Energy merter

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Energy merter

  1. 1. Objective:- Indian power sector is facing serious problem of lean revenue collection as against energy supplied due to energy thefts and network losses. All the steps taken so far, regarding the improvement of the revenue collection did not yield satisfactory results. It is reported that the most faulty sub system is the metering and meter reading system. The traditional billing systems are discrete, inaccurate, costly, slow, and lack flexibility as well as reliability. Therefore, several attempts were made to automate the billing systems. Even though accurate and fast readings are obtained, bill payment is still performed based on the old billing procedure. They require an individual/agent to physically come and take down the readings and report to house hold/office the amount one has to pay. To understand, analyze, design and develop an on line pre-paid energy meter which provides both the suppliers and the consumers with better services regarding meter billing and payment. Description of project:- This is a very good microcontroller based application. This unit will accept the number of units recharged by the concerned department person, counts the number of units consumed by the customer and as soon as the customer exceeds the recharged amount, it will disconnect the power supply to the customer until the next recharge. Whenever the number of units in microcontroller becomes zero microcontroller sends a signal to “Contact Maker /Breaker circuit” which is nothing but the relay and this relay cuts off the power supply to the consumer until next recharge. Here analog energy meter is replaced by a digital energy meter. The digital energy meter used here is a high accuracy; low cost, single phase power meter based on the ADE7757.The meter is designed for use in single phase 2 wire distribution system. A relay is connected in between power lines and the load. The relay is controlled by the primary controller. Microcontroller 89C51 acts as the primary controller. The primary controller collects information from digital energy meter as well as from the smart card. Smart gives information about the limitation of units. The digital energy meter reading is compared with the smart card information by the primary controller and hence suitably primary controller controls the relay.
  2. 2. Definition of Project:- The aim of this project is to design a prepaid energy meter to monitor the consumption of electricity in domestic needs. The standard business model of electricity retailing involves the electricity company billing the customer for the amount of energy used in the previous month or quarter. In some countries, if the retailer believes that the customer may not pay the bill for what ever reason a prepayment meter may be installed. This requires the customer to make advance payment before using the electricity. If the available credit is exhausted then the supply of electricity is automatically cut off by a relay. BLOCK DIAGRAM:- Working:- When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected kit.Then the card reader will read the stored information and delete the information from the EEPROM IC(smart card) using the MC program. So that the smart card cannot be reused by others. Suppose if a consumer buy a card for Rs.50/- he / she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated. According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced. When the amount is over, the relay will automatically shutdown the whole system. In our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced. You can also find the Card programmer circuit
  3. 3. and program from the download. So that you can easily create your own cards. When the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected kit.Then the card reader will read the stored information and delete the information from the EEPROM IC(smart card) using the MC program. So that the smart card cannot be reused by others. Suppose if a consumer buy a card for Rs.50/- he / she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energy meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated. According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced. When the amount is over, the relay will automatically shutdown the whole system. In our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced. You can also find the Card programmer circuit and program from the download. So that you can easily create your own cards. Component list:- S.No. COMPONENT SPECIFICATION QUANTITY 1. MICRO CONTOLLER ATMEL8952 1 2. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 11.0592 Hz 1 3. LCD 16*2 1 4. POTENTIOMETER 10 K 1 5. TRANSISTOR(PNP/NPN) BC 557 1 6 LED’s 6 8. SWITCHES Push to on 7 9. CAPACITORS 10Uf,22pF 1.2 11. RESISTANCES 3.3kohm 7 12. PCB Specific 1 13 PULL UP RESISTOR 10K 1 14 RF MODULE 455Hz 1 15 IC HT-12E 1 16 IC HT-12D 1 17 IC 555 1
  4. 4. 18 ANTENNAS 2 Hardware and software details:- 1.keil software 2.proteus Advantage:- 1.Improved operational efficiencies: The prepaid meters are likely to cut the cost of meter reading as no meter readers are required. In addition, they eliminate administrative hassles associated with disconnection and reconnection. Besides, going by South Africa’s experience, prepaid meters could help control appropriation of electricity in a better way than conventional meters. 2.Reduced financial risks: Since the payment is up-front, it reduces the financial risk by improving the cash flows and necessitates an improved revenue management system. 3.Better customer service: The system eliminates billing delay, removes cost involved in disconnection/reconnection, enables controlled use of energy, and helps customers to save money through better energy management. Market Drivers 1.Power sector reforms: The upcoming competitive and customer focused deregulated power distribution market will force the market participants to make the existing metering and billing process more competent. This is likely to drive the prepaid market. 2.Increasing non-technical losses: Metering errors, tampering with meters leading to low registration and calibration related frauds are some of the key components of non-technical
  5. 5. losses. India reports greater than 10 percent of non-technical losses. It has been reported that prepaid meters control non-technical losses better than conventional ones. 3.Opportunities in the emerging electrifying markets: Most of the Asian countries do not have 100 percent electrification; hence new markets are being created by the increasing generating capacity. Prepaid systems can be more easily introduced in such new markets rather than the existing ones. Scope • The system can be made more user friendly by using smart card technology. • Further work can be done in reading the consumed energy from energy meter wirelessly using Bluetooth technology. Conclusions An attempt is made in this work to develop a system, which when interfaced with static electronic energy meter works as an online prepaid energy meter. The consumers and the suppliers can be benefited by using the online prepaid energy meter in the following ways • This system is of great advantage for the electricity department as this unit can be utilized effectively for preventing power theft, non-payment of electricity bills etc. • The whole process of billing can be centralized. • Cost of manpower for billing / collection is reduced.

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