Creative Advertising (case of Benetton company) by Aleksey Narko


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The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the role of creativity in advertising, how it works and what is its effect on the general public. Theoretical part of the thesis explains what creativity is, presents creative advertising as one of the essential parts of modern marketing and describes the usage of creative techniques in promotion by Benetton brand of clothing. Empirical part investigates opinions of the respondents on the topic of the costs, effectiveness and influence of advertisements, in particular creative ones with the example of Benetton. The research shows that advertising is a powerful method to influence consumers’ buying decision and there is a moderate relationship between quality of advertising and quality of the product. Moreover the results show that word-of-mouth advertising is the most effective and one of the cheapest ways to advertise the product or service, while billboards and internet webpages ads seem to be the most visible to the public. More than 45% of the consumers see the substantial relationship between the money spent on advertising and product sales. 40% of the respondents have never heard or don’t know much about creative advertising, 70% of them agree that creative ads are more effective than traditional ones and almost the same number of the respondents knows Benetton brand of clothing. Only 20% of the respondents that know Benetton brand admit that their ads are neither interesting nor special.

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Creative Advertising (case of Benetton company) by Aleksey Narko

  1. 1. Creative advertising thesisBachelor of Arts in Business AdministrationAleksey NarkoThe High School of Business – National Louis UniversityPoland, Nowy Sącz, 2012 1
  2. 2. Thanks to everyone who helped me in creating this “piece of art”. In particular my parents whourged me all the time and helped me fight with my laziness, my promoter professor Widlak forhis valuable advices and good cooperation and French writer Frederic Beigbeder, who inspiredme to write this thesis by his book 99 Francs. 2
  3. 3. AbstractThe purpose of the thesis is to investigate the role of creativity in advertising, how it works andwhat is its effect on the general public. Theoretical part of the thesis explains what creativity is,presents creative advertising as one of the essential parts of modern marketing and describes theusage of creative techniques in promotion by Benetton brand of clothing. Empirical partinvestigates opinions of the respondents on the topic of the costs, effectiveness and influence ofadvertisements, in particular creative ones with the example of Benetton. The research showsthat advertising is a powerful method to influence consumers’ buying decision and there is amoderate relationship between quality of advertising and quality of the product. Moreover theresults show that word-of-mouth advertising is the most effective and one of the cheapest waysto advertise the product or service, while billboards and internet webpages ads seem to be themost visible to the public. More than 45% of the consumers see the substantial relationshipbetween the money spent on advertising and product sales. 40% of the respondents have neverheard or don’t know much about creative advertising, 70% of them agree that creative ads aremore effective than traditional ones and almost the same number of the respondents knowsBenetton brand of clothing. Only 20% of the respondents that know Benetton brand admit thattheir ads are neither interesting nor special. 3
  4. 4. Table of ContentsChapter 1 Introduction..................................................................................................................51.1 Topic .......................................................................................................................................51.2 Problem ...................................................................................................................................61.3 Assumptions ............................................................................................................................61.4 Objectives ................................................................................................................................7Chapeter 2 What is Creativity ........................................................................................................82.1 Theory and Stages of Creativity ...............................................................................................82.2 How is creativity born? ...........................................................................................................102.3 Divergent and Convergent thinking ........................................................................................132.3.1 Divergent thinking ...............................................................................................................14Chapter 3 Advertising....................................................................................................................153.1 Creative advertising ................................................................................................................193.2 Guerilla Marketing ..................................................................................................................23Chapter 4 Examples of Creative Advertising …………………………………………………...264.1 The Crazy Ones ......................................................................................................................264.2 Anti-Slavery ............................................................................................................................274.3 Harley Davidson. Stop Dreaming ...........................................................................................294.4 Mountain Degustation in the city ............................................................................................304.5 Narcotics-piss on them! ……………………………………………………………………..314.6 Before you turn away put yourself in my place ……………………………………………..324.7 Smart Eball ………………………………………………………………………………….34Chapter 5 Case study of Benetton advertising campaigns ………………………………………35Chapter 6 Research. Recognition of traditional and creative marketing techniques among theconsumers ……………………………………………………………………………………….416.1 The goal and methods of the research ………………………………………………………416.2 Sample ………………………………………………………………………………………416.3 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………..44Chapter 7 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................577.1 Work Conclusion ....................................................................................................................57Literature .......................................................................................................................................59 4
  5. 5. List of tables and figures ………………………………………………………………………...64Annex 1: Questionnaire designed for the study………………………………………………….65 1. Introduction1.1. TopicEvery day, whether we want it or not, we are exposed to a huge variety of advertisements. TV,radio, billboards, magazines and newspapers, and these are not the only places that modern adshave occupied. However not all of them get to be processed by our brain, only very littlepercentage of them are indeed successful and effective.1 Therefore those advertisements that aremade to catch people’s attention have something unforgettable inside. They should make theobserver extremely interested, surprised and even sometimes confused.The majority of copywriters agree that creativity is extremely important in advertising and itusually works more effectively in catching the interests of the customers than all the othertechniques, put together. 2The originality of the ad makes it more recognizable, better able to beat the competition andmore successful on the market.3 Creative ads typically win most of the awards, and are usuallyseen as the most effective ones.It is quite interesting that more and more companies are specializing in creating original adsnowadays as they see that the more time and money they invest in this technique the morecuriosity and intrigue they invoke among their customers, which, later on converts into greatersales.Creative ads are remembered after their first public appearance.11 INMA. 2005.How Well do We Remember the Advertisements We See? Brussels: INMA Advertising Effectiveness and Research Seminar.Available from: [Accessed 10May 2012]2 Pollitt, L., 2007. Copywriting and the Role of Creativity 1. Learning Curve. Available from: [Accessed 15 May 2012]3 Mutua, A., 2008. Advertising and the importance of originality. Helium. Available from: [Accessed 7 May 2012] 5
  6. 6. The topic of creativity in advertisement is very interesting, but from my point of view, notenough research has been done in this area. In my work I want to concentrate on creativity inadvertisement, its importance in the ad industry, the process involved in producing suchcommercials and the benefits of using this technique.1.2. ProblemHow to define creativity? It is not something tangible that we can see, feel, or hear. It is notsomething obvious that is easy to understand and explain. Is it our feeling when we want tocreate something unique and original or it is just the way of making things unforgettable? Thereare many ways in which human beings can be creative, but is it really the same when we aredealing with advertising? How can we differentiate a creative person from a normal one? Can welearn how to be creative or does it come naturally over time? Is there a noncreative way to thecreative idea?How to define effective advertising? Is it all the information about the product that is occupyingcustomers’ minds or it is just the ads in the newspaper, radio, television? Is it possible to createan original, creative advertisement that everybody will like?How to define the role of creativity in advertisement? Is it present ,to some degree, in alladvertisements, or only in the most famous ones? Does creativity exist only in some parts of thead or can it be present throughout the ad?1.3. HypothesisThe main goal of any advertisement is to boost the sales, raise the share, improve the results,position, importance and brand name of the sponsor in the market. If we take into account thatcreativity is one of the most valuable, effective and unique techniques that makes advertisementreally bring the money to the sponsor, it becomes really crucial in ad production. Thereforeadvertising agencies do their best to find really creative people to work for them and later on1 Thomas, J., 2008. Advertising Effectiveness. Decision Analyst. Available from:[Accessed 15 May 2012] 6
