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  1. 1. FACULTY OF ENGINEERING (Affiliated to Kurukshetra University) CHIRAO, KARNAL HARYANA Persistence of Vision MAJOR PROJECT SYNOPSIS BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Communication Engg. Session-2010-2013 SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Er. RAHUL PANWAR SOURABH (7910476-L) ( HOD ECE & Project Head)
  2. 2. Objective:- Our project focuses on meeting the tremendous growth of advertisement. Persistence of vision (POV) provides a unique technique to display our messages for advertising in an efficient way and proper utilization of provided space. It is much more attractive than LCD displays or dot matrix displays for displaying messages. Description of Project:- 1.Microcontroller: The microcontroller will act as an SPI master. It will communicate to the LED driver via SPI bus. It will send serial commands to write the registers on the LED driver chips. 2.LED driver: The LED-driver controls the functioning of LED array and provides the desired switching of LEDs. 3.LED Array: It is an array of LED that will turn on/off according to the message to be displayed. It displays the message in 2-D or 3-D pattern. 4.Motor/Driver System: This will provide the facility to rotate the onboard circuit up to the desired speed that is sufficient for the principle of Persistence of Vision. 5.Power Supply: The power supply unit provides the power to microcontroller, led driver and motor/driver system. 6.Sensor circuit and controller: To collect the RPM data needed for timing calculations, the microcontroller is connected to a sensor circuit board. This circuit will sense the rotation and will provide the information about the revolution per second. Definition of Project:- 1.Persistence of Vision: “Persistence of Vision” refers to the phenomenon where the retina retains an image for a brief split-second after the image was actually seen, and lends itself to animation by fostering the illusion of motion when we view images in closely-timed sequence to
  3. 3. one another. We don’t notice the fractional skips between images because that persistence fills in the momentary gap to make the motion seem seamless. 2. POV Displays: A class of display device described as “POV” is the one that composes an image by displaying one spatial portion at a time in rapid succession (for example, one column of pixels every few milliseconds). A two dimensional POV display is often accomplished by means of rapidly moving a single row of LEDs along a linear or circular path. The effect is that the image is perceived as a whole by the viewer as long as the entire path is completed during the visual persistence time of the human eye. A further effect is often to give the illusion of the image floating in mid-air. A three dimensional POV display is often constructed using a 2D grid of LEDs which is swept or rotated through a volume. Block Diagram:- Working: Rotation of single LED with high speed in circular motion gives the appearance of complete circle due to the persistence of vision. It forms a matrix and the resolution of message depends on the speed. The single element shows a pixel of the matrix. This idea can be extended to rotate a line of number of LEDs and thus create a display of letters or numbers. Now depending on what has to be displayed, the LEDs are synchronised and the required message is displayed in two dimensions. Flow Diagram
  4. 4. Details of hardware Components and software being used: Hardware used:
  5. 5. 1 Microcontroller ATMEGA644: It is an 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller with 64 k byte in system programmable flash. It will send commands to write the registers on the LED driver. 2. Motor/driver system: The motor/driver system is rotated at a particular speed which will provide the speed required for persistence of vision (POV). 3. Sensor circuit and controller: It will sense the speed and trigger the interrupt the controller. Controller will provide the information of rpm of motor. 4. LED driver (MAX6966): It acts as a SPI slave. It has 10 output pins and an SPI input bus. It can control 3 RGB LEDs. Each pin on MAX6966 chip can be chosen to turn on or off a colour for a specific LED. 5. LED array: It contains a number of LEDs aligned in a particular pattern, which when derived by the motor forms a matrix and will display the desired message. Software used: 6.2.1 Keil: Keil software is used for programming of microcontroller and to connect the microcontroller to the LED driver through SPI interfacing. The programming is done in embedded C. 6.2.2 Proteus: Proteus simulator is used for the simulation process. TIME&COST 1.TIME ESTIMATED FOR COMPLETION OF PROJECT: RESEARCH PHASE - Two months
  6. 6. DESIGN PHASE - Three months DEVELOPMENT – Two months TESTING – One month 2. COST Estimated cost of the project is Rs.4000-5000. Advantage:- The more attractive the message will be, the more people will get influenced by it. The main motive of our project is to make the advertising media an effective one. Following are the areas in which POV plays a unique role: ADVERTISING EDUCATION ENTERTAINMENT ANIMATION PROPELLER CLOCK TOYS AND GAMES MALLS 3-D DISPLAY SCOPE: 1.Advertisement: In this modern era there is a growing need of advertising the products & services. People get influenced by good advertisement. Persistence of vision proved to be a very effective method for providing a visual image to attract the consumers. Advertisement can be made much more attractive by two dimension or three dimension visual image. 2. Entertainment: Persistence of vision plays a very vital role in entertainment point of view. It can be used in shopping malls for displaying messages. It can also be used in film industry. Motion pictures are based on the principle of persistence of vision. The display is like any complex toy .We can make it for fun and diversion by using this application in games and toys.
  7. 7. 3.Animation: The Persistence of vision is the basic principle of animation. This technique is also used in cartoon animation. Cartoon movies are also the result of persistence of vision. 4.Education: If Persistence of vision is used in education field it will provide a better way for interactive education. Many concept need to be explained in three dimension view that can be easily demonstrated by the help of this persistence of vision. Conclusion: As it is, this pyro propeller clock POV turned out exactly as I had hoped. It is just simple enough, that I feel people can duplicate it with much less perspiration than it took me to build it, yet it still achieves the desired POV effect that looks so cool. However, the simplistic design has its trade-offs; especially in terms of reliability. The system created here could only run for a few hours before the 9v battery died, making this more of a novelty project. But if you are trying to build your own propeller clock POV for fun, then novelty is what it is all about! Reference: http://people.ece.cornell.edu/land/courses/ece4760/FinalProjects/s2012/jm787_dab355/jm787_dab355/in dex.html http://liudr.wordpress.com/2011/04/03/persistence-of-vision-2/ http://courses.engr.illinois.edu/ece445/projects/spring2011/project6_proposal.pdf http://animation.about.com/od/glossaryofterms/g/pervision_def.htm https://www.google.co.in/search?q=persistence+of+vision+iit+kanpur&oq=persistence+of+vision+iit+ka npur&sugexp=chrome,mod=0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 http://www.siliconindia.com/aiepic/project/persistence_of_vision_display-pid=2594.html http://www.techlink.org.nz/student-showcase/electronics/images/Logan-spinning-led-display.pdf