage is constructed across a
 perennial river to raise water level and to divert
 the water to canal, is known as diversion head
 work.

 Flow of water in the canal is controlled by
 canal head regulator.
Objective of diversion head work
 It raises the water level on its upstream side.
 It regulates the supply of water into canals.
 It controls the entry of silt into canals
 It creates a small pond (not reservoir) on its
 upstream and provides some pondage.
 It helps in controlling the fluctuation of water
 level in river during different seasons.
Site selection for diversion head work
 The river section at the site should be narrow
 and well-defined.
 The river should have high, well-defined, in
 erodible and non-submersible banks so that the
 cost of river training works is minimum.
 The canals taking off from the diversion head
 works should be quite economical and
 Should have a large commanded area.
 There should be suitable arrangement for the
 diversion of river during construction.

The site should be such that the weir (or
 barrage) can be aligned at right angles to the
 direction of flow in the river.

 There should be suitable locations for the
 under sluices, head regulator and other
 components of the diversion head works.
 The diversion head works should not
 submerge costly land and property on its
 upstream.
 Good foundation should be available at the
 site.
 The required materials of construction should
 be available near the site.
 The site should be easily accessible by road or
 rail.
 The overall cost of the project should be a
 minimum.
Components of a diversion headwork
 Weir or barrage
 Undersluices
 Divide wall
 Fish ladder
 Canal head regulator
 Silt excluders/ Silt prevention devices
 River training works (Marginal bunds and
 guide banks)
Weir
 Normally the water level of any perennial river is such
 that it cannot be diverted to the irrigation canal.
 The bed level of the canal may be higher than the
 existing water level of the river.
 In such cases weir is constructed across the river to
 raise the water level.
 Surplus water pass over the crest of weir.
 Adjustable shutters are provided on the crest to raise
 the water level to some required height.
Barrage

 When the water level on the up stream side of
 the weir is required to be raised to different
 levels at different time, barrage is constructed.

 Barrage is an arrangement of adjustable gates
 or shutters at different tires over the weir.
Barrage                                Weir
Low set crest                          High set crest
Ponding is done by means of gates      Ponding is done against the raised
                                       crest or partly against crest and partly
                                       by shutters
Gated over entire length               Shutters in part length
Gates are of greater height            Shutters are of smaller height, 2 m
Perfect control on river flow          No control of river in low floods
High floods can be passed with         Excessive afflux in high floods
minimum afflux
Less silting upstream due to low set   Raised crest causes silting upstream
crest
Longer construction period             Shorter construction period
Silt removal is done through under     No means for silt disposal
sluices
Costly structure                       Relatively cheaper structure
Under sluices

 Also known as scouring sluices.
 The under sluices are the openings provided
  at the base of the weir or barrage.
 These openings are provided with adjustable
  gates. Normally, the gates are kept closed.
 The suspended silt goes on depositing in front
  of the canal head regulator.
 When the silt deposition becomes appreciable
  the gates are opened and the deposited silt is
  loosened with an agitator mounting on a boat.

 The muddy water flows towards the
  downstream through the scouring sluices.

 The gates are then closed. But, at the period
  of flood, the gates are kept opened.
Divide wall
 The divide wall is a long wall constructed at
 right angles in the weir or barrage, it may be
 constructed with stone masonry or cement
 concrete.
On the upstream side, the wall is extended just
 to cover the canal head regulator and on the
 downstream side, it is extended up to the
 launching apron.
The functions of the divide wall are as follows:

To form a still water pocket in front of the canal head
 so that the suspended silt can be settled down which
 then later be cleaned through the scouring sluices from
 time to time.
 It controls the eddy current or cross current in front
 of the canal head.
 It provides a straight approach in front of the canal
 head.
 It resists the overturning effect on the weir or barrage
 caused by the pressure of the impounding water.
Fish ladder
 The fish ladder is provided just by the side of the
 divide wall for the free movement of fishes.
 Rivers are important source of fishes.
 The tendency of fish is to move from upstream to
 downstream in winters and from downstream to
 upstream in monsoons.
 This movement is essential for their survival.
 Due to construction of weir or barrage, this
 movement gets obstructed, and is detrimental to
 the fishes.
In the fish ladder, the fable walls are constructed in
 a zigzag manner so that the velocity of flow within
 the ladder does not exceed 3 m/sec.
 The width, length and height of the fish ladder
 depend on the nature of the river and the type of
 the weir or barrage.
Canal head regulator
 A structure which is constructed at the head of
 the canal to regulate flow of water is known as
 canal head regulator.
It consists of a number of piers which divide
 the total width of the canal into a number of
 spans which are known as bays.
The piers consist of number tiers on which the
 adjustable gates are placed.
The gates are operated form the top by suitable
 mechanical device.

