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Climate-Smart Ag Webinar: Soil Management

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As part of an ongoing collaboration on Climate-Smart Agriculture between the UC Davis World Food Center, Wageningen University, the California Department of Food and Agriculture and the California Air Resources Board, this webinar will focus on the challenges and opportunities for soil management to mitigate and adapt to changing climate.

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Climate-Smart Ag Webinar: Soil Management

  1. 1. Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management
  2. 2. WELCOMING & OPENING REMARKS Dr. Josette Lewis World Food Center – UC Davis Dr. Neli Prota Wageningen University and Research Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands
  3. 3. ORGANIZERS Josette Lewis World Food Center UC Davis MODERATOR Neli Prota CSA Booster Wageningen UR MODERATOR Madeleine van Mansfeld Wageningen UR Amrith Gunasekara CDFA Gertjan Fonk Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs Josh Eddy CDFA Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR HEALTHY SOILS Dr. William Horwath UC Davis Dr. Titia Mulder Wageningen University and Research Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands
  5. 5. ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES TO ADDRESS GHG MITIGATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION William R. Horwath Department of Land Air and Water Resources University of California, Davis CALIFORNIA-NETHERLANDS WEBINAR CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE: SOIL MANAGEMENT FEBRUARY 14, 2017
  6. 6. Objectives • Mitigating N2O emissions in agriculture thru micro irrigation practices • Subsurface drip reduces N2O emissions • Tomatoes • Dairy • Assessment and potential for soil carbon sequestration opportunities • Sequestration rates optimistic • Where would the nitrogen come from to sequester soil carbon?
  7. 7. Processing Tomatoes: Annual N2O Emissions Fertilizer Rate & Irrigation Effects kgN2O-Nha-1 0 2 4 6 8 Tomato (Furrow-irrigated) Oct 2009 - Sept 2010 0 75 162 225 300 kg N ha-1 applied 180 SDI kgN2O-Nha-1 0 2 4 6 8 Tomato (Furrow-irrigated) Oct 2010 - Aug 2011 0 75 162 225 300 kg N ha-1 applied 180 SDI Crop N off-take: 150 to 230 kg N ha-1
  8. 8. Statistical significance GWP in tomatoes as a function of cover crops and irrigation practice FI= Furrow Irrigation SDI=Subsurface drip irrigation Fallow= No cover crop Trit=Triticale Mixed=Legume/grass • N2O emission < 1/3 total Unpublished data; do not cite
  9. 9. 0 Applying Dairy Manure Through Subsurface Drip versus Flood Irrigation Reduces N2O Emissions in Forage Production Systems Unpublished data; do not cite 2015 2016 System Soil Irrigation Total N20 Electricity Diesel kg CO2 eq. ha-1 SDI wheat 847 95 190 1130 (±260) SDI corn 180 575 190 942 (±50) Flood wheat 3530 99 190 3810 (±1520) Flood corn 1700 75 190 1960 (±280)
  10. 10. POTENTIAL OF US SOILS TO SEQUESTER C AND MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE Ecosystem Land area* (Mha) Rate (Mg C ha-1 y-1) Total Potential (Tg C y-1) Reference Cropland 156.9 0.3-0.5 45-98 Lal et al. (1998) Grazing land 336.0 0.04-0.21 13-70 Follett et al. (2001) Forest land 236.1 0.11-0.43 25-102 Kimble et al. (2002) Land conversion 16.8 0.125-0.46 21-77 Lal et al. (2003) Soil restoration 498.4 0.05-0.12 25-60 Lal et al. (2003) Other land use 166.0 0.09-0.15 12-25 Lal et al. (2003) Total 144-432 (288) Lal et al. (2003)
  11. 11. 4 PER THOUSAND INITIATIVE COP21 Total Pool = 825 Gt .... Batjes (1996) = 850×0.4%= 3.6 Gt C/yr Global Soil Organic Carbon Pool 0-40cm Depth Soil C sequestration potential (t ha-1 10 y-1 ) Gt soil carbon (globally 10 y-1 ) 1 2.7 3 8.0 5 13.4 10 26.8 15 40.2 20 53.6 • 2,682 million hectares agricultural land globally in 2030 (FAO) • assume consistent indefinite management to sequester soil C • Including rangeland/pastures (5x ag area and plantation forests 20% of ag area) would help in achieving goal Assume: What is possible on agricultural land: 4 per thousand in 10 years is 36 Gt C/ 10 yrLikely outcome
  12. 12. • Irrigation technologies: sub-surface drip irrigation improves yield, reduces N2O emissions and reduces GWP. • Soil carbon sequestration to meet 4 per mille goal is optimistic • Requires additional nitrogen input • Climate warming could increase soil carbon priming and GHG • Regardless of goal, any increase in soil carbon would be beneficial SUMMARY
  13. 13. Thank you!
