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Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater
Open Innovation The Curitiba Model <ul><li>Design for mass self-organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Where is creativity? </li><...
Open Innovation Open Innovation Sources <ul><li>Clusters and cities: the milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><...
Open Innovation Common Themes <ul><li>Distributed (resources, tools intelligence, contribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-creat...
Open Innovation The Pipeline Model <ul><li>Hire bright people </li></ul><ul><li>Put them in special conditions </li></ul><...
Open Innovation The Pipeline Assumptions <ul><li>Knowledge is created, codified, sent and received </li></ul><ul><li>Autho...
Open Innovation Pipeline Organisations <ul><li>The R & D Lab: Thomas J Watson, Bell Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist crea...
Open Innovation Swarm Organisations <ul><li>Linux and open source </li></ul><ul><li>eBay </li></ul><ul><li>The Sims </li><...
Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Generation <ul><li>Multiplying sources of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Technology costs down,...
Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Propagation <ul><li>Pro Am culture: Consumers are innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Radical i...
Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Assumptions <ul><li>Innovation is social and dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship joint,...
Open Innovation Swarm Model <ul><li>Community has to start with something, who provides the kernel/core? </li></ul><ul><li...
Open Innovation Swarm Model <ul><li>Fast feedback, allows trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be incomplete, and...
Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Advantages <ul><li>Increase diversity of parallel experiments: faster learning </li></ul...
Open Innovation Swarm Innovation Questions <ul><li>Who gets the kernel going? How is that funded? </li></ul><ul><li>Good f...
Open Innovation The Future? <ul><li>Can we apply this approach in mainstream public services? </li></ul><ul><li>Education,...
Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater
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Leadbeater Creative Capital

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Leadbeater Creative Capital

  1. 1. Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater
  2. 2. Open Innovation The Curitiba Model <ul><li>Design for mass self-organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Where is creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it about? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is creative? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open Innovation Open Innovation Sources <ul><li>Clusters and cities: the milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Open and user-led companies </li></ul><ul><li>Open source and peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Community led development </li></ul><ul><li>Social movements </li></ul><ul><li>Mutuals, cooperatives </li></ul>
  4. 4. Open Innovation Common Themes <ul><li>Distributed (resources, tools intelligence, contribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-created (users are producers, designers) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative (peer-to-peer, team based) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared platforms (commons, milieu, forums) </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative (modular, evolutionary, never complete) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Open Innovation The Pipeline Model <ul><li>Hire bright people </li></ul><ul><li>Put them in special conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Free from market pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Pipeline of ideas to products </li></ul><ul><li>Delivered to passive waiting consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Value comes from transfer and transaction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Open Innovation The Pipeline Assumptions <ul><li>Knowledge is created, codified, sent and received </li></ul><ul><li>Authors of inventions can define their use </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property should be protected to create incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption is passive - a yes/no choice </li></ul><ul><li>Design solutions are complete, users can add little </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation comes from within, self-reflective process </li></ul>
  7. 7. Open Innovation Pipeline Organisations <ul><li>The R & D Lab: Thomas J Watson, Bell Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist creative activities in companies </li></ul><ul><li>Professional disciplines of architecture and design </li></ul><ul><li>Elite university education </li></ul><ul><li>Professional public services </li></ul>
  8. 8. Open Innovation Swarm Organisations <ul><li>Linux and open source </li></ul><ul><li>eBay </li></ul><ul><li>The Sims </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Human Genome Project </li></ul><ul><li>The Grameen Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Modern astronomy </li></ul>
  9. 9. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Generation <ul><li>Multiplying sources of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Technology costs down, experimentation is cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Combining ideas in networks easier </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled labour more mobile, wants to be autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>End of knowledge monopolies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Propagation <ul><li>Pro Am culture: Consumers are innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Radical innovations: the users work out what innovation is for </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive innovation: passionate users innovate, producers follow </li></ul><ul><li>New markets and business models start in margins </li></ul><ul><li>Users as investors and contributors = increased productive resource </li></ul><ul><li>Who invented the mountain bike? </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging vs Big Media </li></ul>
  11. 11. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Assumptions <ul><li>Innovation is social and dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship joint, complex and evolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge created by interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation as a mass activity </li></ul><ul><li>Use is creative </li></ul><ul><li>Organised without being an organisation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Open Innovation Swarm Model <ul><li>Community has to start with something, who provides the kernel/core? </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are structured: membership, decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by problem solving, very practical not idealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Provide people with easy to use tools, allow decentralised initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Governance to manage conflict, uphold values, set direction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Open Innovation Swarm Model <ul><li>Fast feedback, allows trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be incomplete, and so to evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Good ideas drive out bad according to clear yardsticks </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of labour, not division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership blurred between community and host organisation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Advantages <ul><li>Increase diversity of parallel experiments: faster learning </li></ul><ul><li>Public platforms, shared development, lower cost </li></ul><ul><li>Better at dealing with technological and market uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Users as co-producers increase the systems resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communities build momentum, scale behind products </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation central to modern economy, this is new model of innovation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation Questions <ul><li>Who gets the kernel going? How is that funded? </li></ul><ul><li>Good for mass incremental innovation but what about big leaps? </li></ul><ul><li>What if experimentation is complex and costly? </li></ul><ul><li>What if speed of feedback much slower? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it just for geeks? </li></ul><ul><li>Does open style of work require open source ownership/licensing? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Open Innovation The Future? <ul><li>Can we apply this approach in mainstream public services? </li></ul><ul><li>Education, health, social welfare, community safety. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in the space between the pipeline and the swarm? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater

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