Chapter Four The Nature of Rights in Ethical Discourse
Rights <ul><li>Rights are justified claims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our due </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need not feel grat...
Rights  (continued) <ul><li>Review the Poor Piggy case:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What basic right was taken from him?  </li>...
Rights Formulation <ul><li>“If John has a right to X, then others have no justification in interfering with John’s pursuit...
Thesis of  Correlative Obligations <ul><li>If we consider rights as justified claims, then built into the claim is the twi...
Correlative Obligations <ul><li>If we assume that informed consent is a patient’s right:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What justi...
Correlative Obligations  (continued) <ul><li>In the case of Poor Piggy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the right? </li></u...
Human Rights <ul><li>Western civilization is rich in human rights language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are considered uni...
Human Rights  (continued) <ul><li>In many cases we judge the legitimacy of nation states by how well they protect these ri...
Consequentialist  Rights Theory <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham (father of utilitarianism) believed that rights could not be justif...
Consequentialist  Rights Theory  (continued) <ul><li>Rights were those things that society, by collective agreement, decid...
Contractarian  Rights Theory <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes (nonmoralized theory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in the state of nature...
Justification of Rights <ul><li>Laws of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Endowments from generous creator </li></ul><ul><li>By col...
Positive and Negative Rights <ul><li>Negative right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires non-interference from others  </li></u...
Fetal Endangerment Case <ul><li>Review case regarding fetal endangerment </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, who has rights? H...
Common Claims to Rights <ul><li>Identify a justification that would create the following rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smo...
Rights Proliferation <ul><li>In that human rights create attendant obligations for others, care should be taken in their c...
Rights Proliferation  (continued) <ul><li>Human creativity allows us to imagine more rights than we can fulfill </li></ul>...
Key Concepts  <ul><li>Rights are justified claims </li></ul><ul><li>Rights can be justified in several different ways (mor...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Moralized and non-moralized social contract theories considered in rights development </...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Care must be taken so that the proliferation of rights claims for marginal gains do not ...
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Chapter04

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Chapter04

  1. 1. Chapter Four The Nature of Rights in Ethical Discourse
  2. 2. Rights <ul><li>Rights are justified claims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our due </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need not feel grateful to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We cannot be deprived of a right without it being a serious affront to justice </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Rights (continued) <ul><li>Review the Poor Piggy case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What basic right was taken from him? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What gives a person a justified claim to life? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Rights Formulation <ul><li>“If John has a right to X, then others have no justification in interfering with John’s pursuit or possession of X, so long as John’s exercise of his right to X does not infringe upon the rights of others” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thesis of Correlative Obligations <ul><li>If we consider rights as justified claims, then built into the claim is the twin thesis of rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Others are obliged to either provide the goods or services, or to refrain from interfering with our gaining or possessing the desired thing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Correlative Obligations <ul><li>If we assume that informed consent is a patient’s right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What justifies this claim? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the patient has this right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the practitioner’s obligation? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Correlative Obligations (continued) <ul><li>In the case of Poor Piggy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the right? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the correlative obligation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a negative or positive right? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Human Rights <ul><li>Western civilization is rich in human rights language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are considered universal rights inherent to all people in all lands </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Human Rights (continued) <ul><li>In many cases we judge the legitimacy of nation states by how well they protect these rights </li></ul><ul><li>Name five human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are they justified? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Consequentialist Rights Theory <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham (father of utilitarianism) believed that rights could not be justified on the basis of humanness or as endowments given by a benign creator </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consequentialist Rights Theory (continued) <ul><li>Rights were those things that society, by collective agreement, decided to defend </li></ul><ul><li>High utility is the justification </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contractarian Rights Theory <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes (nonmoralized theory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in the state of nature was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Rawls (moralized theory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair opportunity rule </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Justification of Rights <ul><li>Laws of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Endowments from generous creator </li></ul><ul><li>By collective agreement, as in consequentialist or contractarian reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure enforcement, we back them by sanctions of law: legal rights </li></ul>
  14. 14. Positive and Negative Rights <ul><li>Negative right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires non-interference from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion: government pay argument? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recipient right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires others to provide goods and services </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fetal Endangerment Case <ul><li>Review case regarding fetal endangerment </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, who has rights? How are they justified? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carolyn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whose rights should prevail? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common Claims to Rights <ul><li>Identify a justification that would create the following rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoker’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsmoker’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gay rights (marriage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to smoke hemp products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to die on request </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Rights Proliferation <ul><li>In that human rights create attendant obligations for others, care should be taken in their creation </li></ul><ul><li>Not all human wants should be converted to the status of human rights </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rights Proliferation (continued) <ul><li>Human creativity allows us to imagine more rights than we can fulfill </li></ul><ul><li>The dilution of human rights by adding new ones threatens established claims </li></ul>
  19. 19. Key Concepts <ul><li>Rights are justified claims </li></ul><ul><li>Rights can be justified in several different ways (moral, legal, social good) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive rights are recipient rights </li></ul><ul><li>Negative rights require others to refrain from interference </li></ul>
  20. 20. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Moralized and non-moralized social contract theories considered in rights development </li></ul><ul><li>Rights create obligations for others to either provide resources or to refrain from interference </li></ul>
  21. 21. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Care must be taken so that the proliferation of rights claims for marginal gains do not threaten previously agreed-upon established claims </li></ul>

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