  14. 14. Soil carbon sequestration as a strategy for climate change mitigation 4 per mille Initiative - Soils for Food Security and Climate Dr. Ir. V.L. Mulder, Prof. B. Minasny, Dr. Ir. D. Arrouays Climate-Smart Agriculture Webinar, 14 February 2017 Soil Geography and Landscape Group, Wageningen University
  15. 15. 4 per mille Initiative for Food Security and climate 15 Minasny et al., 2017. Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma, 292, pp. 59-86
  16. 16. Wageningen UR & 4 per mille  Climate Smart Agriculture, Sustainable Development Goals  Wageningen UR has the scientific expertise and knowledge at the process level on the behaviour of carbon and organic matter in soils  National and EU FP7 and H2020 research projects ● Soil carbon sequestration ● Soil degradation ● e.g. AnimalChange, SmartSoil, Catch-C and RECARE and iSQAPER.  Convey relevant messages and provide quantitative evidence  Today: Identify where to conserve soil carbon stocks and where soil carbon sequestration is most feasible and how easy a 40/00 can be achieved 16
  17. 17. Soil carbon 4 per mille (Minasny et al.,2017)  Review assessment ● 20 regions of the world ● Current SOC stock ● Potentials and challenges for SOC sequestration 17 Minasny et al., 2017. Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma, 292, pp. 59-86
  18. 18. Potentials and challenges in implementing the 4 per mille Initiative 18 Country/region Potentials Challenges Chile Afforesting degraded areas Conserving native forest and peatlands Peatland conversion Limited cropping areas Australia Large agricultural area Best management practices Lack of water Zero or minimum tillage has been implemented almost 80% Kenya Best management practices Land restoration Erosion Rapid expansion of agricultural lands Converting marginal lands into agricultural lands Lack of data China Mainland Conservation tillage and straw return Balanced fertilization Lack of C sequestration data on subsoil Not all cropping areas are under best management practices France SOC monitoring Land use changes Best management practices High soil sealing rate due to urbanisation and infrastructures Canada Best management practices Improving degraded land Development and implementation of innovative practices Russia Best management practices on croplands Conversion cropland to grasslands and forest C loss through cultivation Scotland Reducing peatland degradation Forest and agricultural expansion Large area of peatlands Expansion of intensive agriculture Minasny et al., 2017. Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma, 292, pp. 59-86
  19. 19. Regeneration of our agricultural lands  TEDx Talks Grand Forks: Regeneration of Our Lands: A producer’s Perspective, by Gabe Brown https://youtu.be/QfTZ0rnowcc 19 Minasny et al., 2017. Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma, 292, pp. 59-86 If we consider 4 per mille in the top 1m of global agricultural soils, SOC sequestration is between 2-3 Gt C year− 1, which effectively offset 20–35% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.
  20. 20. Outlook Soil carbon sequestration can be the solution for mitigating climate change over the next ten to twenty years 20Potential interactions between scientists, farmers, policy makers, and marketeers engaged in implementation of soil C 4 per mille initiative (Minasny et al., 2017)
  21. 21. References Minasny, B., McBratney, A.B., Angers, D.A., Arrouays, D., Chambers, A., Chen, Z.S., Cheng, K., Das, B., Gimona, A., Hedley, C., Hong, S.Y., Malone, B., Mandal., B., Marchant, B.P., Martin, M., McConkey, B.G., Mulder, V.L., Paustian, K., O’Rourke, S., Odeah, I., Padarian, I., Pan, G., Poggio, L., Savin, I., Stolbovoy, V., Stockmann, U., Sulaeman, Y., Tsui, C., Vagan, T, van Wesemael, B., Winowiecki, L. (2017). Soil Carbon, 4 per mille. Geoderma, (292), 59-86. Mulder, V.L., Lacoste, M., Martin, M., Richer de Forges, A., Arrouays, D. (2016). National versus global modelling the 3D distribution of soil organic carbon in mainland France. Geoderma, (263), 16-34. Mulder, V.L., Lacoste, M., Martin, M., Richer de Forges, A., Arrouays, D., (2015). Understanding large-extent controls of soil organic carbon storage in relation to soil depth and soil- landscape systems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29. 21
  22. 22. POLICY INITIATIVES AROUND HEALTHY SOILS Dr. Geetika Joshi CDFA Annet Zweep Dutch Min of Economic Affairs and Min of Infrastructure and Environment Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands
  23. 23. 14 february 2017 Soil management in climate change Annet Zweep Department of Agro and Nature Knowledge The Netherlands
  24. 24. Need for sustainability: soil is the basis • Sustainable economy • Healthy food • Beautiful, vital landscape (biodiversity) • Climate adaptation and mitigation 14-2-2017
  25. 25. Agricultural soils • Soils and climate: biomasse production; carbon buffer; greenhouse gases • In NL major part is permanent grassland; arable land with high production: sandy soils to heavy clay; drained peatlands with special care Farmer is the maintainer of his land: responsibility Knowledge important tool for good soil management: information and tools for farmers 14-2-2017
  26. 26. Research a method to assess and realise policy • Several Public-private research programmes: from fundamental to get the results into practice • Soil is complex: more practical knowledge on organic matter, soil management and effect on greenhouse gasses • Organic matter plays central role for sustainable soils and climate change 14-2-2017