 A platform is provided on the top of the piers
 for the facility of operating the gates.

 Again some piers are constructed on the down
 stream side of the canal head to support the
 roadway.
Functions of Canal Head Regulator

It regulates the supply of water entering the
 canal

 It controls the entry of silt in the canal

 It prevents the river-floods from entering the
 canal
Silt regulation works
 The entry of silt into a canal, which takes off
 from a head works, can be reduced by
 constructed certain special works, called silt
 control works.
These works may be classified into the
 following two types:
          (a) Silt Excluders
          (b) Silt Ejectors
Silt Excluders
 Silt excluders are those works which are
  constructed on the bed of the river, upstream of
  the head regulator.
 The clearer water enters the head regulator
  and silted water enters the silt excluder.
 In this type of works, the silt is, therefore,,
  removed from the water before in enters the
  canal.
Silt Ejectors

Silt ejectors, also called silt extractors, are those
 devices which extract the silt from the canal
 water after the silted water has travelled a
 certain distance in the off-take canal.

These works are, therefore, constructed on the
 bed of the canal, and little distance downstream
 from the head regulator.
River training works
River training works are required near the weir site in
  order to ensure a smooth and an axial flow of water,
  and thus, to prevent the river from outflanking the
  works due to a change in its course.
 The river training works required on a canal headwork
  are:
         (a) Guide banks
         (b) Marginal bunds
         (c) Spurs or groynes
Guide Bank
When a barrage is constructed across a river which
 flows through the alluvial soil, the guide banks must
be constructed on both the approaches to protect the
 structure from erosion.
Guide bank serves the following purposes:
 It protects the barrage from the effect of scouring and
 erosion.
 It provides a straight approach towards the barrage.
 It controls the tendency of changing the course of the
 river.
 It controls the velocity of flow near the structure.
Marginal Bunds
The marginal bunds are earthen embankments
 which are constructed parallel to the river bank
 on one or
both the banks according to the condition. The
 top width is generally 3 m to 4 m. The side
 slope on the
river side is generally 1.5: 1 and that on the
 country side is 2:1.
The marginal bunds serve the following
  purposes:
It prevents the flood water or storage water
 from entering the surrounding area which may
 be submerged or may be water logged.
It retains the flood water or storage water within
 a specified section.
It protects the towns and villages from
 devastation during the heavy flood.
It protects valuable agricultural lands.
Causes of failure of structure
 Irrigation structures (or hydraulic structures)
 for the diversion and distribution works are
 weirs, barrages, head regulators, distributary
 head regulators, cross regulators, cross-drainage
 works, etc.

 These structures are generally founded on
 alluvial soils which are highly pervious.
 These soils are easily scoured when the high
 velocity water passes over the structures.
 The failures of weirs constructed on the
 permeable foundation may occur due to
 various causes, which may be broadly classified
 into the following two categories:

     1. Failure due to- subsurface flow

     2. Failure due to surface flow
1. Failure due to- subsurface flow
(a) Failure by Piping or undermining
 water from the upstream side continuously percolates
 through the bottom of the foundation and emerges at
 the downstream end of the weir or barrage floor.
 The force of percolating water removes the soil
 particles by scouring at the point of emergence.
As the process of removal of soil particles goes on
 continuously, a depression is formed which extends
 backwards towards the upstream through the bottom
 of the foundation.
 A hollow pipe like formation thus develops
 under the foundation due to which the weir or
 barrage may fail by subsiding.
 This phenomenon is known as failure by
 piping or undermining.
(b) Failure by Direct uplift