  7. 7. cherish them a lot as they are the most important workforce in the company. Their creative ideasdoesn’t come out easily thus they are worth the weight of gold. Researchers have estimated thata winning creative idea can generate a sales increase of up to five times, controlling for the samebudget, product, distribution, and other marketing effords.1H1:Non-creative ads are not so successful as their creative opponents.Creative and original ideas play important role in producing successful and popularadvertisements as well as improving the brand image of advertising agencies in the market. Thatis why the amount of money and effort invested into creative ideas corresponds a lot with therecognition of the product or service we promote and therefore the profit gained from its sales.H2: Creativity is the most important feature of advertisement.The process of creation and fulfillment of an advertising is “homogenous”. Either thecopyrighters start from original, unusual idea and create the creative concept from the scratch tillthe very end of it or make their usual work of making a standard product that won’t differentiatetoo much from hundreds of thousand ads created all over the world every year.H3: Creativity can be found during all the stages of advertising process.1.4. ObjectivesThe main goal of this diploma thesis is to find out what is the dependence between the success ofadvertising project and its level of creativity. The other aim is to find which creative advertisingtechniques are the most effective in putting our ad into the “hall of fame”. The techniques andprocesses involved in creative advertising will also be presented in my work. I will try to provethat the effect of advertising creativity is enormous and brings amazing results. I will show thatthe original projects are more noticeable and find a better place in human minds and targetgroups than the standard ones therefore improving the results of advertising campaigns.1 West, Douglas C., “360 of Creative Risk”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 39, nº 1, January/February 1999, p. 39. 7
  8. 8. 2. What is Creativity? “Creativity is inventing, experimenting, growing, taking risks, breaking rules, making mistakes, and having fun.” Mary Lou Cook2.1. Theory and stages of creativity.Creativity is in the air, everywhere I look around …My interpretation of John Paul Young’s songis also some kind of creativity, which is, generally-speaking, the ability to come up withimproved or completely unexpected and new ideas. These ideas come from untraditional way ofthinking which is also a unique way of solving most of the problems that occur in our day-to-daybasis.According to the IBM 2010 Global CEO Study, which surveyed 1,500 Chief Executive Officersfrom 60 countries and 33 industries worldwide, CEOs believe that, “more than rigor,management discipline, integrity or even vision – successfully navigating an increasing complexworld will require creativity.1”That is why it is extremely important in our daily life.Albert Rothenberg and Carl Hausman view creativity as follows “Creativity consists of thecapacity for, or state of, bringing something into being, and bringing something into beinginvolves at least three separable components: an agent, a process, and a product” 2Bohm (1968), on the other hand, sees creativity as something impossible to define in words.3But, nevertheless, this, something that we can describe, see or feel is present in all kind ofdifferent fields like science, writing, music etc. “The artist, the musical composer, the architect,the scientist, etc., all feel a fundamental need to discover and create something new” (Bohm1968)1 IBM 2010 Global CEO Study., 2010. Creativity Selected as Most Crucial Factor for Future Success. IBM. Available from: [Accessed 15 May 2012]2 Albert Rothenberg & Carl Hausman (1976) The Creativity Question, Durham N.C. Duke University Press.3 Bohm.D., 1968. On Creativity. Leonardo, Vol. 1, No. 2. (Apr., 1968), pp. 137-149. 8
  9. 9. Leo Burnett an established advertising copywriter defines creativity as: “the art of establishingnew and meaningful relationships between previously unrelated things in a manner that isrelevant, believable and in good taste”1 David Ogilvy, British advertising executive, also calledas “the father of advertising” defined creativity as “Seeing something new when you look atsomething old; it is all heart of civilization and is the driving force of revolution.”2 It is a uniqueand very practical combination of concepts that previously seemed to be unrelated.From the standpoint of psychology creativity is a special artistic ability, which is in all itsmanifestations based on a cognitive process such as imagination. Abraham Maslow, famouspsychologist, who examined human’s creativity a lot, divided it into two stages: primary andsecondary creativeness.3 Primary creativeness appears from unconscious and is the source ofnew discovery. This is a divergence component of creativity. Secondary creativeness is mainlybased on common sense, logic and reasoning and is built upon previous knowledge. This is arelevance component.Imagination - is the mental process of creating images of objects or actions by recombinationinto new mixture of existing human knowledge and experience.4 Based on this determination,creativity - is the creation of unexpected but appropriate image.Ideas appearing in the process of imagination are not created out of nothing, but from theexperience and knowledge possessed by people. They come with time and life experience. Therefore the search for ideas usually starts with the preparation phase, which is, collecting themaximum amount of information about the problem to be solved and the existing situation. Theman is working hard, analyzing the problem, looking for similar examples, trying to solve it. If a fully satisfying solution is found quickly, then comes the stage of frustration. At thismoment the process is stumbling on something like a dead end: it went through all the options,1 Blasko, Vincent J. and Michael P. Mokwa (1986), "Creativity in Advertising: A Janusian Perspective," Journal of Advertising, 15 (4),43-50, 72.2 A2zmba., 2010. Advertising Project report MBA. Available from: [Accessed 16 May 2012]3 Bergquist, C., 2007. A comparative view of Creativity theories: psychoanalytic, behavioristic, and humanistic. Vantage Quest. Available from: [Accessed 16 May 2012]4 Mendizza, M., 1992. Discovering Imagination. Part III. Once upon a time. Touch the future. Available from: [Accessed 16 May 2012] 9
  10. 10. but none of them is the right one. This is a natural stage of work, as a good solution almost nevercomes up at once. Often it is accompanied by a decrease in mood and fatigue. In addition, itserves as a signal that there are internal barriers to the creative process, inhibiting it. It may beconscious and unconscious stereotypes and "taboos", personal complexes or irrational beliefs.The next stage is incubation.1 It starts when the man stops the conscious work on the problem,and this possibility is given to the subconscious part. Accordingly, the task of "transferred" fromthe left hemisphere to the right. If the motivation to find a solution persists, then in the righthemisphere continues the process of active search for information and combining the totalvolume of knowledge and experience gathered during the life of man. Therefore it is extremelyimportant for the creative process that both hemispheres have been sufficiently developed: theone, that is responsible for logic (left) and the other one that is responsible for intuition (right).When the unconscious work of brain comes to the end the insight or inspiration appears. This isa short-term, but most emotionally charged stage of the creative process, when the right solutionor idea “suddenly” comes in the field of consciousness. Insight is often accompanied by strongpositive emotions, the revival and strengthening of the motivation to work on the task.Development - the final stage of the creative process. It is a process of testing, developing andexpanding the boundaries of the solution found.2.2. How creativity is born?Creativity is something unpredictable, extremely rare, but can be found in any of us. It is ourway that would never become a technology. This way is different for everyone. For example formost of us the best time to forget about anything and concentrate is while taking a shower,especially in the morning or right after work, when we are free and our head is not clogged withlots of unnecessary information. It seems to be funny, but according to Nina Disesa, chairman ofMcCann Erickson such little things as water consumption can also drive us to meditate and havea good idea:” Because when you drink a lot of water, you go to the bathroom, and when youcome back you say to your partner, ”Hey, I just got an idea.” Some ideas come to you when youleast expect them, but on others you should work a lot.21 Dana W. Moore, Rafeeque A. Bhadelia, Rebecca L. Billings, Carl E. Fulwiler, Kenneth M. Heilman, Kenneth M. J. Rood, and David A.Gansler. "Hemispheric connectivity and the visual-spatial divergent-thinking component of creativity" Brain and cognition 70.3 (2009).2 William M. OBarr., 2007. Creativity in Advertising. The Advertising Educational Foundation. Available from: [Accessed 16 May 2012] 10
  11. 11. Forming creative ideas is the process of obtaining an original one. William Miller, president ofGlobal Creativity, shared all the creative people working in advertising, in four groups, each ofwhich uses one of four innovation styles:- The style of the imagination: people think about the end result and work towards what theywant to create;- Modifying the style: people prefer to go step by step, based on previously acquired knowledge;- The style of the experiment: people are experimenting, testing, answering questions about aproduct or target market;- A style of research: people go on risk, therefore ready for radical change1However in real life creativity professional use not only one, but a combination of the methodsmentioned above in order to get better results.According to James Young, author of "Technology of production of ideas, "ability to producenew combinations is increasing the ability to see relationships.” 2Idea - a thought which isobtained by combining the concepts that were not previously associated with each other. Thisconnection creates a new vision of things. There is a sort of "shift in consciousness," in whichopinion is born from a different angle; there is another point of view on an already existingobject. For example, you may receive the name of the juice, which emphasizes the positivecharacter traits of the consumer that will emerge after drinking a glass of juice ("Good").It is known that there are so-called barriers to creative thinking, but there are techniquesdesigned to help create ideas. Search for a brilliant creative solution by trial and error - a wasteof time and money.Often most of these methods are ineffective in a professional environment. Therefore, eachspecialist in advertising generates its own effective search procedures to generate inspiration andbrilliant ideas. For example, the following scheme is well-proved: 1) brainstorming session todetermine the overall strategic direction of the advertising campaign, 2) relaxation, and 3) the1 William, M., 1989. Validation of the Innovations Styles profile. Available from:[Accessed 17 May 2012]2 Young, W. James., Ideas are new combinations. Available from:[Accessed 17 May 2012] 11