  27. 27. Important programme is PPS Better Soil management • Wijnand Sukkel (panellist webinar) and Joeke Postma are coordinating. • Individual and integrated approach of soil chemistry, physics and biology aspects • Measuring: important to measure and link soil management to soil information. • Organic matter, carbon cycle: central role • Soil management and effect on greenhouse gases is part of research Webiste: www.beterbodembeheer.nl 14-2-2017
  28. 28. THE HEALTHY SOILS INITIATIVE AND PROGRAM CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE – HEALTHY SOILS WEBINAR FEBRUARY 14, 2017 Contacts: Geetika Joshi*, Ph.D. (Senior Environmental Scientist Supervisor) Geetika.Joshi@cdfa.ca.gov Amrith Gunasekara. Ph.D. (Science Advisor to CDFA Secretary and Manager, Office of Environmental Farming and Innovation) Amrith.Gunasekara@cdfa.ca.gov
  29. 29.  More than 400 agricultural commodities in California, including unique specialty crops.  California remained the No. 1 state in cash farm receipts in 2015, with $47 billion in revenue from 76,400 farms and ranchers (#1 for more than 50 years).  Some of the most fertile and diverse agricultural soils: soils are fundamental plant growing medium.  2015: United Nations declared International Year of Soils.  Meeting with Governor’s Office and administration on initiative; interagency meetings with several agencies and departments. HEALTHY SOILS INITIATIVE Image Source: USDA Cropscape - Cropland Data Layer https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/oefi/healthysoils/HSInitiativ e.html
  30. 30. ACTIONS FOR THE HEALTHY SOILS INITIATIVE: INTERAGENCY AND STATE-FEDERAL PARTNERSHIPS Actions:  Protect and restore soil organic matter in California’s soils.  Identify sustainable and integrated financing opportunities to facilitate healthy soils.  Provide for research, education and technical support to facilitate healthy soils.  Increase governmental efficiencies to enhance soil health on public and private lands.  Promote interagency coordination and collaboration to support soils and related state goals. Working with USDA-NRCS:  USDA-NRCS provides funding through the Environmental Quality Incentives Program to support conservation practices including soil health.  Comet-Planner Tool: http://www.comet-planner.com/  Joint USDA-NRCS and CDFA Summit: Building Partnerships on Healthy Soil in Sacramento, CA on January 11, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPy5C5J1qjg&feature=youtu.be&rel=0
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. HEALTHY SOILS PROGRAM: OBJECTIVE AND FUNDING  Objective: To build soil carbon and reduce agricultural GHG emissions through incentives.  $7.5 million to develop a new incentive and demonstration program on the CA Healthy Soils Initiative from the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund.  Farmers and ranchers incentivized to implement practices such as compost application, no-till, cover-crops, etc., with quantification of greenhouse gas reductions (GHG) achieved by projects.  Demonstration projects for on-field GHG reductions through partnerships between ag operations/industry groups, academia and/or non-profit organizations, resource conservation districts.  Request for grant applications by May, awards by September 2017. https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/oefi/healthysoils/
  33. 33. PARTNERSHIPS FOR SOIL HEALTH THROUGH PROPOSED INCENTIVES PROGRAM Environmental Farming Act – Science Advisory Panel Next Meeting: March 16, 2017 Sacramento https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/oefi/efasap/
  34. 34. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES Winfried Raijmakers Yara Benelux – N-Sensor® Prof. Keith Paustian Colorado State University – COMET-Farm tool Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands
  35. 35. Carbon and greenhouse gas evaluation of conservation practices COMET-FarmTM andCOMET-Plann www.comet-farm.com www.comet- CA-Dutch Climate Smart Agriculture Webinar February 14, 2017 Mark Easter, Amy Swan, Kevin Brown and Keith Paustian Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory & Dept. Soil and Crop Sciences Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO Adam Chambers Natural Resources Conservation Service Environmental Markets Leader Fort Collins, CO
  36. 36. COMET-Farm™ & COMET-Planner™ Greenhouse Gases in Agriculture The COMET Tools Provide a Systems Approach to full GHG Inventories and Conservatio Image courtesy of Amy Swan of the NREL at Colorado State University
  37. 37. COMET-Farm™ & COMET-Planner™ Calculation Methods • Implements the peer- reviewed, USDA-sanctioned entity-level inventory methods. • Soil-related GHG emissions: DayCent dynamic model, also used in the U.S. NationalGreenhouse Gas Inventory + additional empirical models. • Livestock-related GHG emissions: statistical models based on USDA and university research, largely consistent with models used in the U.S. National Inventory. • Energy-related GHG emissions: based on the models used in the USDA/NRCS EnergyTool along with supplemental
  38. 38. COMET-Farm™ How it works Equation Factors, USDA Methods, IPCC Historic Rotations NRI, Cropping Practices Survey, CSRA Climate & Soil PRISM & SSURGO Web Interface CSU Server Empirical Models Outputs Results Specific Location Specific Activities User inputs their unique Farm or Ranch management.