The percolating water exerts an upward
 pressure on the foundation of the weir or
 barrage.
 If this uplift pressure is not counterbalanced by
 the self weight of the structure, it may fail by
 rapture.
2. Failure due to- surface flow
(a) By hydraulic jump
 When the water flows with a very high velocity
  over the crest of the weir or over the gates of
  the barrage, then hydraulic jump develops.
This hydraulic jump causes a suction pressure
  or negative pressure on the downstream side
  which acts in the direction uplift pressure.
If the thickness of the impervious floor is
  sufficient, then the structure fails by rapture.
(b) By scouring
 During floods, the gates of the barrage are kept
  open and the water flows with high velocity.
 The water may also flow with very high velocity
  over the crest of the weir.
Both the cases can result in scouring effect on
  the downstream and on the upstream side of
  the structure.
 Due to scouring of the soil on both sides of the
  structure, its stability gets endangered by
  shearing.
Design aspects
(a)Subsurface flow
1. The structure should be designed such that the
  piping failure does not occur due to subsurface
  flow.
2. The downstream pile must be provided to
  reduce the exit gradient and to prevent piping.
3. An impervious floor of adequate length is
  provided to increase the path of percolation
  and to reduce the hydraulic gradient and the
  seepage force.
4. The seepage path is increased by providing
  piles and impervious floor to reduce the uplift
  pressure.
5. The thickness of the floor should be sufficient
  to resist the uplift pressure due to subsurface
  flow.
6. A suitably graded inverted filter should be
  provided at the downstream end of the
  impervious floor to check the migration of soil
  particles along with water. The filter layer is
  loaded with concrete blocks.
(b) Surface flow
1. The piles (or cut-off walls) at the upstream and
  downstream ends of the impervious floor
  should be provided upto the maximum scour
  level to protect the main structure against scour.
2. The launching aprons should be provided at
  the upstream and downstream ends to provide
  a cover to the main structure against scour.
3. A device is required at the downstream to
  dissipate energy. For large drops, hydraulic
  jump is used to dissipate the energy.
4. Additional thickness of the impervious floor is
  provided at the point where the hydraulic jump
  is formed to counterbalance the suction
  pressure.
5. The floor is constructed as a monolithic
  structure to develop bending resistance (or
  beam action) to resist the suction pressure.
Khosla’s theory
 Many of the important hydraulic structures,
 such as weirs and barrage, were designed on the
 basis of
 Bligh’s theory between the periods 1910 to
 1925.
 In 1926 – 27, the upper Chenab canal siphons,
 designed on Bligh’s theory, started posing
 undermining troubles.
Investigations started, which ultimately lead to
 Khosla’s theory.
Following are some of the main points
  from Khosla's Theory.
1. Outer faces of end sheet piles were much
   more effective than the inner ones and the
   horizontal length of the floor.
2. Intermediated piles of smaller length were
   ineffective except for local redistribution of
   pressure.
3. Undermining of floor started from tail end.
4. It was absolutely essential to have a reasonably
  deep vertical cut off at the downstream end to
  prevent undermining.
5. Khosla and his associates took into account the
  flow pattern below the impermeable base of
  hydraulic structure to calculate uplift pressure
  and exit gradient.
6. Seeping water below a hydraulic structure does
  not follow the bottom profile of the impervious
  floor as stated by Bligh but each particle traces
  its path along a series of streamlines.
Method of independent variable
 Most designs do not confirm to elementary
 profiles (specific cases).
 In actual cases we may have a number of piles
 at upstream level, downstream level and
 intermediate points and the floor also has some
 thickness.
 Khosla solved the actual problem by an
 empirical method known as method of
 independent variables.
 This method consists of breaking up a complex
 profile into a number of simple profiles, each of
 which is independently amiable to mathematical
 treatment.
 Then apply corrections due to thickness of
 slope of floor.
 As an example the complex profile shown in fig
 is broken up to the following simple profile and
 the pressure at Key Points obtained.
Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at
 upstream ends.
Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at
 downstream end.
Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at
 intermediate points.
The pressure is obtained at the key points by
 considering the simple profile.
 For the determination of seepage below the
  foundation of hydraulic structure developed the
  method of independent variable.
 In this method, the actual profile of a weir which is
  complex, is divided into a number simple profiles,
  each of which cab be solved mathematically without
  much difficulty.
The most useful profile considered are:
  (i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness
  provided with a sheet pile at the upstream end or a
  sheet pile at the downstream end.
 (ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed,
  but without any vertical cut-off.
Intermediate point
The mathematical solution of the flow-nets of the
 above profiles have been given in the form of curves.
From the curves, percentage pressures at various key
 points E, C be determined. The important points to
 note are:
Junctions of pile with the floor on either side{E, C
 (bottom), E1, C1 (top) }
Bottom point of the pile (D), and
Junction of the bottom corners (D, D’) in case of
 depressed floor
 The percentage pressures at the key points of a
simple forms will become valid for any complex profile,
provided the following corrections are effected:
       correction for mutual interference of piles
       correction for the thickness of floor
       correction for slope of the floor.
Correction for Mutual Interference of Piles
 Let b1 = distance between the two piles 1 and
 2, and
 D = the depth of the pile line (2), the influence
 of which on the neighbouring pile (1) of depth
 d must be determined
 b = total length of the impervious floor
 c = correction due to interference.
 The correction is applied as a percentage of
 the head



