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Controlled Release Oral Drug Delivery System

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Controlled Release Oral Drug Delivery System
Controlled drug delivery is one which delivers the drug at a predetermined rate, for locally or systemically, for a specified period of time.

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  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Controlled Release Oral Drug Delivery System

  1. 1. Controlled Release Oral Drug Delivery System Bhupendra Kumar Yadav M.Pharm University Institute of Pharmacy Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur-492010, Chhattishgarh, India E-mail: byadav48@gmail.com
  2. 2. 2 Contents  Overview of Digestive system  Introduction  Advantages  Disadvantages  Mechanisms 1.Dissolution 2.Diffusion 3.Combination of Dissolution & Diffusion 4.Osmotic pressure controlled system  References
  3. 3. 3 Digestive System
  4. 4. 4 Concept  Controlled drug delivery is one which delivers the drug at a predetermined rate, for locally or systemically, for a specified period of time.  Continuous oral delivery of drugs at predictable & reproducible kinetics for predetermined period throughout the course of GIT.
  5. 5. 5 Plasma concentration time profile
  6. 6. 6 Challenges in Oral Drug Delivery  Development of drug delivery system Delivering a drug at therapeutically effective rate to desirable site.  Modulation of GI transit time Transportation of drug to target site.  Minimization of first pass elimination
  7. 7. 7 Advantages  Total dose is low.  Reduced GI side effects.  Reduced dosing frequency.  Better patient acceptance and compliance.  Less fluctuation at plasma drug levels.  More uniform drug effect  Improved efficacy/safety ratio.
  8. 8. 8 Disadvantages  Dose dumping.  Reduced potential for accurate dose adjustment.  Need of additional patient education.  Stability problem.
  9. 9. 9 Mechanism aspects of Oral drug delivery formulation 1.Dissolution : 1.Matrix 2.Encapsulation 2.Diffusion : 1.Matrix 2.Reservoir 3.Combination of both dissolution & diffusion. 4.Osmotic pressure controlled system
  10. 10. 10 Dissolution Definition:  Solid substances solubilizes in a given solvent.  Mass transfer from solid to liquid.  Rate determining step: Diffusion from solid to liquid.  Several theories to explain dissolution – Diffusion layer theory (imp) Surface renewal theory Limited solvation theory.
  11. 11. 11 Noyes Whitney Equation dc/dt = kD.A (Cs – C ) dc/dt = D/h A. (Cs – C) dc/dt = Dissolution rate. k= Dissolution rate constant (1st order). D = Diffusion coefficient/diffusivity Cs = Saturation/ maximum drug solubility. C =Con. Of drug in bulk solution. Cs-C=concentration gradient. h =Thickness of diffusion layer.
  12. 12. 12 Matrix Type  Also called as Monolith dissolution controlled system.  Controlled dissolution by: 1.Altering porosity of tablet. 2.Decreasing its wettebility. 3.Dissolving at slower rate.  First order drug release.  Drug release determined by dissolution rate of polymer.  Examples: Dimetane extencaps, Dimetapp extentabs. Soluble drug Slowly dissolving matrix
  13. 13. 13 Encapsulation  Called as Coating dissolution controlled system.  Dissolution rate of coat depends upon stability & thickness of coating.  Masks colour,odour,taste,minimising GI irritation.  One of the microencapsulation method is used.  Examples: Ornade spansules, Chlortrimeton Repetabs Soluble drug Slowly dissolving or erodible coat
  14. 14. 14 Diffusion  Major process for absorption.  No energy required.  Drug molecules diffuse from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is attainded.  Directly proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane.
  15. 15. 15 Matrix Diffusion Types  Rigid Matrix Diffusion Materials used are insoluble plastics such as PVP & fatty acids.  Swellable Matrix Diffusion 1. Also called as Glassy hydrogels.Popular for sustaining the release of highly water soluble drugs. 2. Materials used are hydrophilic gums. Examples : Natural- Guar gum,Tragacanth. Semisynthetic -HPMC,CMC,Xanthum gum. Synthetic -Polyacrilamides. Examples: Glucotrol XL, Procardia XL
  16. 16. 16 Matrix system Rate controlling step: Diffusion of dissolved drug in matrix.
  17. 17. 17 Higuchi Equation Q = DE/T (2A.E Cs)Cs.t)1/2 Where , Q=amt of drug release per unit surface area at time t. D=diffusion coefficient of drug in the release medium. E=porosity of matrix. Cs=solubility of drug in release medium. T=tortuosity of matrix. A=concentration of drug present in matrix per unit volume.
  18. 18. 18 Reservoir System  Also called as Laminated matrix device.  Hollow system containing an inner core surrounded in water insoluble membrane.  Polymer can be applied by coating or micro encapsulation.  Rate controlling mechanism - partitioning into membrane with subsequent release into surrounding fluid by diffusion.  Commonly used polymers - HPC, ethyl cellulose & polyvinyl acetate.  Examples: Nico-400, Nitro-Bid
