Endocrine system presen.11

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SUMMER 2010

Bio - 120

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Endocrine system presen.11

  1. 1. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM<br />byBeatriz Bellini<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. FUNCTION<br />Endocrine glands secrete hormones that regulate many body activities such as:<br /> metabolic rate<br /> water and mineral balance <br /> immune system reactions <br /> sexual functioning<br />
  4. 4. ORGANS<br />ADRENAL GLANDS<br />OVARIES<br />TESTES<br />PANCREAS (islets of Langerhans)<br />PARATHYROID GLANDS<br />THYROID GLAND<br />PINEAL GLAND<br />PITUITARY GLAND<br />THYMUS GLAND<br />
  5. 5. ADRENAL GLANDS<br />Regulates carbohydrate , water and electrolyte levels.<br /> Responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics. <br />Sex hormones: Androgen, Estrogen and Progesterone<br />
  6. 6. OVARIES<br />Regulate female <br />reproductive system.<br />ESTROGEN – Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle.<br />PROGESTERONE – Prepares woman for conditions of pregnancy. <br />
  7. 7. TESTES<br /> Regulate male reproductive <br /> system.<br /> TESTOSTERONE – Promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males.<br />
  8. 8. PANCREAS (islets of Langerhans)<br /> Regulate blood sugar levels.<br />GLUCAGON – Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood.<br />INSULIN – Regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells. <br />
  9. 9. PARATHYROID & THYROID GLANDs<br /> The parathyroid glands regulate the amount of calcium in the blood. Located on the posterior side of the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone.<br /> The thyroid glands regulate metabolic rate. (T3, T4) <br /> Located on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland. Stimulates deposition of calcium into bone.<br />
  10. 10. PINEAL GLAND<br /> Regulates circadian rhythm. <br />The pineal gland is a part of the thalamus region of the brain. It secretes melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the brain by the pineal gland, from the amino acid tryptophan. The synthesis and release of melatonin are stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, suggesting the involvement of melatonin in circadian rhythm and regulation of diverse body functions. Levels of melatonin in the blood are highest prior to bedtime.<br /> This is our 24 hour clock that governs our periods of wakefulness and sleepiness. <br />
  11. 11. PITUITARY GLAND<br />Regulates function of adrenal cortex<br />Stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males<br />Stimulate growth of the body<br />Regulates function of male and female gonads and pays a role in releasing ova in females<br />Stimulates pigments in the skin<br />Stimulates milk production<br />Regulates function of thyroid gland<br />
  12. 12. THYMUS GLAND<br /> Promotes development of cells in immune system.<br /> Located in the mediastinal cavity anterior and superior to the heart.<br /> The thymus is present at birth and grows to its largest size during puberty. At puberty it begins to shrink and eventually is preplaced with connective and adipose tissue.<br />
  13. 13. ENDOCRINE DISORDERS<br />An endocrinologist is a specially trained doctor who diagnoses and treats diseases that affect your glands and hormone levels. Example of a few endocrine system disorders:<br />Adrenal Disorders <br />Diabetes <br />Lipid Disorders <br />Osteoporosis (Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break)<br />Pituitary Disorders <br />Parathyroid and Calcium Disorders (or par- pref. Beside; near; alongside: parathyroid) <br />PCOS, infertility (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)<br />Thyroid Disorders<br />

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