This correction is positive when the point is considered
to be at the rear of the interfering pile and negative for
points considered in the forward or flow direction with
the interfering pile.
Correction for Floor Thickness
 Standard profiles assuming the floors as having
 negligible thickness.
 Hence the values of the percentage pressures
 computed from the curves corresponds to the top
 levels (E1*, C1*) of the floor.
 However, the junction points of the floor and pile are
 at the bottom of the floor (E1, C1)
 The pressures at the actual points E1 and C1
 are interpolated by assuming a straight line
 variation in pressures from the points E1* to
 D1 and from D1 to C1.

 The corrected pressures at E1 should be less
 than the computed pressure t E1*. Therefore
 the correction for the pressure at E1 will be
 negative. And so also is for pressure at C1.
Correction for Slope of Floor
 A correction for a sloping impervious floor is
 positive for the down slope in the flow direction
 and negative for the up slope in the direction of
 flow.
 The correction factor must be multiplied by
 the horizontal length of the slope and divided
 by the distance between the two poles between
 which the sloping floor exists.
Exit gradient (GE)
 It has been determined that for a standard
 form consisting of a floor length (b) with a
 vertical cut-off of depth (d), the exit gradient at
 its downstream end is given by:



Values of safe exit gradient may be
taken as:
0.14 to 0.17 for fine sand
0.17 to 0.20 for coarse sand
0.20 to 0.25 for shingle
Diversion Headworks Components and Design

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Diversion Headworks Components and Design

