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  2. 2. ►Report means a statement or description ofReport means a statement or description of what has been said, seen, done, etc.what has been said, seen, done, etc. ►It contains facts figures, information,It contains facts figures, information, analysis, opinions, suggestions,analysis, opinions, suggestions, recommendations, drafts, charts, pictures,recommendations, drafts, charts, pictures, statistical tables specially complied for astatistical tables specially complied for a particular purpose.particular purpose.
  3. 3. TYPES OF REPORTSTYPES OF REPORTS 1)1) According to use:According to use: ► externalexternal ► internalinternal 2)2) According to period:According to period: ► routineroutine ► specialspecial
  4. 4. 3)3) According to levels of management:According to levels of management: ► Reports to Top ManagementReports to Top Management ► Reports to Functional ManagementReports to Functional Management ► Reports to Junior Level ManagementReports to Junior Level Management ► Functional ReportsFunctional Reports
  5. 5. 4)4) Corporate Reports:Corporate Reports: ► Statutory reportStatutory report ► Directors’ reportDirectors’ report ► Auditors’ reprtAuditors’ reprt ► Non-statutory reportNon-statutory report 5)5) Other Reports:Other Reports: ► ReviewReview ► Cost-AuditCost-Audit ► InterimInterim ► OralOral
  6. 6. FORMAT OF A REPORTFORMAT OF A REPORT ►Cover sheetCover sheet ►Title pageTitle page ►AbstractAbstract ►Table of contentsTable of contents ►IntroductionIntroduction ►The body of the reportThe body of the report ►Conclusion (and recommendations ifConclusion (and recommendations if applicable)applicable) ►References / BibliographyReferences / Bibliography ►Glossary (if needed)Glossary (if needed) ►AppendicesAppendices
  7. 7. REPORT CHECKLISTREPORT CHECKLIST 1.1. Title pageTitle page ►titletitle ►writerwriter ►organisationorganisation ►datedate ►person/group who commissioned theperson/group who commissioned the reportreport 2.2. Table of contentsTable of contents ►accurate, clear layoutaccurate, clear layout
  8. 8. ► section numbering system andsection numbering system and indentationindentation ► completecomplete ► page numberspage numbers ► list of illustrations if applicablelist of illustrations if applicable 3. Abstract3. Abstract ► appropriate lengthappropriate length ► complete summary of key informationcomplete summary of key information ► informative, not descriptive, in forminformative, not descriptive, in form ► impersonal toneimpersonal tone ► connected proseconnected prose
  9. 9. 4 Introduction •relating topic to wider field •necessary background information •purpose of report •scope of report •explanation of arrangement of report sections 5.Body format •main headings indicating equal level of importance
  10. 10. ►all subheadings relating to section headingall subheadings relating to section heading ►choice of levels indicating hierarchy ofchoice of levels indicating hierarchy of importanceimportance ►hierarchy of importance shown by carefulhierarchy of importance shown by careful and consistent use of features such asand consistent use of features such as capitals, different fonts, underlining, bold,capitals, different fonts, underlining, bold, italicsitalics ►indentingindenting ►numbering/letter systemnumbering/letter system ►space between sections to enhancespace between sections to enhance readability and layoutreadability and layout ►when using charts, statistics andwhen using charts, statistics and illustrations check for suitability, captions,illustrations check for suitability, captions, reference in text and positioningreference in text and positioning
  11. 11. ►acknowledgement of all sources,acknowledgement of all sources, including material referred to indirectly,including material referred to indirectly, direct quotations, copied diagrams,direct quotations, copied diagrams, tables, statisticstables, statistics ►ensure a systematic link betweenensure a systematic link between references in the text and the referencereferences in the text and the reference list and bibliographylist and bibliography 6.Expression6.Expression ►correctcorrect ►own wordsown words ►conciseconcise ►clear to intended readerclear to intended reader ►formal and factualformal and factual
  12. 12. 7. Content7. Content ►logical development of ideas from onelogical development of ideas from one section to another, and within eachsection to another, and within each sectionsection ►citing evidenceciting evidence ►relevantrelevant ►objectiveobjective ►SpecificSpecific 8. Conclusion(s)8. Conclusion(s) ►arising out of the factsarising out of the facts ►convincingconvincing ►a substantial basis for thea substantial basis for the recommendationsrecommendations
  13. 13. 9. Recommendations (if applicable)9. Recommendations (if applicable) ►based on the conclusionsbased on the conclusions ►practicalpractical ►specificspecific ►well organised, with the most importantwell organised, with the most important firstfirst 10. List of references10. List of references ►sources in the text listed by the Harvardsources in the text listed by the Harvard systemsystem
  14. 14. 11. Bibliography11. Bibliography ►texts consulted but not referred to directlytexts consulted but not referred to directly in the reportin the report 12. Glossary (if included)12. Glossary (if included) ►arranged alphabeticallyarranged alphabetically 13. Appendix (appendices)13. Appendix (appendices) ►placed at end of a report if includedplaced at end of a report if included ►arranged in the order referred to in thearranged in the order referred to in the reportreport