  12. 12. results of brainstorming "recycled" through individual construction associations, 4) a discussionof ideas ready-made by the creative team.1 Choosing the way to generate the creative ideadepends a lot on the person, but still the most important part of generating creative ideas is basedon the knowledge. Most of the creative professionals are checking their competitors. They aregetting inspired by their successes and desire to create something better, more famous andeffective. They are motivated by reading interesting books, watching movies, going to themuseums. Sometimes it is a fascinating talk with close friends, or somebody’s stupid joke,boring theatrical performance or new love.According to the research made by Jonah Lehrer imagination and good ideas come to peoplemore often either when they haven’t slept enough or a bit drunk.2 The brain damage increases theability to solve complex creative tasks. The creative potential of the damaged brain revealssomething important about the mind: a man, who cannot focus, draws attention to the seeminglyuseless information and listens to all the abstract and distant associations within. It turns out tobe much easier for a person to find a solution when he has no control over his thoughts. Inabilityto concentrate helps the imagination. Confusion caused by alcohol or lack of sleep, does notallow us to ignore various unexpected thoughts and long-term associations, which are essentialcomponents of creative thinking.With the original idea you never know when to expect it. Sometimes the thought comes to mindzigzag: passing over the heads of all the brainstorm participants. Sometimes it is drawn in pencilon a leaf, and being glued on the keyboard. Sometimes it comes with dreams. Sometimes itpierces the head pin - so that you can’t work on anything else except it. Sometimes runs away tothe other side of the road in order to disappear in the air later on for months or years..Every small detail can cause creative ideas to appear in our mind.1 Bradley, S., 2010, How To Gather Inspiration and Generate Ideas. Available from: [Accessed 17 May 2012]2 Lehrer, J., 2012. How to Be Creative. The Wall Street Journal. Available from: [Accessed 17 May 2012] 12
  13. 13. 2.3. Divergent and Convergent thinkingAccording to the Psychologist J. Guilford, individuals routinely use two different types ofthinking, which he defines as convergent and divergent.1 We are talking about the differentnature of human’s mental activity: narrowing the range of thinking with access to the solution ofthe problem, or extension of the field of mental operations. Creativity involves two types ofmental activity. In order to produce a creative ad we need to think in two directions widely andnarrowly at the same time. First it is necessary to have lots of ideas, but then to find out only onesolution out of many.The most typical kind of convergent thinking is analytic reasoning, and probabilistic thinking,suggesting the presence of a well-defined logical problem. However as convergent thinking mayalso be classified as any systematic and thorough method of analysis.For example, evaluation of the merits of the arguments presented in the communicationmaterials, requires convergent thinking. Evaluation can be done very carefully andsystematically. Is the logical and internally consistent given the arguments? Is the empiricalevidence that supported the argument? Can I take these arguments as a truly representative?Another way to assess the quality of the argument is contained in the proposed consumerinformation is to use the so-called heuristics. Heuristics - it is plain the formation of judgmentswithout thinking. For example, the seller offers you a whole set of arguments in favor ofpurchasing the product and only one of them convinced to try the product in action. Whether thebuyer is immersed in a thorough and serious analysis or heuristic approach is satisfied in anycase we are talking about convergent thinking.However, the overabundance of convergent thinking has its drawbacks. Goethes Faust, atextbook example of a disillusioned intellectual who lives in an ivory tower, and deprived of reallife experience, his whole being seeks to gain experience. Convergent, analytical thinking can soembellish the real experience. On the other hand, people who are asked to explain clearly. But toexplain why they are so fond of pizza, as a result of losing her former interest.1 Guilford, J.P. 1950. Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444-454. 13
  14. 14. 2.3.1 Divergent thinkingFor its part, associative, divergent thinking is more inner freedom, and often brings morepleasant fruits. It is characterized by the fact that psychologists call perceptual fluency (ie, theability to generate some ideas), flexibility (ie ability to move to a different point of view) andoriginality (that is, the ability to produce non-trivial ideas).Divergent thinking is based onimagination. It assumes that one question can have multiple answers. This is the condition ofgenerating new, original ideas as well as the expression of personality.According to J. Guilford, divergent thinking is characterized by four basic qualities: fluency,flexibility, originality, elaboration.1. fluency (the ability to produce a great number of ideas or problem solutions in a shortperiod of time);2. flexibility (the ability to simultaneously propose a variety of approaches to a specificproblem);3. originality (the ability to produce new, original ideas);4. elaboration (the ability to systematize and organize the details of an idea in a headand carry it out).1Divergent thinking is evident in the course of brainstorming sessions, participants are urged tothink freely and to refrain from any | were estimates. The same type of thinking is characteristicof I for the periods of sleep, when our analytical "I" rests.In the campaign launched «Apple Computer» in 1984, special attention is paid to people ofdivergent thinking through the use of disturbing images of outstanding, revolutionary erapersonalities, memories of which were invisible to translate thoughts on originality andrevolutionary products of the company.2When inept handling divergent thinking, as well as convergent, can have quite the impact,which was calculated. Divergent thinking does not occur in a vacuum, but relies on existing1 Guilford, J. P. 1967. The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.2 Robert E. Smith, Xiaojing Y., Toward a General Theory of Creativity in Advertising: Examining the Role of Divergence. Marketing Theory2004; 4; 31 14
  15. 15. knowledge. Therefore, marketers should not show excessive erudition (or simply refer todivergent thinking), if consumers do not have a sufficient amount of knowledge in this field.Moreover, it should consider the nature of already existing knowledge. Thus, to understand thevalue of a digital camera innovation, knowledge of traditional photographic technique may notbe an advantage, but a hindrance.Knowledge of the same computer, by contrast, will simplify the matter, because the morecorrect will be a digital camera as a scanner, not the camera. Thus, the treatment only works forprepared mind.And one more caution with regard to divergent thinking: do not expect that your highly originaladvertising or subtle humor marketing campaigns will be successful in the information market.Consumers in other countries often do not have the same level of knowledge about the products.They will appreciate your appeal to their divergent thinking only after sufficiently acquaintedwith new products. 3. Advertising “Nobody counts the number of ads you run; they just remember the impression you make.” – Bill BernbachThe term “advertising” is defined as “a paid non-personal communication from identifiedsponsor using mass-media to persuade or influence an audience” 1.Marketing professor atNorthwestern University U.S. Kotler writes: "... advertising is a non-personal forms ofcommunication, carried out by means of information dissemination paid from clearly specifiedsource of funding”.1 Wells W, Moriarty S and Burnett J. Advertising principles and practice. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2003, p.10 15
  16. 16. According to the Quick Stat 500 billion dollars have been spent on advertising in 20111, which isthe almost the same amount as the GDP of Switzerland, one of the most developed country inEurope, in 20102. Why are we spending so much money on it? ) Advertising is something thatmakes us buy. By the time a person in the United States is 65 years old, he would have seen anestimated two million television commercials.3 The average child in America watches over40,000 television commercials in a year, or over 100 a day4. It means that it has taken one of themajor places in the life of each and every person in the world.Most of the companies nowadays can’t imagine selling their products or services without anykind of advertising. It seems to be impossible, but still many of the firms will argue that they cansell their products or services without external help.However product or service selling well until the level of competition in the area reaches acritical level. And when that level is reached, the only companies that will survive are those thathave managed to "burn" their name in the minds of consumers. The main function that theadvertising executes is creating the desired image of the product, which will be close andunderstandable to the consumer, will encourage him to purchase, which will even “speak hisinner language”What is advertisement made for? Its main goal is to inform.Imagine an ordinary citizen of the country, for example, Germany. Coming home after a hardday, he sits on a sofa, takes his morning newspaper, which he did not have time to read overbreakfast, and skipped some recent, important news happening in the world. His reading issometimes interrupted by the ads placed in the newspaper, from this we can conclude that theadvertising for him is the same source, as the news stories are. With the help of thesepromotional materials he learns about the new helpful medicine, as well as various kinds of1, 2008. Internet Advertising/Online Advertising Revenue 2000-2008. [Accessed: May 17, 2012.]2 IndexMundi, 2010. Switzerland GDP (official exchange rate). Available from: [Accessed: May 17,2010]3 Laura,K., 2006. Advertising. New York, NY: Greenhaven Press.4 Children as Consumers. Global Issues. November 21, 2010. 16
