Ch1 Ppt Lect 1[1]


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Ch1 Ppt Lect 1[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10 th edition , edited by S.C. Wache for Biol2064.01
  2. 2.   You are responsible for the following figures and tables : Fig. 1.1 - Posterior view of biped human. Fig. 1.3, Tab. 1.1 - Levels of Organization. Tab. 1.2 - Organ Systems. Tab. 1.3 - Characteristics of living matter versus dead matter. Tab. 1.4 - Requirements of living organisms. The human body is organized in cavities. Fig. 1.9 - Body cavities. Fig. 1.10 - Head cavities. Study the serous membranes that enclose important organs. Fig. 1.11, 1.12 Read TB p. 21 on "anatomical terminology". Study 'body sections'. Fig. 1.21 - coronal v. sagittal v. transverse cuts. Fig. 1.23 - Subdivisions of the abdominal cavity. Fig. 1.24 - learn by heart as many of these terms as possible.
  3. 3. Understanding the Human Body Our earliest ancestors were interested in the way their bodies worked. posterior view of biped human showing the muscles.
  4. 4. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy involves the study of the structures of the body parts (morphology). </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology considers the function of these body parts, what they do and how they do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Both anatomy and physiology rely on each other. Form follows function and function leads to form. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Living Organisms Unlike Non-Living Matter <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Requirements of Life (or: Parameters We Are Dependent Upon, THAT IS, When They Change , Our Body Responds) <ul><li>Water - required for metabolism, transport, regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Food - substances that provide nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen - used in the release of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Heat - a form of energy which helps control metabolic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure - application of force on an object </li></ul>
  7. 8. Homeostasis <ul><li>The body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment is called homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis is often maintained by a mechanism called negative feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>The internal environment of the body protects cells </li></ul>
  8. 9. Negative feedback <ul><li>Homeostasis is the consequence of a self-regulating control system that operates by a mechanism called negative feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a system receives signals about changes in the internal environment and then causes responses that reverse these changes back to the set point. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Fig. 1.8 (also Fig. 1.6)
  10. 11. Question <ul><li>How is the Human body organized ? </li></ul>Answer <ul><li>A. We begin with the smallest building block of the human body all the way to organ systems of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>B. We study body cavities and body regions. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Organization of the Human Body <ul><li>Atoms- tiny particles that make up matter or elements </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules- atoms bound together </li></ul><ul><li>Macromolecules- large molecules, polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles- activity specific structures </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. 1.3 </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Cells - basic unit of structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues - groups of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Organs - structures with specialized function </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems - groups of organs that perform a function </li></ul><ul><li>Organism - the sum of the organ systems </li></ul>Organization continued….
  13. 15. Organ Systems <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>see also textbook Figs. 1.13-1.19 </li></ul>
  14. 16. Organ Systems Overview production, maintenance and transport of gametes; production of sex hormones male: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicle, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis, scrotum female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, labia, clitoris REPRODUCTIVE breakdown of food into substances that can be absorbed (for energy) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gall bladder DIGESTIVE removal of metabolic wastes from blood, maintenance of blood pH and electrolytes kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra URINARY exchange of gases (O 2 and CO 2 ), maintenance of blood pH and electrolytes oral/nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes within lungs, alveoli RESPIRATORY to fight infection Lymph nodes, thymus, spleen LYMPHATIC transport of nutrients, wastes, O 2 and CO 2 Heart, blood vessels CARDIO-VASCULAR maintenance of homeostasis Endocrine Glands that secrete hormones ENDOCRINE coordination of body parts; control Brain, spinal cord, nerves NERVOUS movement, heat production Skeletal Muscles MUSCULAR support, protection, movement, Ca ++ store, hematopoiesis Bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilages SKELETAL protection, regulation of body temperature, synthesis of Vitamin D, etc. Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands INTEGUMENTARY FUNCTION(S) ORGANS IN SYSTEM SYSTEM NAME
  15. 17. Organ Systems Studied in AP I <ul><li>Integumentary System </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal System </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular System </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul>
  16. 18. Integumentary System <ul><li>Skin, hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands </li></ul><ul><li>Protects underlying tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Site of sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of biochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Needed by the body </li></ul>Fig. 1.13
  17. 19. Skeletal System <ul><li>Bones, ligaments, cartilage, joints </li></ul><ul><li>Body framework </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment for muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell production </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of inorganic salts </li></ul>Figure 1.14
  18. 20. Muscular System <ul><li>Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Body posture </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of body heat </li></ul>Fig. 1.14
  19. 21. Nervous System <ul><li>Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs </li></ul><ul><li>Detect changes in the internal and external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Receive and interpret sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate muscles and glands </li></ul>Figure 1.15
  20. 22. Question <ul><li>How is the Human body organized ? </li></ul>Answer <ul><li>A. We begin with the smallest building block of the human body all the way to organ systems of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>B. We study body cavities and body regions. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Body Cavities <ul><li>Dorsal Cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cranial cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spinal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventral Cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mediastinum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abdominopelvic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pelvic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Fig. 1.9a
  23. 25. Fig.1.9b
  24. 26. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Parietal layer lines the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral layer lines the organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid is found in the cavity between these two membranes that make up a serous membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>see also textbook Figs. 1.11 and 1.12 </li></ul>
  25. 27. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Pleural membranes surround the lungs . </li></ul><ul><li>Pericardial membranes surround the heart . </li></ul><ul><li>Peritoneal membranes line the abdominal cavity . </li></ul>
  26. 28. Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Superior/Inferior : above or below a body </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior/Posterior : in front of or behind </li></ul><ul><li>Medial/Lateral : towards the middle or side </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal : close to a body part </li></ul><ul><li>Distal : far from a body part </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial/Deep : on the surface or lying beneath </li></ul>
  27. 29. Fig 1.20
  28. 30. Body Regions <ul><li>Right hypochondriac region (translated as: below R cartilaginous rib cage) </li></ul><ul><li>Right lumbar region (translated as: R lower back) </li></ul><ul><li>Right iliac region (translated as: R inguinal or hip region) </li></ul><ul><li>Left hypochondriac region </li></ul><ul><li>Left lumbar region </li></ul><ul><li>Left iliac region </li></ul><ul><li>Epigastric region (translated as: on top of stomach region) </li></ul><ul><li>Umbilical region (translated as: central region around the navel) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypogastric region (translated as: below the stomach region) </li></ul>
  29. 31. Fig 1.23a
  30. 32. Body Regions cont. <ul><li>Right upper quadrant </li></ul><ul><li>Right lower quadrant </li></ul><ul><li>Left upper quadrant </li></ul><ul><li>Left lower quadrant </li></ul>
  31. 33. Fig 1.23b
  32. 34. <ul><li>Most effort should be expended on textbook Fig. 1.24 – Terms used to describe body parts. </li></ul>