  • 1. MODULE- 3 Diversion head works Prepared by Bibhabasu Mohanty Dept. of Civil Engineering
  • 2. Content… Types- selection of the suitable site for the diversion headwork components of diversion headwork- Causes of failure of structure on pervious foundation- Khosla’s theory- Design of concrete sloping glacis weir.
  • 3. Introduction… Any hydraulic structure which supplies water to the off-taking canal is called a headwork. Headwork may be divided into two 1. Storage headwork. 2. Diversion headwork.
  • 4. Storage head works  Dam is constructed across a river valley to form storage reservoir, known as storage head works.  Water is supplied to the canal from this reservoir through canal regulator.  These serves for multipurpose function like hydro- electric power generation, flood control, fishery.
  • 5. Diversion head works  Weir or barrage is constructed across a perennial river to raise water level and to divert the water to canal, is known as diversion head work.  Flow of water in the canal is controlled by canal head regulator.
  • 6. Objective of diversion head work  It raises the water level on its upstream side.  It regulates the supply of water into canals.  It controls the entry of silt into canals  It creates a small pond (not reservoir) on its upstream and provides some pondage.  It helps in controlling the fluctuation of water level in river during different seasons.
  • 7. Site selection for diversion head work  The river section at the site should be narrow and well-defined.  The river should have high, well-defined, in erodible and non-submersible banks so that the cost of river training works is minimum.  The canals taking off from the diversion head works should be quite economical and  Should have a large commanded area.
  • 8.  There should be suitable arrangement for the diversion of river during construction. The site should be such that the weir (or barrage) can be aligned at right angles to the direction of flow in the river.  There should be suitable locations for the under sluices, head regulator and other components of the diversion head works.
  • 9.  The diversion head works should not submerge costly land and property on its upstream.  Good foundation should be available at the site.  The required materials of construction should be available near the site.  The site should be easily accessible by road or rail.  The overall cost of the project should be a minimum.
  • 10. Components of a diversion headwork  Weir or barrage  Undersluices  Divide wall  Fish ladder  Canal head regulator  Silt excluders/ Silt prevention devices  River training works (Marginal bunds and guide banks)
  • 11.
  • 12. Weir  Normally the water level of any perennial river is such that it cannot be diverted to the irrigation canal.  The bed level of the canal may be higher than the existing water level of the river.  In such cases weir is constructed across the river to raise the water level.  Surplus water pass over the crest of weir.  Adjustable shutters are provided on the crest to raise the water level to some required height.
  • 13.
  • 14. Barrage  When the water level on the up stream side of the weir is required to be raised to different levels at different time, barrage is constructed.  Barrage is an arrangement of adjustable gates or shutters at different tires over the weir.
  • 15.
  • 16. Barrage Weir Low set crest High set crest Ponding is done by means of gates Ponding is done against the raised crest or partly against crest and partly by shutters Gated over entire length Shutters in part length Gates are of greater height Shutters are of smaller height, 2 m Perfect control on river flow No control of river in low floods High floods can be passed with Excessive afflux in high floods minimum afflux Less silting upstream due to low set Raised crest causes silting upstream crest Longer construction period Shorter construction period Silt removal is done through under No means for silt disposal sluices Costly structure Relatively cheaper structure
  • 17. Under sluices  Also known as scouring sluices.  The under sluices are the openings provided at the base of the weir or barrage.  These openings are provided with adjustable gates. Normally, the gates are kept closed.  The suspended silt goes on depositing in front of the canal head regulator.
  • 18.  When the silt deposition becomes appreciable the gates are opened and the deposited silt is loosened with an agitator mounting on a boat.  The muddy water flows towards the downstream through the scouring sluices.  The gates are then closed. But, at the period of flood, the gates are kept opened.
  • 19.
  • 20. Divide wall  The divide wall is a long wall constructed at right angles in the weir or barrage, it may be constructed with stone masonry or cement concrete. On the upstream side, the wall is extended just to cover the canal head regulator and on the downstream side, it is extended up to the launching apron.
  • 21. The functions of the divide wall are as follows: To form a still water pocket in front of the canal head so that the suspended silt can be settled down which then later be cleaned through the scouring sluices from time to time.  It controls the eddy current or cross current in front of the canal head.  It provides a straight approach in front of the canal head.  It resists the overturning effect on the weir or barrage caused by the pressure of the impounding water.
  • 22. Fish ladder  The fish ladder is provided just by the side of the divide wall for the free movement of fishes.  Rivers are important source of fishes.  The tendency of fish is to move from upstream to downstream in winters and from downstream to upstream in monsoons.  This movement is essential for their survival.  Due to construction of weir or barrage, this movement gets obstructed, and is detrimental to the fishes.
  • 23. In the fish ladder, the fable walls are constructed in a zigzag manner so that the velocity of flow within the ladder does not exceed 3 m/sec.  The width, length and height of the fish ladder depend on the nature of the river and the type of the weir or barrage.
  • 24.