  17. 17. devices that are used to cure different diseases. A person receives the information that is unlikelyto be learned from the news stories themselves, and if he likes the goods, he can call and orderthem. This is how he has just got the information he needed about a product, and already has theability to buy it. For example, a person has problems with flatfoot, and then the ad of neworthopedic insoles is hurrying up for help. From this example we can see that advertising is avery powerful source of information, the information that people can use to meet their needs andrequirements. It is also a powerful tool for influencing the subconscious mind of man. Forexample the man that has always been wearing normal shoes, after seeing the advertising of thesports ones will probably realize their convenience, all sorts of positive aspects, will becomeinterested in buying them.The only fact about the function of carrying information by the advertisement is that there is notonly one company that carries their information about the product, but there are hundreds ofthousands of different companies, businesses, and even individuals. As a result it turns out thatthe advertisement must fulfill at least another couple of functions such as distinguishing our adfrom the general flow of information and improvement of its memorability. There are certaintools to enhance the production and properties of the data used in advertising that can be dividedinto two parts:Technical Assistance:Text (information, fonts, text color, etc.);Caption text, slogan (font, highlight, etc., as in simple texts);Image (color, brightness, sharpness, etc.);Sound (volume, clarity, sharpness, etc.);Smell (in shops, tasting);Form (size, angularity, volume, etc.);And many othersEmotional and sensual:Fun, humor (they are used in many commercials);Fear (it is used in the public service, such as road safety advertising antismoking ads);Empathy (advertising charity);Shame (dandruff, bad breath, acne - all ashamed);Conscience (for example public service for the elderly or childrens homes); 17
  18. 18. Eroticism (lust)Emotional and sensual side of advertising is quite important. In competitive markets,advertising, which does not cause any emotional feelings for the target audience, is a failure.And this kind of advertising will attract only the group of people who are currently looking forthe product / service.1 Of course not every ad meets the entire set of these characteristics. But each and everyadvertising must have at least a couple of them. Every advertising medium can combine these orother properties from the inscription on the fence, where the most basic set is used up to thepresentation-tasting of products, where a maximum range of up to the smell, taste and eroticismcan be used.It is also very important for advertisers to understand that in addition to the technical unit, thereis an emotional one, which is not just possible, but necessary to use and understand. It isessential to understand what emotion can cause your advertising and which emotion is the best toimplement. Moreover, advertising must meet several principles of rationality, namely: 1) it must be timely, that is to appear when it can be seen or heard (it is not necessary toadvertise washing machines at 3am - its unlikely anyone will be interested even from those whoare watching TV at that time); 2) it must be placed in the right place, so that the location of the advertisement and those forwhom it is aimed match; 3) it must be clear: readable, legible, written in plain language, and marked with clear picture.If those techniques and methods are not taken under consideration of the company advertisingbecomes a simple waste of time and money.2Looking at life without advertising, man realizes that he will be disconnected from informationand a commodity sector, which might help him, and make life easier.1 Jay,C., Emotions & Advertising. Available from: [Accessed 20 May 2012]2 Helgesen, Thorolf, 1992, “The Rationality of Advertising Decisions: Conceptual Issues and Some Empirical Findings from a Norwegian Study,”Journal of Advertising Research, 32 (November/December), p. 22-30. 18
  19. 19. 3.1 Creative advertisement “Creative without strategy is called ‘art.’ Creative with strategy is called ‘advertising’.” – Jef I. RichardsA long time ago, even before the printing press was invented, advertising was a simple process.There was a sign, painted on the door and a town crier paid to direct people’s attention to it.Then the 17th century came together with newspapers and magazines. Producers became moremedia-conscious and aware of the huge opportunities of the printed media. Later on came theshows, exhibitions and even international expositions. Advertising became too tricky,nevertheless the 20th century came with the broadcasting media such as radio and television andthen internet.1The times have changed but the main idea of advertisement to make the customerbuy the product or service stays the same.We are affected by thousands of advertisements every day. If we take into account that we have24 hours a day and 8 of them we spend sleeping we are exposed to 250 ads per hour.2 But thisdoes not mean that we perceive and remember all of them. Much of the information passes bythe eye and our consciousness. It is not perceived at all.According to David Ogilvy, who is said to be “the most sought-after wizard in the advertisingbusiness” by Time (1962) the advertisement can be called great if it works without majorchanges for 20 years or longer. 3These pieces of art are extremely rare nowadays and usuallybelong to this niche because of something unique inside of each and every of them.Says John Caples, the doyen of direct response copywriters:“I have seen one advertisement actually sell not twice as much not three times as much, but 19, 5times as much as another. Both advertisements occupied the same space. Both were run in the1 Kent, S., 2010. The History of Advertising. Suite101. Available from: [Accessed20 May 2012]2 Freeby50, 2011. How Many Ads Are We Exposed to Daily?? Available from: [Accessed 20 May 2012]3 Demmer, G., 2001. Do long copy ads work? Reality Marketing Associates. Available from: [Accessed 20 May 2012] 19
  20. 20. same publication. Both had photographic illustrations. Both had carefully written copy. Thedifference was that one used the right appeal and another used the wrong appeal” 1It has been estimated that about half of all advertising campaigns do not lead to an explicit(measurable) increase in sales. Moreover, 3 out of 10 campaigns in the long run cause a drop insales of brand.2 It is happening so, because most of the advertisements nowadays are still beingcreated according to the traditional techniques that have been developed for ages and hasn’tchanged a lot. Traditional advertising nowadays is not giving the same effect as it has beengiving three, four, five years ago.Consumers have become more legible. Therefore in todays ocean of advertising traditionalmessages most of the companies send just merge with the information and advertising noise thatfalls every day on the potential consumers. Information boards, big-boards, advertising in themedia, commercials on TV, radio, flyers on the subway, mailboxes ... Add to all this randomdistribution, promoters near many stores, advertising at every turn ...And it often happens that among the "quilt" of everyday advertising we focus on a few brightposters or unusual actions, controversial commercials on TV and radio. These are alloutstanding, creative advertisements. It stands out from the whole long line of advertisements bybeing attractive. But how to produce such an advertisement that will work like a hook to thecustomer?The first known example of using creative advertisement dates back to 1900s (according to themagazines that existed at that time). It was an innovation, which has never been used before, thatis why it was standing out of the crowd. It was invention of one of the theaters. Its directordecided to send the invitations and theatrical posters to the wealthy public by post. Theinteresting fact was that he added a check for 4 cents (about 30 cents at today’s exchange rate) toit.31 Ogilvy, D., 1985. Ogilvy on Advertising. First Vintage books edition, p.92 Ong, B., 2005.Increase in advertising spent does not lead to increase in sales. .A Marketing Blog by Marketing Journal. Available from: [Accessed 21 May 2012]3 Sivulka,J., Soap, Sex, and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American Advertising. Wadsworth. 1998. p. 245-285 20
  21. 21. He put the information sheet in the letter which was as follows: “Dear Madam and Gentlemen, Iknow that you are provided people, but still I am willing to pay you for the time spent on readingthis letter the average income of the people of your position. Take just two minutes to read aboutsome original scenes from our new comedy. Its premiere will be held next Monday for the firsttime.” This was a really effective campaign-the hall of the theatre was full. This calculation wasbased on the originality of the message, plus there were only few people that went to the bank toget their 4 cents. Why did this, from one sight simple “pay for time” strategy work so well?Because it attracted consumers by its image. They didn’t accept this letter as advertising itself,that is why the credibility of such information increased.So what is creative advertising?Creative advertising is only ideally something extraordinary knocked out of the general rules andis amazing. Advertising that contains the idea, which is capable of independently (withoutinvesting unnecessary resources in place) to solve the problem of marketing promotion of aproduct can be considered creative. This is good idea that in most of the cases differentiates theadvertised product, raising it to at least one step above the rest.Probably, creative advertising is the ideal solution. Something that does not include ideas andwithout creativity, cannot be called advertising. The most proper word for this seems to be“mediation”.What are the characteristics of the proper creative idea?  The novelty of the idea-suggestion of the new methods, conceptions, materials and processes  The ability of the idea to encourage finding of the new solutions  The originality of the idea: from the practical point of view, this idea should be unknown by the people, working in the industry  Another valuable characteristic is the flexibility of the idea, that helps it to give a new view on a problem, new way of solving it as well as change and modify itself all the time  The efficient is the idea, with the help of which all the aspects of the problem can be observed  Moreover the idea should be adequate, which means that it should match the degree of difficulty and specifications of the problem 21
