Chapter Two Decision Making  in Value Issues
“ Am I Sure It Is My Job  to Handle This?”  <ul><li>Review the case – does the new person have an obligation? </li></ul><u...
Examining Value Issues <ul><li>Consequence-oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right answer would maximize some good </li>...
Examining Value Issues  (continued) <ul><li>Virtue ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is not consequences nor reasoning...
Consequence-Oriented  Theories <ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill </li></ul></u...
Utilitarianism <ul><li>Act utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pig philosophy” problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Consequence-Oriented  Reasoning <ul><li>Describe the problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare so...
Criticisms of Utilitarianism <ul><li>Impossible to calculate all possible consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Used to sanction ...
Criticisms of Utilitarianism  (continued) <ul><li>May allow unacceptable intervention in private lives of individuals  </l...
Kantian Ethics <ul><li>Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are rational beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Kantian Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>Categorical imperatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal application </li></ul></ul><u...
Duty-Oriented Reasoning Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Describe problem List Solutions  Co...
Criticisms of    Duty-Oriented Reasoning  <ul><li>Exceptionless nature – too rigid for real life </li></ul><ul><li>Moralit...
Virtue Ethics  <ul><li>Aretaic ethics:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from Greek arete, which means excellence or virtue </l...
Virtue Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>Virtue ethics:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis placed on heart of the moral agent, not ...
Virtue Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>The question is not “what shall I do?” in a particular situation, but rather, “how shal...
Virtue Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>Modern formulation of virtue ethics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each profession has set of v...
Reasoning with Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Describe problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare solutions...
Criticisms of Virtue Ethics  <ul><li>Does not provide specific direction for problems </li></ul><ul><li>New problems may r...
Criticisms of Virtue Ethics   (continued) <ul><li>Humans may attempt to respond to several different role demands at same ...
Divine Command Ethics  <ul><li>Big Idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine or exemplary being has set down a finite set of rule...
Divine Command Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>General evaluation of actions based on a model of perfection </li></ul><ul><li>...
Reasoning by  Divine Command  <ul><li>Describe problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Find appropriate...
Criticisms of Divine  Command Ethics  <ul><li>Belief in divine or exemplary beings can be questioned by non-believers </li...
Criticisms of Divine  Command Ethics  (continued) <ul><li>Euthyphro problem </li></ul><ul><li>Recently several beheadings ...
Key Concepts <ul><li>Several theoretical positions for solving ethical dilemmas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Act utilitarianism:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purest form of utilitarian reasoning, each ac...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Equal consideration of interest important concept to keep utilitarianism from becoming a...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Kant proposed duty-oriented system: morality based on rationality, not experience </li><...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>The primary focus for virtue ethics is the heart of the moral agent </li></ul><ul><li>Vi...
Key Concepts  (continued) <ul><li>Divine command ethics  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of divine guidance or exemplary bein...
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Chapter02

  1. 1. Chapter Two Decision Making in Value Issues
  2. 2. “ Am I Sure It Is My Job to Handle This?” <ul><li>Review the case – does the new person have an obligation? </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making formats require you to ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the facts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What values are at stake? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What options are available to me? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate options and select the best one </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Examining Value Issues <ul><li>Consequence-oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right answer would maximize some good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duty-oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences are essentially irrelevant; rightness or wrongness are inherent in the act itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kantian ethics </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Examining Value Issues (continued) <ul><li>Virtue ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is not consequences nor reasoning to a universal truth, but rather the character of the actor or the duty associated with the role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aretaic ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divine command ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right answer in a finite set of rules set forth by a divine or exemplary being </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Consequence-Oriented Theories <ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No appeal to an absolute authority or principle; the only test of rival solutions lies in the consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The good resides in the promotion of happiness, or the greatest net increase of pleasure over pain </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Act utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pig philosophy” problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal consideration of interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hedonic calculus” problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right action conforms to a rule that has been validated by the principle of utility </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Consequence-Oriented Reasoning <ul><li>Describe the problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare solutions with UTILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Work the problem of Mr. Jimenez: case study: Act Utilitarianism </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Criticisms of Utilitarianism <ul><li>Impossible to calculate all possible consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Used to sanction unfairness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sensitivity to special duties </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of respect for persons </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Criticisms of Utilitarianism (continued) <ul><li>May allow unacceptable intervention in private lives of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>If followed, may recommend solutions that conflict with personal belief </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Kantian Ethics <ul><li>Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are rational beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality is derived from rationality; our obligations are grounded not in our nature or in circumstances but in pure reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason provides the guide to universal principles that can be applied to all people, at all times, in all situations </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Kantian Ethics (continued) <ul><li>Categorical imperatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanding an action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An action is either right or wrong; it cannot be both </li></ul><ul><li>Example maxim for health care providers: “We must always treat others as ends and not as means only” </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Duty-Oriented Reasoning Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Describe problem List Solutions Compare Solutions with Principles Possible findings One Compliant Alternative Several Compliant Alternatives Compliant/Conflicting Principles Correct Answer Select Among Choices Rank Principles Select Choice Work case study: Duty-Oriented Reasoning
  13. 13. Criticisms of Duty-Oriented Reasoning <ul><li>Exceptionless nature – too rigid for real life </li></ul><ul><li>Morality not derived from reason alone </li></ul><ul><li>Disregard of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Question of concern for nonhumans </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple solutions of equal merit possible </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Aretaic ethics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from Greek arete, which means excellence or virtue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is it the action or the character of the agent acting that is the heart of the matter?” </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Virtue Ethics (continued) <ul><li>Virtue ethics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis placed on heart of the moral agent, not the particular action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If an individual lives a life of good moral character and develops ethical habits – ethical response to a problem expected </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Virtue Ethics (continued) <ul><li>The question is not “what shall I do?” in a particular situation, but rather, “how shall I live?” </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Virtue Ethics (continued) <ul><li>Modern formulation of virtue ethics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each profession has set of virtues that practitioners can adopt in practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When personal habits, they come forward when questions arise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The question: “What would a good ( fill in specialty ) do in this situation?” </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Reasoning with Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Describe problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare solutions with professional traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Correct answer </li></ul><ul><li>Review case study: Virtue Ethics: Saints and Sinners </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Criticisms of Virtue Ethics <ul><li>Does not provide specific direction for problems </li></ul><ul><li>New problems may require new solutions not covered by traditional practice </li></ul><ul><li>Relying on tradition may not allow respect for individual choice or use of reason </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Criticisms of Virtue Ethics (continued) <ul><li>Humans may attempt to respond to several different role demands at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Results may not maximize happiness </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Divine Command Ethics <ul><li>Big Idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine or exemplary being has set down a finite set of rules by which one can gain guidance when making ethical decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific reference to divine scripture such as the Ten Commandments </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Divine Command Ethics (continued) <ul><li>General evaluation of actions based on a model of perfection </li></ul><ul><li>WWJD – if you are Christian, what would Jesus do? </li></ul><ul><li>In a similar fashion Muslims and Buddhists turn to the life and example of Muhammad and Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Reasoning by Divine Command <ul><li>Describe problem </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Find appropriate scriptural reference </li></ul><ul><li>Follow scriptural admonition </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Criticisms of Divine Command Ethics <ul><li>Belief in divine or exemplary beings can be questioned by non-believers </li></ul><ul><li>Scriptures do not cover all possible cases that require moral decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Seeming exceptionless nature </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Criticisms of Divine Command Ethics (continued) <ul><li>Euthyphro problem </li></ul><ul><li>Recently several beheadings were justified in the name of God; they believed God told them to do this </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Key Concepts <ul><li>Several theoretical positions for solving ethical dilemmas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine command </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review the illustrations for each position in the chapter and solve a problem using the system </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Act utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purest form of utilitarian reasoning, each act evaluated for pleasure attained, pain avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rule utilitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops rules for action based on previous validation by principle of utility </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Equal consideration of interest important concept to keep utilitarianism from becoming a purely self-serving form of reasoning </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Kant proposed duty-oriented system: morality based on rationality, not experience </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences essentially irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Universal truths create obligations for actions, binding for all people, for all times, in all situations </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>The primary focus for virtue ethics is the heart of the moral agent </li></ul><ul><li>Virtues can be formed as habits, which in times of question become our choice of action </li></ul><ul><li>Even in virtue, the ancient Greeks counseled moderation and the golden mean </li></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Key Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Divine command ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of divine guidance or exemplary being: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Commandments (Christians and Jews) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eight-Fold Path (Buddhists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem of nonbelievers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euthyphro problem </li></ul></ul>Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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