Behaviorism Menu What? Who? How? My ESE Classroom Works Cited
Behaviorism What It Is? Human psychology can only be studied through the examination of behavioral events. Learning is a change in behavior. Change induced by: o Punishment (positive and negative) • Decreases the likelihood the behavior will occur again • Adding or taking away a stimulus o Reinforcement (positive and Negative) • Increases the likelihood the behavior will occur again • Action -> Reaction -> Knowledge of Appropriate Future Behavior
Three Types of Behaviorism1. Methodological Behaviorism Psychology is the science of behavior, not the mind. Mental states aren’t useful for empirical study.2. Psychological Behaviorism Sources for behavior are external, not internal. Behavior can be explained without mental events.3. Analytical and Logical Behaviorism Mental concepts should be translated into behavioral concepts. Idea of mental state is the idea of behavioral disposition.
Who Are The Key Figures? B.F. Skinner (1904- Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1990) 1936)Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning
B.F. SkinnerOperant Conditioning Attempts to modify behavior through reinforcements. Association between a particular behavior and a consequence. Example • Parents rewarding a child with candy or a prize when they get good grades.
Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Automatic type of learning. A stimulus evokes a response originally evoked by a different stimulus. Pavlov’s Dogs • Meat powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) • Dog’s salivation (Unconditioned Response) • Bell begins as a Neutral Stimulus but becomes the Conditioned Stimulus • Salivation after the bell (Conditioned Response)
How It Would Be Used In The Classroom? Role of Teachers Role of Students
What Would The Teachers Do? Contracts The relevant behavior should be identified, and terms discussed. Consequences Must occur immediately after the behavior occurs. Reinforcement Positive/Negative Reinforcement and Punishment. Extinction Decreases the chances of a response by withdrawing a previously reinforced stimulus.
What Would The Students Do? Rewards Students receive rewards for appropriate behaviors. Confidence Positive feedback/responses boost students’ confidence levels. Behavior Changes Students change their inappropriate behavior to behavior that is acceptable.
Behaviorism In My ESE ClassroomTo Avoid Student Frustration ‐ Break down large tasks into small segments ‐ Demonstrate and explain each step in a new taskTo Help Overcome Difficulty Processing andMemory ‐ Include extra practice ‐ Review materials as often as necessary
Behaviorism In My ESE ClassroomTo Keep Students on Task ‐ Create predictable routines ‐ Incorporate structure into lessonsTo Make Sure Students are Absorbing theMaterial ‐ Gather feedback throughout the lesson