• The term generally applied to the radiant
visible energy that emits from a source.
• a light is usually measured in lumens or
candlepower. when light strikes a surface it is
either absorbed, reflected, or transmitted.
• Light which exhibited both waveform and
particulate characteristics travel in straights
lines through space at a speed of 186,282
miles per second.
• Film and TV light placed
behind the subject often
mounted light. The
amount of light can be
controlled with BARN
DOORS. Used to
illuminate the back or
side of the subject to
create depth and solidity
by making the subject
stand out the background.
Often used to highlight an
actress's hair and create a
• Separates the subject from the background.
also called separation light it refer to a light
source pointed away from the background
(as opposed to background light) and aimed
toward the camera lens from above and
behind the subject (as a hair light) or
behind and to the side (as a kicker) The
backlight is often eschewed by professionals
who disdain the use of unmotivated light.
• Illumination directed at a wall or background
of a set used to define the character of the
background surface and separate the
background from the subject.
• The relational ship of illuminated areas and
shadows in a scene that allows
• 1. surfactant exposure for photographing the
• 2. movement of camera between areas of
different illumination that will not detract from
the initial exposure and
• 3. a satisfying compositional effect.
• A large net or silk measuring at least 4'x4'
stretched on a frame and supported by a
single stand. The butterfly commonly used
outdoors to shade or diffuse direct sunlight, is
big enough to cover a medium or two shot
and reduce the harsh look of hard sunlight.
when a translucent material is used on a
butterfly frame it is called a silk.
• Device with hinged metal flaps, usually four
that can be attached to the front of TV or film
lamp. controls spillage of light into unwanted
areas, and restricts the direction and size of
the light. Is both pivotal and rotatable so that
the light beam can be shaped.
• A lighting accessory made up of two or four
hinged blades that attaches to the front of the
lighting fixture. The barn door can be rotated
and the blades independently adjusted to
direct and shape the beam control; spill light,
create shadows, and prevent the lamp from
flaring in a camera lens.
• Lighting special blue, heat resistant, plastic
sheet that can be bought in a roll. used to put
over a film lamp to match the colour
Temperate of daylight in a film lighting set-up.
• A soft light source
produced by pointing a
film at a white
reflective surface such
as a REFLECTOR so that
the light bounced off
the surface. can be used
to light a domestic
room by using a
BLONDE film lamp to
bounce light off a white
• Lighting. A way of varying the intensity of a
light source and making it softer by using a
diffuser. A diffuser is translucent material that
is fixed over front of the lamp to soften
highlight reduce contras and increase the
spread of light from the lamp.
• A phenomenon that occurs when light is
scattered as when it is filtered through a
translucent material that soften highlight and
shadows reduce contras and increase the size
of a source.
• A rheostat or other device
that reduce or increases the
flow of electrify to a light or
bank of lights, there by
turning up or down the
intensity of illumination.
• Dimmers that operate in this
way are of limited use with
colour films as they affect the
colour temperature of the
• A beam of light focus on a subject from above.
• A light that highlights a certain details in s
scene. Effects lighting is often achieved with
small spotlights such peppers or inline which
can be hung above the set to throw small
pools on backgrounds or objects.
• Any soft light that fills in areas of shadow cast by
a key light, thereby decreasing image contras.
• The fill light is frequently placed near the camera
on the side opposite the key.
• A filter made of glass or gel is placed in front of the
lens of a camera. Used to change the way light
reaches the lens, e.g. by adding the colour or by
DIFFUSING the light in a way that will create a
particular 'look' to a seine. A Grade Filter can be used
in a wide Shot of countryside to make gray sky après
blue but not change the colour of lower third of
• Any translucent material used to change the
colour or quality of light passing through it.
• Camera filters made of optically clear glass or gel
are used in front of or behind the camera lens
and affect the entire image.
• Light filters are used to alter a particular beam of
light and allow more tuning and greater control.
• Glare of light, usually from a reflective surface ,
on a person or on the set. that is causing a bright
flash light. Seen through the camera this will
upset the lighting cameraman and can ruin a
• A tubular lamp wherein alternating current
causes electrons to bombard mercury atoms
which in turn stimulate phosphor coating its
envelope to emit visible light. Most
fluorescent illumination persists only in five
• The rate of light energy measured in Lumens
( Luminous Flux)
• An electrical safety device
that breaks a circuit when
there is danger of
• A fuse generally
consists of a metallic base
or two contract and
contains a piece of metal
that melts at a
temperature far below
the melting point of the
• when a circuit is
overloaded the metal will
melt and break the circuit
• An internal combustion engine that drives a dynamo
and creates electricity as for lighting and other
application. Generator s provide a relatively safe,
reliable power source and available in sizes from eight
amp motors up to 300 amp quiet tractor trailer units.