  22. 22.  The idea should be easy to use while getting to the assigned task  The idea should be attractive which means being fascinating in order to inspire positive emotions.  At the end creative idea shouldn’t be very difficult in realization1What are the methods used by the producers of creative advertising? A good creative advertisingis an incendiary "Molotov cocktail" of the following ingredients:• Good, "delicious" sense of humor, the one that is being liked and remembered by the greatnumber of people.• Vigorous power of sensuality. But, unfortunately, very few people have learned to use it forpeaceful purposes nowadays (as opposed to the previous one, virtually trouble-free method).• More severe, a double-edged tool-shock, with its stringent naturalistic scenes and completelynegative characters. This is advertising, which is on the brink of a foul.2Thanks to the creative methods the client receives treatment, the appeal, which "catches" theconsumer for a living, standing out from the total sulfur mass. In addition to high efficiency ofthe contact (material gain), a creative advertising gives a strategic advantage. Each messagecarries positive information about the brand and the company, improves understanding of themanufacturer. Therefore, creative advertising has extra value, and often works to make adecision at the level of first recognition.1 Guilford, J.P., “Traits of creativity”. H.H. Anderson (ed.), Creativity and its Cultivation, Harper, 1959, pp 142-61, reprinted in P.E. Vernon(ed.), Creativity, Penguin Books, 1970, pp 167-88.2 Marketing Made Simple, How to design effective advert. Available from: [Accessed 23 May 2012] 22
  23. 23. 3.2 Guerrilla Marketing "The soul and essence of guerrilla marketing remain as always - achieving conventional goals, such as profits and joy, with unconventional methods, such as investing energy instead of money.” Jay Conrad LevinsonGuerrilla marketing is the method, which main essence lies in the non-advertising promotion insocial media.1 In this case, information about a particular brand or product is presented to usersin a veiled form. Guerilla activities go beyond conventional methods and means of marketingcommunications and product promotion.There are many methods of guerrilla marketing. All of them can be divided into two groups.However, some of them can achieve maximum impact, utilizing a minimum of means. Theseguerrilla marketing methods operate on the general user. Their goal is to increase generalawareness of the brand or product.According to the “discoverer” of this advertising method Jay Conrad Levinson2 the maindifference between guerilla and traditional advertising techniques is the use of creative thinkingcapabilities, coupled with some very simple methods of promotion of goods or services insteadof spending a lot of money on advertising.Guerrilla Marketing - means originality, unconventional, non-elementary truths, and greaterflexibility, good results with limited opportunities.Moreover Guerilla Marketing means using precious strikes and sabotage against a powerfulenemy. This way is relatively inexpensive, but extremely effective. It is guerilla marketing whereyou need to use most of your brain and least of the money invested.1 Lautenslager, A., 2006. What Is Guerrilla Marketing Anyway? Available from:[Accessed 23 May 2012]2 Aeispeakers. Jay Conrad Levinson. Available from: [Accessed 23 May 2012] 23
  24. 24. What are the other differences of Guerilla from traditional marketing? 1. Speed. Guerilla marketing methods give visible results either immediately or after a very short period of time. It is extremely important for small businesses that don’t have cash reserves and can’t wait for months until the advertisement starts working. This creative marketing tool allows you to gain new customers the very next day after the campaign has started. 2. Invisibility for the competitor. The guerilla methods are often invisible to the competitor, and therefore they cannot be copied. In the case of traditional marketing the firm’s activity is visible not only to potential customers but also to competitors. However "guerrilla" advertising methods are hidden from prying eyes – these ads will be seen only by potential buyers, and no one else. 3. No “arms race”. Unlike in traditional advertising guerilla competitors are not trying to crush the advertising budget, posting more ads all the time, exposing more boards and running more commercials on the radio. “Guerillas” are trying to win the customer by increasing the effectiveness of advertising using more sophisticated marketing approaches. 4. Quality, not quantity. In comparison with the usual classical advertising that appeals to all, guerrilla marketing works directly with a particular audience. 5. Measuring effectiveness. The other difference of Guerilla advertisement lies in the fact that here preference is given to the ways of advertising, for which the return on investment can be precisely calculated. The money is directed in the campaigns from which the maximum profits can be gained. 6. Partnership. Finally, another feature of guerrilla marketing lies in the fact that partnership is preferred instead of competition. Instead of wasting energy on the struggle with competitors, "guerilla" would prefer to establish a mutually beneficial partnership with them. 11 Meyersen, M., Levinson, J.K., What is the difference between Guerrilla Marketing and Traditional Marketing? Available from: [Accessed 24 May 2012] 24
  25. 25. The methods, used in guerilla marketing are as follows:  Flash mob - instant crowd  Auto performance - a performance car in the city  Striking - half-dressed people at public events  Street action - street performance  UCO - Unidentified object of the urban  Viral Video - Viral Videos on the Internet  People Ad - Placement of the advertising message on the bodies of people  Guerilla Projection – projection of guerilla videos  Viral Game - Viral Flash Game  WOM - advertising by word of mouth1In addition, there are also guerilla marketing tools for the local impact. They have a targetaudience and help to raise the brand awareness already in the target groups. This includes amedium-term increase in sales.Examples of such guerrilla marketing tools are as follows:Ambient Media - non-standard placement of advertising in retail outletsMystery shoppers – secret shoppersProvocative - a provocative marketingPZ Sampling - a non-standard samplingGraffiti - Graffiti StencilIllusion - a visual illusion1 Levinson, J.K., 200 Marketing Weapons. Available from:[Accessed 24 May 2012] 25
  26. 26. Brand space - a unique place of brand communication with consumersWild Posting - Sticker campaignAirfield Ad - advertising on the fields near the airport and many others.1Guerrilla Marketing is characterized by high efficiency, which is achieved through the deep trustof the audience to the information received by it, because in this case, a source of advertising arethe consumers themselves, rather than advertisers. And it is worth it. 4. Examples of Creative Advertising.Here are some examples that perfectly show what creative advertising really is and what is itsdifferences from the traditional one.4.1 Crazy ones (1997)In 1990s up to 1997 Apple company was in great crisis. It couldn’t exist well because of themany problems connected with misunderstandings, bad management, and pure marketingcampaigns as well. The company was in the brink of death and won’t probably exist nowadayswithout the coming back of Steve Jobs. After he came the company started to changedramatically. The “Think different” era started. It has been decided that the new campaignshould be started with the huge number of prints and commercials, where the images ofrevolutionary thinkers have been used. Albert Einstein, Muhammad Ali, John Lennon and YokoOno, Martin Luther King, Maria Callas, Richard Branson, Bob Dylan, Thomas Edison, PabloPicasso, Mahatma Gandhi, Alfred Hitchcock, Amelia Earhart - all of them were "involved" inthe TV spot, which became the legend of advertising.The emotional message of the one minute video commercial was as follows:”Here’s to the crazyones…The misfits; The rebels… The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. Theones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules. And they have no respect for thestatus quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. But the only thingyou can’t do, is ignore them; because they change things. They push the human race forward.1 Levinson,C.,Levinson,J.,2011. Guerilla Marketing Remix. The best of Guerilla Marketing. Entrepreneur Media 26
  27. 27. And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see-genius because people who are crazyenough to change the world are the ones who do.”1 Picture 4.1 The shortcuts from the Apple advertisement “Think Different” produced in 1997The main statement of the campaign was all of us should be different, creative, standing out fromthe crowd like Apple company and success will be awaiting of us.The ad campaign affected the company a lot. It helped the company to get back the positions lostduring the crisis. Steve jobs told: “It only took 15 . . . 30 . . . maybe 60 seconds" to reestablishApples counter-culture image that it had lost during the 90s”24.2 Anti-Slavery (1995)How to raise the attention of the public to the social problem? Traditional ads in this case areextremely ineffective. The money is going on the ad, but it is not bringing any visible results as itis not catching the eye of the general public a lot. People, even if they see traditional social ad,read it, but in a minute forget about what have been seen, and it usually doesn’t matter how bigthe problem is – our brain just throws boring stuff away. Saatchi & Saatchi decided to use the1 Apple- Think Different. 1997. Video. Available from: [Accessed 25 May2012]2 Hormby,T., 2007. Think Different: The Ad Campaign that Restored Apples Reputation. Available from: [Accessed 25 May 2012] 27
  28. 28. shocking power to bring the attention of the potential viewers of their ad created for Anti-slaveryInternational organization. Picture 4.2 Reade this you peace of shit. Source:”Creative Advertising” Mario PrickenThe role of this advert is to offend the reader. Make him read the details to get the view on theproblem. And the problem is really huge because according to Anti-slavery research:” There areat least 12.3 million people, both children and adults, working in forced labor, a modern form ofslavery.”1 After reading the first paragraphs the reader is informed that the human rights is themain issue and now he understands the suitability of the headline. This advertisement works asthe offender; it grabs the attention, makes its viewer read and feels the problem on his own skin."If youre offended by this advert, you should be. Nobody should be treated like this. Yetunfortunately, there are millions of people around the world who are."1 Antislavery International. What is forced labor? Available from: [Accessed 25 May 2012] 28
  29. 29. 4.3 Stop DreamingWe all are children inside. Even 60-70 year old men with good job position, children andgrandchildren and a cozy house in the countryside are not the exception. As it is sung in the songof Alphaville “life is a short trip” and we want to feel “forever young”. People want to geteverything out of this boring life and enjoy every minute of their existence. Picture 4.3. Harley Davidson. Stop Dreaming. Source: adsoftheworld.comHarley Davidson decided to use this “love to live” and feel young in their commercial. The adshows men who behave like boys. They use different things, such as pram and wheelchair, tofeel themselves like they are riding a Harley Davidson motorbike. The main slogan is “Stopdreaming”, alluding to the fact that those, who constantly imagine themselves on a motorcycle,just need to go out and fulfill their dream by buying it. And it doesn’t matter if you are young, orold, but with a youth spirit inside, your profession or position all your dreams can come true ifyou really want it. 29
