Points To Remember


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  • Points To Remember

    1. 1. Points to remember Brenda Holmes MSN, RN
    2. 2. Points to remember <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to remember specific points in math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to identify military time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to identify abbreviation for medication administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to state 6 things that must be done before administrating medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to identify wrong abbreviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to identify Roman numerals </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Points to remember <ul><li>Conversion Relating to Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 lb. = 1 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 oz = 1 lb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight conversions of pounds to kilograms is done often because many medications are based on kilograms of body weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body weight is essential </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Points to remember <ul><li>Conversions relating to weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To convert pounds to kilograms, divide by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To convert pounds and ounces to kilograms, convert ounces to the nearest tenth of a pound; add this to the total pounds. Convert the total pounds to the kilograms and round answer to the nearest tenth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Points to remember <ul><li>Factors that influence drug dosages and action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route of administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional status of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption and excretion of the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health status of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity and culture of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Points to remember <ul><li>Six Rights of Medication Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right dosage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right documentation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Points to remember <ul><li>Administering a drug by a route other than what the form indicates constitutes a medication error. Regardless of the source of an error, if you administer the wrong dosage, or give a medication by a route other than what it is intended for, you are legally responsible for it. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Points to remember <ul><li>Never assume what an order states. Clarify an order when in doubt. If an order is not clear, or if the essential components are omitted, it is not a legal order and should not be implemented the nurse is accountable! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Points to remember <ul><li>Military Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins at midnight as 0000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 a.m. to 12 noon remain the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 a.m. is 0500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1 p.m. on, add 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 p.m. is 1700 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Points to remember <ul><li>Abbreviation for medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bid SQ AP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tid Stat R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qid PO P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ac IM BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pc IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HS SL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prn R </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Points to remember <ul><li>JACHO has identified several abbreviation that is not safe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS (morphine), MSO ч (morphine sulfate), MgSo4 (magnesium sulfate): all must be written out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U (units) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QD (daily) or QOD (every other day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IU (international unit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trailing zero (1.0): do not place zero after the number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of leading zero (.1): use 0.then the number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>µg (mcq or micrograms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AS, AD, AU (left ear, right ear, both ears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS, OD, OY (left eye, right eye, both eyes) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Points to remember <ul><li>Roman Numerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common Roman Numerals that is found in the use of medication is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V (5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X (10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XV (15) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Points to remember <ul><li>Parts of a drug label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRADE NAME: the trade name is usually capitalized and written in bold print. It is the first name written on the label. The trade name is always followed by the ® registration symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GENERIC NAME: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official name of the drug </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one generic name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appears directly under the trade name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physician may order a patient’s drug generic/trade name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses’ need to be familiar with both name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally, only the generic name will appear on the label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOSAGE STRENGTH: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates the amount or weight of medication that is supplied in the specific unit of measure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be in form of capsule, tablet, or milliliter </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Points to remember <ul><li>Parts of a drug label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tablets, capsules, liquids, suppositories, and ointments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Label will indicate how the drug to be administered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral, topical, injection (subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular), or intravenous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount: total volume may be indicated on the bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension or capsules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some must be mixed before use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amounts and types of diluent will be listed along with the resulting strenghts of the medication. Sometime information will be found on package inserts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Points to remember <ul><li>Types of administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic bubble, foil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic or glass container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sealed medicine cup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenteral Route: must be specified to route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be IM, SC, IVPB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ampule: glass container that must be broken to obtain the medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not sterile after opening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vial glass container with sealed rubber top </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic bags or glass vial </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefilled syringes: small vial with needle attached, that fits into a syringe holder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Points to remember <ul><li>Types of administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transdermal patches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lozenges (disklike solid that dissolves in the mouth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppositories: best to be administered to those that are unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic: disposable squeezable container </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit dose: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individually wrapped dose and labeled drugs; provides a second professional containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large stock containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstitution: dissolving a power into solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) [usually ordered in number of inhalation or puffs] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be in a vial or plastic containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be able to teach the patients to breathe in and hold breath for 10 sec then exhale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse mouth after using inhalers or updrafts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Points to remember <ul><li>Prevent cross contamination: medication that has dropper, ointments, creams, should be labeled with patient’s name. To prevent contamination of creams in jars, use tongue blade depressors or sterile gloves to remove the creams </li></ul>
    18. 18. Points to remember <ul><li>Eye medication would be listed as opthalmic but occasionally you will find one that would be uses as eyedrops </li></ul>
    19. 19. Points to remember <ul><li>Changing grams to milligrams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1g=1000 milligrams. To achieve in finding the amount of mg to be given, multiply 1000mg to the amount of g to be given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: to multiply by 1000, move the decimal three places to the right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milligrams to gram: Divide by 1000,, move decimal three places to left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microgram: 1mg = 1000 mcg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: to divide by 1000, move the decimal point three places to the left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: To change milligrams to micrograms: multiply by 1000, move decimal point three places to the right </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Points to remember <ul><li>Grain to milligram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr XV = 1000 mg or 1 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr X = 600 (650) mg or 0.6 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr V = 300 (325) mg or 0.3 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr 1 = 60 (65) mg or 0.06 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr ½ = 30 mg or 0.03 g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember gr 1/150 = 0.4mg </li></ul></ul>