  19. 19. 19 Reservoir System Rate controlling steps : Polymeric content in coating, thickness of coating, hardness of microcapsule.
  20. 20. Entry of dissolution fluid Drug diffusion 20 Dissolution & Diffusion Controlled Release system  Drug encased in a partially soluble membrane.  Pores are created due to dissolution of parts of membrane.  It permits entry of aqueous medium into core & drug dissolution.  Diffusion of dissolved drug out of system.  Ex- Ethyl cellulose & PVP mixture dissolves in water & create pores of insoluble ethyl cellulose membrane. Insoluble membrane Pore created by dissolution of soluble fraction of membrane
  21. 21. 21 Osmotic Pressure Controlled Drug Delivery System  Definition  Procedure  Diagram  Modifications
  22. 22. 22 Osmosis - Movement of solvent from lower to higher concentration. - The passage of solvent into a solution through semipermeable membrane. Semipermeable Membrane Molecules are permitted only to one component (Water). Osmotic pressure It is the hydrostatic pressure produced by a solution in a space divided by a semipermeable membrane due to difference in concentration of solutes.
  23. 23. 23 Osmotic Pressure Controlled System  Provides zero order release  Drug may be osmotically active, or combined with an osmotically active salt (e.g., NaCl).  Semipermeable membrane usually made from cellulose acetate.  More suitable for hydrophilic drug.  Examples: Glucotrol XL, Procardia XL,
  24. 24. 24 Equation (Q/t) z = Pw Am/ hm (πs-πe ) (Q/t)= Rate of zero order drug release. Pw, Am & hm= water permeability, effective surface area & thickness of semipermeable membrane. πs= osmotic pressure of saturated solution of osmotically active drug or salt in system. πe = osmotic pressure of GI fluid.
  25. 25. 25 Osmotic Pressure Controlled System
  26. 26. 26 Osmotic Pressure Controlled System
  27. 27. Modifications - Immediate release system. - Osmotically active compartment system
  28. 28. 28 Immediate Release System  Activation of system is done.  Dividing a dose into two parts.  One third immediate release.  Two third controlled release.  Encapsulated into semipermeable membrane. e.g. : Phenyl propanolamine.
  29. 29. 29 Osmotically active system  Two compartments separated by movable partition.  Osmotically active compartment absorbs water from GIT.  Creates osmotic pressure.  Partition moves upward & then drug releases.  Ex: Nifedipine. Movable partition Delivery orifice Drug compartment Osmotically active compartment
  30. 30. 30 Some Popular Brand names used for OCDDS  Spansule capsule ( SK & F )  Sequal capsule (Lederle )  Extentab tablets ( Robins )  Timespan tablet ( Roche )  Dospan tablet ( Merrell Dow )  Chronotab tablet ( Schering )  Plateau capsule ( Marion )  Tempule capsule ( Armour )
  31. 31. 31 Some Examples of OCDDS  Propranolol (Inderal LA)  Methyiphenidate HCl (RitalinSR)  Iron (Slow-Fe)  GITS-Prazosin (Minipress)  Morphine sulfate (Roxanol SR)  Decongestant & antihistamine (Resaid SR, Novafed SR Dristan)  Pseudoephedrine HCI (Sudafed SA)  Potassium (Micro-K, Slow-K, Klotrix)  Antitussive combinations (Rescap, Ornade Spansules)  Chlorpheniramine maleate (ChlorTrimeton)  Decongestant, antihistamine and anticholinergic (Dallergy, Supres)
  32. 32. 32 Recent Trends : Extended release formulation of Bupropion  Bupropion is used in the treatment of major depressive disorder.  Conventional formulation has to be administered 3 times daily  Initially 150 mg ER formulation was introduced for bid regimen Later on 300 mg ER formulation was introduced for once daily regimen  For ER formulation provide similar Cmax and AUC values as compared to immediate release formulation at steady state.
  33. 33. 33 Recent Trends : Extended release formulation of Bupropion
  34. 34. 34 Recent Trends: OROS Technology (ALZA corporation)  Single layer tablet: Drug core (water soluble drug with or without excipients)  Semipermeable membrane with a drilled orifice  Water imbibition by the core because of osmotic action results in drug dissolution, which is released at a controlled rate through the orifice ELEMENTARY OSMOTIC PUMP  Not suitable for water insoluble drugs.  Examples: Sudafed 24 hours (Pseudoephedrine); Volmax (Salbutamol)
  35. 35. Recent trends: Geomatrix® (SKY Parma) 35 Products in market: Cordicant -uno® Madopar DR SULAR ER This technology Controls amount, timing and location of release in body. -Formulation with predictable and reproducible drug release profile. -Controls rate of drug diffusion throughout release process, ensuring 100% release Products
  36. 36. 36 References  Novel drug delivery system , volume 50, Y.W.Chien  The theory & practice of industrial pharmacy, Leon Lachman , Herbert A.Lieberman, Joseph L.Kanig,3 rd edition.  The Eastern pharmacist, november 1993. Sustained release drugs, V R.Gudsoorkar & D.Rambhau page 27-32  Biopharmaceuitics & pharmacokinetics, D M.Brahmankar & Sunil B. Jaiswal. www.google.com
  37. 37. 37 Thank you for paying attention… If this presentation was useful to u, then please click like button

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