  30. 30. 4.4 Mountain Degustation in the CityPeople have different feelings, they can see, listen, and feel. Some of the ads you can see, thiscan be posters for example. Others, such as radio advertisements, you can hear. But somecommercials combine the feelings. For example you can see and listen to the video commercialson TV or somewhere in the internet, or feel and see other kinds of promotion in the streets.These can be flowerbeds, special posters where you can paint or even the posters, covered withsealed air bubbles which you can feel with your fingers. The last type of advertisement was usedby the Braunwald Tourism Company. They put their unusual posters in the major cities of theGerman-speaking Switzerland inviting “polution plagued pedestrians to soak up the finemountain air in the car-free mountain resort Braunwald “ Here the combination of all the humanfeeling was used: seeing the poster, feeling the bubbles with the air inside and later on listeningto their blast. This advertisement is very powerful because it is interacting with the public. It usesthe touch, the most active and experimenting human sense. People come to the ad to trysomething new. Moreover blasting bubbles is one of the most funny and fascinating activitiesthat appeals to the people of all ages. Picture 4.4 Braunwald Tourism: Mountain degustation in the city Source: 30
  31. 31. Bubbles are representing the fresh air. But it comes in small amounts. The main idea is to attractpeople to come to the resort and enjoy more of the freshness in the car-free zone in themountains full of snow and other natural attractions.4.5 Narcotics-piss on them!Another interesting advertising campaign which is extremely creative was held in Warsaw. Itwas an anti-drug campaign which was mainly oriented for young people. When you are youngyou tend to try lots of things: alcohol, promiscuous sex relations, drugs, etc. Although it isinteresting for the youth how it feels like, they can easily lead later on to the problems withhealth and police. Picture 4.5 Narcotics-piss on them! Source: Creative advertising by Mario PrickenThe Warsaw office of anti-drug programs decided to use the power of the place and the slogan intheir campaign against drugs. They have put the stickers on pissoirs in the public places usuallyvisited by young people such as nightclubs and youth centers. 31
  32. 32. The advertisements in the public toilets have their own powerful points:  Such ad can hardly be avoided  The other promotional noises are omitted, because in this moment it is the only source of media  This choice of location is even more accurate in reaching specific target group, because each of the premises visited is related to the lifestyle of a group. (clubs and young people in this example)  It seems to be the only medium that allows precise selection of men or women.The inscription on the stickers was as follows: “Drugs-Piss on them”. The main goal of the ad istoo stop the usage of drugs among the young people. Toilets are among the most popular placesto use drugs in the clubs. Therefore the message was powerful and extremely attention-grabbing.4.6 Before you turn away put yourself in my place.How to raise the problem of the homeless in the 4 million people. According to the WeingartHomeless Center there are approximately 70000 homeless people living in Los Angeles. This isa problem that can be ignored or given a try to be solved later on. The Weingart Homeless centerdecided to give a try and raise the awareness of the problem among the Los Angeles citizens.They made photos of a dozen of people without the roof over their head holding the placardssaying:”Before you turn away put yourself in my place”1. Later on they put the original sizephotorealistic carton cut-outs with the removed faces near big malls and shopping centers, placeshighly-visited by different groups of people.1 Osocio. 2009. Weingart Homeless Center: Before you turn away put yourself in my place. Available from: [Accessed 25 May 2012] 32
  33. 33. Picture 4.6. Before you turn away put yourself in my place. Source: osocio.orgWhat was the effect? People started to put themselves in the place of homeless. The publicawareness rose, which is shown by the increased website traffic. Moreover the sufficient fundshave been raised. 33
  34. 34. 4.7 Smart EballHow to attract 520000 spectators and make approximately 6000 of them test and have fun formyour car? The Daimler Company decided to use the Ambient form of media in the promotion oftheir new version Smart Fortwo electrocar concept.Without good promotion the concept of electric car won’t impress many people. Moreover itwon’t stay in the mind of potential customers for long, even if it is presented on the biggest carexhibition in Frankfurt, because most of the people are still very skeptic about owning a car thatyou won’t “feed” with fuel. Daimler Company decided to introduce their new concept and makeit as fun and interactive with the public as it is possible. How? By inventing a car game whichwould be interesting for the exhibition visitors. They decided to use Pong, the game similar totennis with one ball and two players kicking it. However the human-players where changed forthe Smart Fortwo cars with the drivers inside. Cars were placed near each other, divided by theline and “transformed” into game controllers. Since the game was moving only up and down itwas nothing more required from the cars than moving back and forth.1 Picture 4.7 Smart Eball. Source: theinspirationroom.com1 Dunkan, 2012. Smart eBall. Available from: [Accessed 26 May 2012] 34
  35. 35. The interactive event was designed to demonstrate the joy of driving a highly responsive car. Itwas testing of the new car, breaking of the stereotypes and having fun at the same time. Thepromotion also included print, outdoor and guerilla materials on a European tour 2012. Thecampaign was so successful that it won a Gold Cube for Interactive (Physical Innovation) at the91st ADC Awards.1 5. Case Study of Benetton advertising campaigns. Everybody in advertising is blonde, beautiful, families are happy, care are never in traffic, everything is shiny, food looks like it’s incredibly tasteful. I ask myself, “How stupid are we?” Oliveiro Toscani, Benetton Art Director and PhotographerWorld of advertising is a great illusion. It is perfect, consisting of beautiful boys and girls incasual cloth, powerful, stylish cars, fresh and healthy products, useful services, etc. It is normal,because advertising becomes an extremely powerful force nowadays. The advertising agenciessomehow create and form our attitudes in a way to fit our needs. We are made to see, smack ourlips, buy and consume later on. We are not inspired to think, however our brain function, in mostof the cases, automatically turns off and only our body operates.Benetton, a family-owned company from Italy, seems to be one of the rare examples whenpeople are inspired to think while looking at the ads. The company’s ads almost never deal withtheir products, but show the images of social, environmental and political issues. They are quitemade to be unusual, controversial and stand out from the crowd. This is what makes the creativeand therefore extremely memorable.It was until 1980s when Benetton Company, still quite young at the market, used the traditionaladvertising techniques, largely focused on their products and logo. However in 1982 LucianoBenetton hired Oliviero Toscani and it was decided to end with boring, traditional practices andstop promoting Benetton as a clothing brand, but change the image for a “life style accessory”.1 Thisisnotadvertising. 2012. Smart – eBall Interactive Game. Available from: [Accessed 26May 2012] 35
  36. 36. As Luciano Bentton said: “The company has opted for a communication strategy in which issuesand not clothes play the lead part. The company has decided to devote some of its advertisingbudget to communicate on themes relevant to young and old people worldwide.”Main idea was based on unconventional advertising. Focusing on the topics that other companiesomit in their promotional campaigns such as race, sex, environmental and political issues. Firstad of this type was featuring happy teenagers and kids from different parts of the world. Theywere engaged in a variety of playful acts. The ad was showing the diversity of their customers,races and nationalities, as at this time the company was present in approximately 100 countriesof the world. It was telling the viewer that our differences play a minor role in our relations; weare still people and have something in common.1Later on Benetton continued working with colors it was very unusual advertising technique atthat time. One of the famous notions of color and politics was used in 1985-1986 campaigns. In1985 during the Cold War between USSR and USA two black boys appear at the promotionalmaterials kissing each other. On their heads there were flags of the conflicting countries.The similar images were created to promote peace in the conflicts between England andArgentina, Iran and Iraq, Germany and Israel. Picture 5.1“United Colors of Benetton” 1985-1986 campaigns. Source: BenettonAnother poster was showing two black children united by a globe and a chain as a peace symbol.The ads were telling people that citizens shouldn’t be influenced by the politics of theirgovernments and still maintain peace in the world.The originality of the company is based on breaking the rules, being a discoverer and fighter atthe same time that change the world. The company began talking about the existing conflictsbased on social stereotypes and taboos, the differences that divide in real life, rather than unite.1 Ganesan, S., 2002. Benetton group: unconventional advertising. Global CEO. November 2002. P.53-59 36
  37. 37. One of the most famous company’s ads of the 80s was the poster featuring black and white handin the handcuffs. Its manifest was in the fact that all people are connected to each other, there isno sense in fighting with it, but we should deal somehow with this issue. Picture 5.2. Contrast in Black and White. Source: BenettonOne of the most criticized and most honored ad of all the Benetton’s history was the print of theblack woman, feeding a white child.1 Many people thought that Benetton was remindingblacks of the days of slavery when black women breast-fed white babies. However all thatBenetton wanted to show by this ad was the universal brotherhood. Other advertisements ofBenetton with a similar message of that time included a black child sleeping among a pile ofwhite teddy-bears, two children of different color sitting on their potties in front of each other,white wolf and black sheep nose to nose, a big white and little black hand.The purpose of those Benetton campaigns was to unite the opposition under its brand. Theproduct as it is – sweaters, shirts and turtlenecks – has disappeared from the advertising at all.There was only a small green panel with the inscription “United Colors Of Benetton”symbolizing the brand since 1989.1 More controversy, please, we’re Italian, The Economist, 1st February 1992. 37