  • 25. Canal head regulator  A structure which is constructed at the head of the canal to regulate flow of water is known as canal head regulator. It consists of a number of piers which divide the total width of the canal into a number of spans which are known as bays. The piers consist of number tiers on which the adjustable gates are placed.
  • 26. The gates are operated form the top by suitable mechanical device.  A platform is provided on the top of the piers for the facility of operating the gates.  Again some piers are constructed on the down stream side of the canal head to support the roadway.
  • 27. Functions of Canal Head Regulator It regulates the supply of water entering the canal  It controls the entry of silt in the canal  It prevents the river-floods from entering the canal
  • 28.
  • 29. Silt regulation works  The entry of silt into a canal, which takes off from a head works, can be reduced by constructed certain special works, called silt control works. These works may be classified into the following two types: (a) Silt Excluders (b) Silt Ejectors
  • 30. Silt Excluders  Silt excluders are those works which are constructed on the bed of the river, upstream of the head regulator.  The clearer water enters the head regulator and silted water enters the silt excluder.  In this type of works, the silt is, therefore,, removed from the water before in enters the canal.
  • 31. Silt Ejectors Silt ejectors, also called silt extractors, are those devices which extract the silt from the canal water after the silted water has travelled a certain distance in the off-take canal. These works are, therefore, constructed on the bed of the canal, and little distance downstream from the head regulator.
  • 32. River training works River training works are required near the weir site in order to ensure a smooth and an axial flow of water, and thus, to prevent the river from outflanking the works due to a change in its course.  The river training works required on a canal headwork are: (a) Guide banks (b) Marginal bunds (c) Spurs or groynes
  • 33. Guide Bank When a barrage is constructed across a river which flows through the alluvial soil, the guide banks must be constructed on both the approaches to protect the structure from erosion. Guide bank serves the following purposes:  It protects the barrage from the effect of scouring and erosion.  It provides a straight approach towards the barrage.  It controls the tendency of changing the course of the river.  It controls the velocity of flow near the structure.
  • 34. Marginal Bunds The marginal bunds are earthen embankments which are constructed parallel to the river bank on one or both the banks according to the condition. The top width is generally 3 m to 4 m. The side slope on the river side is generally 1.5: 1 and that on the country side is 2:1.
  • 35. The marginal bunds serve the following purposes: It prevents the flood water or storage water from entering the surrounding area which may be submerged or may be water logged. It retains the flood water or storage water within a specified section. It protects the towns and villages from devastation during the heavy flood. It protects valuable agricultural lands.
  • 36. Causes of failure of structure  Irrigation structures (or hydraulic structures) for the diversion and distribution works are weirs, barrages, head regulators, distributary head regulators, cross regulators, cross-drainage works, etc.  These structures are generally founded on alluvial soils which are highly pervious.
  • 37.  These soils are easily scoured when the high velocity water passes over the structures.  The failures of weirs constructed on the permeable foundation may occur due to various causes, which may be broadly classified into the following two categories: 1. Failure due to- subsurface flow 2. Failure due to surface flow
  • 38. 1. Failure due to- subsurface flow (a) Failure by Piping or undermining  water from the upstream side continuously percolates through the bottom of the foundation and emerges at the downstream end of the weir or barrage floor.  The force of percolating water removes the soil particles by scouring at the point of emergence. As the process of removal of soil particles goes on continuously, a depression is formed which extends backwards towards the upstream through the bottom of the foundation.
  • 39.  A hollow pipe like formation thus develops under the foundation due to which the weir or barrage may fail by subsiding.  This phenomenon is known as failure by piping or undermining.
  • 40. (b) Failure by Direct uplift The percolating water exerts an upward pressure on the foundation of the weir or barrage.  If this uplift pressure is not counterbalanced by the self weight of the structure, it may fail by rapture.
  • 41. 2. Failure due to- surface flow (a) By hydraulic jump  When the water flows with a very high velocity over the crest of the weir or over the gates of the barrage, then hydraulic jump develops. This hydraulic jump causes a suction pressure or negative pressure on the downstream side which acts in the direction uplift pressure. If the thickness of the impervious floor is sufficient, then the structure fails by rapture.
  • 42. (b) By scouring  During floods, the gates of the barrage are kept open and the water flows with high velocity.  The water may also flow with very high velocity over the crest of the weir. Both the cases can result in scouring effect on the downstream and on the upstream side of the structure.  Due to scouring of the soil on both sides of the structure, its stability gets endangered by shearing.
  • 43. Design aspects (a)Subsurface flow 1. The structure should be designed such that the piping failure does not occur due to subsurface flow. 2. The downstream pile must be provided to reduce the exit gradient and to prevent piping. 3. An impervious floor of adequate length is provided to increase the path of percolation and to reduce the hydraulic gradient and the seepage force.
  • 44. 4. The seepage path is increased by providing piles and impervious floor to reduce the uplift pressure. 5. The thickness of the floor should be sufficient to resist the uplift pressure due to subsurface flow. 6. A suitably graded inverted filter should be provided at the downstream end of the impervious floor to check the migration of soil particles along with water. The filter layer is loaded with concrete blocks.