• Light reflecting off shine or secular surfaces.
• Fireproof plastic sheeting in a variety of
colours used to cover the lens of a film lamp
to change the colour Temperature of the light.
e.g. the colour Temperature of stranded
tungsten film limo does not match of day light
It has too much orange in it. so used the blue
gel to match the colour temperature of day
• Direct light from a concentrated, usually FOCUSABLE,
source producing strange highlight and dark shadows,
Lamps that produce hard light include a BLONDE a
REDHEAD or an HMI.
• Bright sunlight is a good source of hard light that casts well
defined shadows and gives sharply define image. Can be
too bright for some situations without use of a filter.
• A class of elements
including iodine, bromine,
fluorine, and chlorine.
Halogen gases ( such as
iodine) used in tungsten
lamps are known as
because they redeposit
boil-off particles and
prolong the life of the
• A film light that
produces white light of
1200 watts going up to
18000 watts. The
name if an acronym of
the symbol Hg for
mercury M for medium
arc, and I for iodides
also knows as a
• The strength of a light source independent of the
subject. Luminous intensity.
• An electric device converting direct current to
• Degrees Kelvin is a measurement of heat,
used to describe the colour temperature of
light. Blue light has a high temperature and
red light a low temperature.
• It is based on the Celsius scale but begins at
absolute zero (-272 degree C) .
• The main light source to illuminate a subject in a lighting
set-up. In an Interview this is the main light to illuminate
the face and body. It is usually placed in front of the subject
and close to the camera but off set and slightly raised
• Unit of electricity. One kilowatt is 1000 watt.
Film light are usually known by their
consumption of electricity such as this lamp is
2K (2000 kilowatt).
• An area of no defining characteristics an effect
often produced by a flatly illumininated
cyclorama or seamless paper backdrop. The
limbo effect is sometimes used to isolate and
separate a subject from a featureless
• A specially drown
diagram of a TV or
film STUDIO showing
the precise location
of each lamp
indicating which ones
and type are to be
used for particular
• The metal structure that
is suspended from the
ceiling of a TV studio to
hold the large number of
lamps required for a TV
show or film.
• At rock concord OBs and
film sets the lighting rig
refer to the whole vast
lighting set-up and
• Flat device with a very reflective surface in
silver gold or white, which recycles light from
a light source such as the sun or a film light
Delivers a relatively soft light. Can be made of
strong fold-up material and hand held or be
larger and more rigid with its own stand.
• A serviceable reflector can be a made out of
a rigid sheet of white polystyrene held up by
clipping it onto a lighting stand. A reflector is
a versatile way of lighting a subject when
filming in sunny Locations
• Diffused or reflected light. Use in programme
making as a fill light or as a way of lighting a
subject that create a naturalistic look and does
not cast shadow. Created by using a gel or a
diffuser such as scrim that softens highlights
and shadow. soft lighting effects can also be
created by using reflector or bounce light. The
largest and cheapest soft light source is a
slightly overcast sky there are no highlight.
Alternating Current (AC)
• Electrical current that reverses directional flow at
• in the US electrical current supplied by power
companies alternates at a rate of 60 Hertz (Hz)or cycle
• The standard for Europe and the uk is 50 Hertz.
• India uses 230 Volts, 50 Hz alternating current as the
• Light that emanates from any source other
than the sun or sky.
• Light existing naturally within a given area.
Documentaries independent films and low
budget productions are often shot using only
Cross Key Lighting
• An economical lighting configuration where
two key lights are used to light two subjects
and serve as back light as well. Each lighting is
set so that it keys one subject and backlights
• A type of light that rakes across the subject.
Cross light tends to be one of the most
evocative types of lighting.
• A long narrow flag for blocking light from the camera
or an area of the set.
Cyclorama or Cyc
• A large smooth curving backdrop used in
studios and sound stages to create a sky or
Cyclorama or Cyc light
• One of the several lighting instruments
specially designed to illuminate a cyclorama.