  38. 38. In 1991 the Benetton introduced another sensational print showing a baby with an umbilicalcord. It inspired a great variety of feelings among the critics. Many countries banned theadvertisement because of its shocking power. On the other hand the company explained the ideaof their ad as showing the power of love and the beauty of new life. The baby in the ad wassimply symbolizing the most permanent form of love. It was one of the most prohibited prints inthe history of advertising and has entered the Guinness World Records as “the most controversialad campaign.” Picture 5.3 Baby with an umbilical cord. Source: BenettonIn spite of all the problems connected with addressing problems in the Benetton ads bad PR isstill a PR. It doesn’t matter if the company is highly criticized or not, people still spread the wordabout it. As Luciano Benetton said: “If everyone likes a campaign, no one will talk about it.”1Oliviero Toscani, photographer and art director of Benetton explains the situation: “There arepeople who, when they look at a picture, they get angry at it. But they should get angry atthemselves for not having the courage to look into the problem.” “There isnt such a thing as a1 Rees, J.,2003. Luciano the Magnificent. The Telegraph. Available from: [Accessed 1 June 2012] 38
  39. 39. shocking picture,” he continues, “there is shocking reality that is being reproduced throughphotography to the people who arent there.”1The company continued to maintain its image of a brand showing real life problems later on withtheir campaigns displaying AIDS crisis, environmental disasters, wars, exiles, deathpunishments, etc. The company is not afraid of the attacks from all the sides as they bring lots ofpublicity. One of the recent campaigns called “Unhate” shows the politicians and well-knownreligious people kissing each other. Among them are such heroes as President Obama kissingChinese leader Hu Jianto, North Korean Supreme Leader Kim Jong-il kissing President of SouthKorea Lee Myung-bak, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Israel’s Netanyahu kissingPalistinian President Abbas, German Chancellor Merkel kissing French President Sarkozy, andPope Benedict XVI kissing Sheikh Ahmed Mohamed el-Tayeb.2 Picture 5.4 “Unhate” campaign. Source: BenettonThe campaign calls to overcome hate, political problems as well as stereotypes for the victory ofgood. The campaign has naturally become subject of attacks claiming that it is purely shockvalue and increased sales that the brand is interested in.1 Tomkins, R., 2010. Oliviero Toscani: There are no shocking pictures, only shocking reality. CNN. Available from: [Accessed 27 May 2012]2 Turner, C., 2011. Benettons controversial Unhate ad campaign features world leaders kissing. Available from: [Accessed 27 May 2012] 39
  40. 40. Benetton has chosen their unique way of being visible at the market and stand out of thecompetitors’ crowd. By usage of this technique the company innovated a lot in thecommunication with the potential customer. The brand is easily identified by the general publicbecause Benetton’s ads make them think and then use word of mouth techniques to advertise thecompany among their friends and speak up about the existing world problems. Therefore theimage of the company stays in mind for longer time taking the form of associations withparticular pictures.By using the images of the global issues in their ads and not showing products or big logos thecompany was appealing to a wider range of people. There is no difference if you are black, whiteor yellow, you live in Australia, Panama or Great Britain, such problems as Aids, racism,stereotypes and misunderstandings are the same everywhere, without any regard of race or placeof birth. Therefore the company was also cutting costs by producing the same ad for differentcountries. Benetton is not using any provocative techniques in their advertisements, but theyincrease public awareness of the global issues, concerning, millions and sometimes billions ofpeople all around the world. By being creative as well as controversial and making people think,not just consume, Benetton’s advertisements are winning awards and exposure in many galleriesall over the world.All the Benetton ads, unlike the ones of the competitors are meaningful, sometimes they are clearand loud and sometimes they are just built on attractive, controversial image. But the mostimportant thing in their premises is that they all have an important, colorful message inside. 40
  41. 41. 6. Research. Recognition of traditional and creative marketing techniques among the consumers.6.1 The goal and methods of the research.In the previous subsections of my work I have presented information about advertising as awhole and it’s creative “daughter” in comparison, the difference between them and how theywork. I have presented some examples of what I think creative advertising is. The main goal ofthis research is to find out what people think about advertising in general and find out theiropinion about creative ways of advertising the product or service. Which one is more effectivetraditional way, or creative one and why? Moreover I decided to analyze the advertising byBenetton from the general public point of view.Data collection method used is an Internet-based survey. All the information was collected withthe help of the survey portal The questionnaire consists of 21 closed andopen-ended questions. The techniques that I am mostly using are the scaled-response formatfrom 1 to 5 and likert scaling method (for example from strongly disagree to strongly agree) Thequestionnaire is planned to get step by step response, from introduction about generaladvertising to the base and conclusion about creative advertising and Benetton example.The presentation of the results is done with the help of the tables with the statistical answers inpercentages. 6.2 SampleThe survey was taken by 85 people, representatives of different countries of the world. For thequestion “In which country you have spent most of your life?” I have decided to chose thisquestion, but not the one about the place of birth, because in today’s world people travel a lotand boundaries seem to disappear. For that reason they are mostly influenced by the ads of thecountry they are spending most of the time in. 45 respondents, or more than half of the sampleanswered that they have spent most of their lives in Poland. 9 people or 11% of the respondentsanswered Belarus. The same number of respondents are the representatives of Ukraine. Otherpeople are the representatives of Azerbaijan, Canada, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany,Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and USA. 41
  42. 42. Picture 6.1 Number of respondents out of the total per each countryMost of the people that have answered the questions of the survey are women (more than 58%).This fact is quite important and interesting at the same time, because women influence 95% ofbuying decisions and purchase over 85% of all products, which indirectly means that they areaffected by advertising much more than men. 42
  43. 43. Table 6.1 Gender of the respondentsThe respondents that have taken part in the survey are of different age, born from 1945 till 1993.As it can be seen from the Picture 6.2 the biggest number of people questioned was born at theperiod from 1987 till 1992, which means that these are the young people, usually students, whoare affected by all kinds of advertising from TV and Radio, to billboards and flyers. Picture 6.2 Age to the number of respondentsThese three basic features such as country, gender and year of birth make my sample random andrepresentative at the same, which makes it interesting to study and research. 43
  44. 44. 6.3 Data analysisQuestion 1: How important is advertising in your life? Table 6.2 Importance of advertising for respondents.The research is showing that for the most questioners advertising either doesn’t play any majorrole in lives or is quite important, which is proved by the answers to the question 2:” How oftenis your decision to buy a product or service influenced by advertising?” Most of the respondentshave answered that their buying decisions are sometimes influenced by the advertising they haveseen or heard.Question 2: How often is your decision to buy a product or service influenced by advertising?For the great majority of people (almost 80%) their decision to buy a product is influenced byadvertisements, but it happens either sometimes or rarely. This means that ads actually doesn’talways make people buy the product or service immediately, however they can help toemphasize the values that the brand has and influence people’s buying decisions later on. At thesame time almost 15% of the respondents state that their buying behavior is influenced by theads most of the time. 44
  45. 45. Table 6.3. The influence of advertising on the buying decision.Question 3:” How strong you think is the relationship between the quality of advertising and thequality of the product or service being advertised?” The greatest part of the respondents (35, 7%)thinks that there is a moderate connection between the advertising and the quality of the productbeing advertised. Every 5th respondent thinks that there is a weak relationship between theadvertising and quality, however the same amount of people think that both qualities are quitewell correlated between each other. Table 6.4 Relationship between quality of advertising and quality of products. 45
  46. 46. Question 4: “How familiar are you with each of these kinds of advertising? ( Please use this five-star scale: 1- never experienced it, 2 - experienced it a few times, 3 – experience it at least onceper month, 4 – experience it at least once per week, 5 – experience it every day)”The research shows that people more often encounter Billboard and Internet web pagesadvertising. The great majority of people (more than 60%) say that they experience these kindsof advertisings every day. It is not a big surprise, because as long as you search the internet ortake a walk to your office you are simply being “bombarded” by them. The interesting fact isthat Television ads, that seem to be the most expensive according to the respondents opinion(picture 6.9), doesn’t seem to be very often experienced. It is on the third place in the table ofrespondent’s answers, according to the statistics. The methods rarely experienced by therespondents include advertisings, sent by mail (19%) and E-mail spam (almost 17%). Table 6.5 The level of advertising experience in percentage.Question 5:”How effective is each of these kinds of advertising in selling products and servicesto you? (Please use this five-star scale: 1-not effective at all, 2 – slightly effective, 3- moderatelyeffective, 4 – very effective, 5-extremely effective)”In this case word-of-mouth advertising seems to be at the leading position. This data also provedby some studies compiled by the Word of Mouth Marketing Association. For example 76 percentof United Kingdom consumers in 2004 said that a recommendation from a friend made them feel 46