  39. 39. COMET-FarmWork Flow
  40. 40. COMET-Planner2.0 1) Aligns GHG reduction estimates with COMET-Farm and the USDA entity-scale GHG inventory methods. 2) Improving the spatial resolution of estimates from the sub-national scale to multi-county regions. 3) Adding options for implementing various COMET-Planner 2.0 Estimates resolved at the MRLA-scale
  41. 41. Webinar Climate Smart Agriculture N-Sensor in Netherlands Winfried Raijmakers Feb. 14, 2017
  42. 42. Smart intensification Webinar Challenges and Opportunities for Soil Management - 2017-02-14 42 Destroy more nature, or increase productivity ? http://yara.com/doc/221347_Yara_Climate-smart-agriculture_2015.pdf
  43. 43. Reducing Carbon Footprint 43 3.5 0.1 5.1 Precision farming is part of the solution ! http://yara.com/doc/199057_ya_ed_bro_ANvsUREA_9-0-BD.pdf http://yara.com/products_services/fertilizers/pure_nutrient/the_carbon_footprint_of_fertilizers.aspx Webinar Challenges and Opportunities for Soil Management - 2017-02-14 PRODUCTION TRANSPORT FARMING HARVEST CONSUMPTION CAPTURE
  44. 44. • Right Rate • Right Place • Right Time • Right Fertilizer Yara Tools: • ImageIT® app • N-Tester • N-Sensor® Smart Fertilization 44 Continuous crop monitoring for best N-efficiency Webinar Challenges and Opportunities for Soil Management - 2017-02-14
  45. 45. Variable nitrogen application 45 N-application N-strategy depends on crop, growth stage & situation. Farmer can always overrule. N-uptake (kg N/ha) N-rate(kgN/ha) Webinar Challenges and Opportunities for Soil Management - 2017-02-14 N-uptake
  46. 46. 1. Simplicity: direct application, no clouds, no 3th parties 2. In control: manual overrule always possible 3. Proven technology: >15 yrs agronomic validation 4. Target farm: >150 ha potato & cereals Why sensors don’t fly in Netherlands: 1. ”Too expensive”: 20-35 k€ investment (= 15-30 €/ha) 2. ”Not ready”: research overkill: farmers can’t filter 3. ”Will get better”: don’t realize direct gain & updates N-Sensor in practice 46Webinar Challenges and Opportunities for Soil Management - 2017-02-14 N-Sensor demo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrixH9tFxoA
  47. 47. Thank you
  48. 48. DISCUSSION PANEL Wijnand Sukkel Wageningen UR wijnand.sukkel@wur.nl Wim de Vries Wageningen UR wim.devries@wur.nl Cynthia Cory California Farm Bureau ccory@CFBF.com Gijs Kuneman CLM gkuneman@clm.nl Judith Redmond Full Belly Farm judith@fullbellyfarm.com Geetika Joshi CDFA Geetika.Joshi@cdfa.ca.gov Winfried Raijmakers Yara Benelux winfried.raijmakers@yara.com Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands Annet Zweep Min EZ - Min I&M A.T.Zweep@minez.nl Titia Mulder Wageningen UR titia.mulder@wur.nl William Horwath UC Davis wrhorwath@ucdavis.edu Keith Paustian Colorado State Uni Keith.Paustian@colostate.edu
  49. 49. CLOSING REMARKS Challenges and opportunities of Soil Management Third webinar on CSA California – Netherlands Dr. Josette Lewis World Food Center – UC Davis Dr. Neli Prota Wageningen University and Research

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