  • 45. (b) Surface flow 1. The piles (or cut-off walls) at the upstream and downstream ends of the impervious floor should be provided upto the maximum scour level to protect the main structure against scour. 2. The launching aprons should be provided at the upstream and downstream ends to provide a cover to the main structure against scour. 3. A device is required at the downstream to dissipate energy. For large drops, hydraulic jump is used to dissipate the energy.
  • 46. 4. Additional thickness of the impervious floor is provided at the point where the hydraulic jump is formed to counterbalance the suction pressure. 5. The floor is constructed as a monolithic structure to develop bending resistance (or beam action) to resist the suction pressure.
  • 47. Khosla’s theory  Many of the important hydraulic structures, such as weirs and barrage, were designed on the basis of  Bligh’s theory between the periods 1910 to 1925.  In 1926 – 27, the upper Chenab canal siphons, designed on Bligh’s theory, started posing undermining troubles. Investigations started, which ultimately lead to Khosla’s theory.
  • 48. Following are some of the main points from Khosla's Theory. 1. Outer faces of end sheet piles were much more effective than the inner ones and the horizontal length of the floor. 2. Intermediated piles of smaller length were ineffective except for local redistribution of pressure. 3. Undermining of floor started from tail end.
  • 49. 4. It was absolutely essential to have a reasonably deep vertical cut off at the downstream end to prevent undermining. 5. Khosla and his associates took into account the flow pattern below the impermeable base of hydraulic structure to calculate uplift pressure and exit gradient. 6. Seeping water below a hydraulic structure does not follow the bottom profile of the impervious floor as stated by Bligh but each particle traces its path along a series of streamlines.
  • 50. Method of independent variable  Most designs do not confirm to elementary profiles (specific cases).  In actual cases we may have a number of piles at upstream level, downstream level and intermediate points and the floor also has some thickness.  Khosla solved the actual problem by an empirical method known as method of independent variables.
  • 51.  This method consists of breaking up a complex profile into a number of simple profiles, each of which is independently amiable to mathematical treatment.  Then apply corrections due to thickness of slope of floor.  As an example the complex profile shown in fig is broken up to the following simple profile and the pressure at Key Points obtained.
  • 52. Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at upstream ends. Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at downstream end. Straight floor of negligible thickness with pile at intermediate points. The pressure is obtained at the key points by considering the simple profile.
  • 53.  For the determination of seepage below the foundation of hydraulic structure developed the method of independent variable.  In this method, the actual profile of a weir which is complex, is divided into a number simple profiles, each of which cab be solved mathematically without much difficulty. The most useful profile considered are: (i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness provided with a sheet pile at the upstream end or a sheet pile at the downstream end. (ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed, but without any vertical cut-off.
  • 54.
  • 55. Intermediate point The mathematical solution of the flow-nets of the above profiles have been given in the form of curves. From the curves, percentage pressures at various key points E, C be determined. The important points to note are: Junctions of pile with the floor on either side{E, C (bottom), E1, C1 (top) } Bottom point of the pile (D), and Junction of the bottom corners (D, D’) in case of depressed floor
  • 56.  The percentage pressures at the key points of a simple forms will become valid for any complex profile, provided the following corrections are effected:  correction for mutual interference of piles  correction for the thickness of floor  correction for slope of the floor.
  • 57. Correction for Mutual Interference of Piles  Let b1 = distance between the two piles 1 and 2, and  D = the depth of the pile line (2), the influence of which on the neighbouring pile (1) of depth d must be determined  b = total length of the impervious floor  c = correction due to interference.
  • 58.  The correction is applied as a percentage of the head This correction is positive when the point is considered to be at the rear of the interfering pile and negative for points considered in the forward or flow direction with the interfering pile.
  • 59. Correction for Floor Thickness  Standard profiles assuming the floors as having negligible thickness.  Hence the values of the percentage pressures computed from the curves corresponds to the top levels (E1*, C1*) of the floor.  However, the junction points of the floor and pile are at the bottom of the floor (E1, C1)
  • 60.
  • 61.  The pressures at the actual points E1 and C1 are interpolated by assuming a straight line variation in pressures from the points E1* to D1 and from D1 to C1.  The corrected pressures at E1 should be less than the computed pressure t E1*. Therefore the correction for the pressure at E1 will be negative. And so also is for pressure at C1.
  • 62.
  • 63. Correction for Slope of Floor  A correction for a sloping impervious floor is positive for the down slope in the flow direction and negative for the up slope in the direction of flow.  The correction factor must be multiplied by the horizontal length of the slope and divided by the distance between the two poles between which the sloping floor exists.
  • 64.
  • 65. Exit gradient (GE)  It has been determined that for a standard form consisting of a floor length (b) with a vertical cut-off of depth (d), the exit gradient at its downstream end is given by: Values of safe exit gradient may be taken as: 0.14 to 0.17 for fine sand 0.17 to 0.20 for coarse sand 0.20 to 0.25 for shingle