  47. 47. most comfortable about a product and service vs. 15 percent who said that they were affected byother ways of advertising.In my survey television ads and presentation/special events methods of advertising take the 2ndand the 3rd place respectively by being effective in selling the product or service to the customer.The methods which seem to be the least successful in influencing the customer to buy somethingare E-mail spam (more than 70%), advertisements, sent by post (44, 05 %) and advertisings inpublic transportation together with printed flyers (around 30% each)Table 6.6 Effectiveness of advertising methods in selling products/services to the consumer.Question 6: “What is your estimate of the cost of each of these kinds of advertising? (Please usethis five-star scale: 1 – very inexpensive, 2 – relatively inexpensive, 3 – moderately expensive, 4– fairly expensive, 5 – very expensive)”According to the answers of the people who took part in the survey Television Ads are the mostexpensive method of advertising (opinions of 76, 19% of respondents). It seems to be so,because of the great potential audience of those ads. For example the 30 second spot during thesuper bowl competition that was oriented towards 111 million-plus fans cost the companies3,5million dollars average. The least expensive according to the respondents are the e-mail andword-of-mouth ads (71,43 and almost 69% respectively). 47
  48. 48. Table 6.7 The cost of advertising methods.Question 7: “How strong do you think is the relationship between the amount of money spent onadvertising and its effectiveness in selling the product or service being advertised? “Almost half of the respondents think that there is a substantial relationship between the amountof money spent on advertising and its effect on the product or service sales. However in this casethey are contradicting themselves in a way that for previous questions they have taken word-of-mouth advertising as the most effective and one of the cheapest. A bit more than 2% of thepeople asked to fill in the survey think that there is no relationship at all between money investedin advertising and the amount of sales.Table 6.8 The dependence between money spent on advertising and product/service sales. 48
  49. 49. Question 8: “How much influence does each of these advertising elements have on your decisionto buy a product or service? (Please use this five-star scale: 1-no influence, 2 – slight influence,3- moderate influence, 4 – substantial influence, 5- very strong influence)”When it comes to methods to attract customer’s attention the most effective one seems to behumor (28,57% of the respondents think so) Technical details (25%) also play an important role.When advertising the product or service the company should also take into consideration InternetForums and opinions of the experts (17, 86% each)It seems to be interesting that public figure (famous actor or singer) on which companies spendsometimes millions of dollars (Chanel paid Nicole Kidman $3 million to act in one of its ads). Table 6.9 Influence of the different ad elements on buying decision.Question 9:” Please write a description of an unusual way of advertising a product or service thatyou have experienced.”The answers for this question among the respondents were not surprising. Most of the peopleprovided the links to the videos or descriptions of the ambient media or guerilla advertisingtechniques. One of the unusual advertising examples provided was the campaign by TNT cableTV provider in Belgium. The red button was put in the main square of one city with a postersaying “Add some drama”. When somebody was pushing the button the action started: theemergency car with a fake patient, police and mafia shutting each other, rugby players fighting,etc. Another one was the example of Axe girls working near the showers to help the men getclean during the Hip-Hop Kemp Festival. The other case that was given by a French person wasthe case of Parisian metro, which made the campaign about rude behavior in the public transport,showing people with animal heads (chicken, bull, dog, donkey). The message was quite simple:People, please don’t behave like animals. The interesting example that was provided by the 49
  50. 50. polish person is the advertising campaign of a Polish condom producer saying “Zalóż softwarena swój hardware” which literally means “Put software on your hardware”. Another respondentliked the ads by Bud Light beer and was describing them as very funny and effective. Othercompanies, that are using unusual ways of advertising their products or services according to therespondents included Polish companies such as Play Mobile, Heyah, Netia, Orange and suchworld companies and brands as M&M, Budweiser, Heineken, P&G, Unilever, Skyn and others.Question 10:” How familiar are you with the concept of “creative advertising”?”Most of the people that filled in the survey admit that they have heard, but don’t know muchabout creative advertising (27, 36). At the same time this concept seems to be absolutely new tomore than 13% of the respondents. The same amount of people told that they know a lot about it. Table 6.10 Statistics for the creative advertising concept knowledge among the respondents.Question 11:” What do you think makes advertising creative?”The answers for this questions were different, but mainly focused on innovation, simplicity,witty slogan, great ideas and humor. Some people think that the answer to the question is greatprofessionals, who know how to attract people using psychology and playing on human’sfeelings. Others suppose that creativity is based on something unusual, that helps the ad stand outof the crowd, sometimes weird and absurd which helps to be kept in memory for a long time.According to the respondents’ view creative advertisements should be simple and have a clearvision inside, moreover it shouldn’t force the product to the customer, shouldn’t annoy or botherhim as most of the traditional ads do, but should suggest the product or service to the audience.However one of the most “creative” answers to this question was that creative advertising is theone that has an “idea, which should allow customer to "taste" a feeling of a product.” 50
  51. 51. Question 12:Indicate how much you agree with this statement: “Creative advertising is moreeffective than traditional advertising.”The great majority of people (more than 70%) think that creative advertising has a major powerwhen effecting people compared to the traditional one. Only 5 people out of 84 think thattraditional techniques are more productive than creative. Table 6.11 Effectiveness of creative methods compared to traditional.Question 13: How much does each of these factors help you to remember an advertisement?(Please use this five-star scale: 1- Does not help at all, 2- Helps a little bit, 3 – Helps somewhat,4- Helps a lot, 5 – Helps powerfully)The answers to this question show that creativity is really connected with the way how weremember ads. In particular almost half of the respondents (48,78%) admitted that creative andoriginal techniques help them remember the advertisement . This factor is almost 15% moreeffective than a beautiful song or memorable sounds used in the advertisement. The “weakest”factor that doesn’t help consumers much in keeping the ad of the product in their head is thecelebrity presenting the product or service. 51
  52. 52. Table 6.12 Advertising factors and their effect on remembering the advertisiment. 1 2 3 4 5 Responses Total A famous celebrity presenting a product/service 23,17% 19,51% 24,39% 26,83% 6,10% 84 224 A colorful / bright advertisement that catches the eye 3,66% 17,07% 40,24% 26,83% 12,20% 84 268 A song or memorable sounds 3,66% 7,32% 19,51% 35,37% 34,15% 84 319 Original/ Creative techniques (e.g., using a tunnel in the mountain to portray someones mouth) 2,44% 2,44% 12,20% 34,15% 48,78% 84 348Question 14: World-wide, companies typically spend from just under 1% to as much as 15% ormore of their annual sales revenue on advertising, with the average at about 5%. How muchmoney do you think a new company in Poland would be expected to spend on advertising inorder to be effective (at least generating more revenue through sales than the advertisingexpenses)? Consider using TV, radio and Internet as the advertising media.This question was asked in order to find out what people think about the cost of advertising for acompany. Every third respondent thinks that the company needs to spend between 5 to 6, 9% ofthe sales revenue on advertising. At the same time more than 20% of people think that thecompany should spend around 10-15% out of the revenue. Those numbers are huge, as theyinclude spending money on the traditional methods of advertising using TV, radio and Internet,which don’t always show rapid positive results, while Creative advertising cost usually severaltimes less showing visible results quicker. 52
  53. 53. Table 6.13 Advertising spending in percentage out of the revenue.Question 15: Please write a description of your favorite advertisement.Different people have different tastes in music, food, movies, etc. Advertisements are not in thefield of exceptions at that point. I would just state some of the respondents’ favorite examplesthat I think are the most unusual and creative. The favorite ad of one of the respondents, which Ithink is very creative, is “Never say no to Panda” The commercial is advertising cheese with ananimal representative-panda. The animal is “controlling” cheese consumption and whensomebody says that he or she doesn’t want to eat Panda cheese the creature breaks everything.The other interesting example of a favorite ad is a Mercedes “Sorry” commercial, where thedriver appears to be together with the death in one car and the accident is supposed to happen,but the new brake assistant in the vehicle helps to avoid it.Another case of the favorite ad is the commercial of the German company producing sounds forother ads- A.R.T. Studios. There are two guys in the studio recording the sound, one is lying onthe floor and the other one jumping on him and then there is the other ad showing the breakingchocolate with the same sound.The favorite example from one of the Polish respondents included the advertisement ofVolkswagen passat B5. It shows the car coming to the petrol station. It stops there and theredriver falls from it and than crawls to the bucket with the cleaning liquid and drinks everything.At the end comes the slogan-“New VW passat-up to 1370 kilometers without refueling” 53