Fiedler’s Contingency Model to Leadership


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Fiedler’s Contingency Model to Leadership

  1. 1. Assignment On“Fiedler’s Contingency Model to Leadership.”<br />Sub:Organisational Behavior(mgt102).<br /> Submitted By:<br /> Bhobotosh Debnath.<br /> NU/MN/05/10<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Contingency approach to leadership was first developed comprehensively by Fiedler. In this contingency approach model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.<br />Fiedler’s model consists of 3 primary elements.<br />1. Leadership style.<br />2. Situation.<br />3. Relationship between style and situation.<br />
  3. 3. 1. Leadership style:<br />Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success<br />is the individual’s basic leadership style and thus he<br />identifies the two dimension of leadership style.<br />Task oriented.<br />Human relationship oriented.<br /> To find out that basic style Fiedler created the Least <br />Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire for the <br />purpose to measure whether a person is task oriented <br />or relationship oriented.<br />It asks the respondents to think of all the co-workers <br />they have ever work and to describe the person they <br />least enjoyed working with by rating that person on a <br />scale of 1-8.Among 16 set of contrasting questions.<br />
  4. 4. the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms (a high LPC score) then the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relationship with the co-worker i.e. if you describe the person you are least able to work with in favourable terms then Fiedler would level you relationship oriented. In contrast if the least preferred co-worker is seen in relatively unfavourable terms (a low LPC score) the respondent is primarily interested in productivity and would be levelled task oriented.<br />
  5. 5. 2. Defining Situation:<br />After an individual’s basic leadership style has been <br />assessed through LPC. Fiedler identifies 3 contingency <br />factors which are the key situational factors that <br />determine leader’s effectiveness.<br />1. Task Structure: It is the degree which the job assignments are procedures i.e. structured or unstructured.<br />2. Position Power: It is the degree of influence a leader has over power variable such as hiring, discipline, promotion and salary increase.<br />3. Leader Member Relationship: It is the degree of confidence, trust and respect shown by the member to their leaders.<br />
  6. 6. The next step in the Fiedler model is to evaluate the<br />situation in terms of these 3 contingency variables.<br />Fiedler states that the better the leader-member <br />relationship the more highly structure the task is and <br />the stronger the position power the more control the <br />leader has. For example: in a very favourable situation (in <br />which the leader has the great deal of control) might <br />involve a payroll manager who is well respected and <br />whose employees have confidence in their (good leader <br />member relationship) activities as wage computation, <br />check writing, report writing etc. are specific and clear <br />(high task structure) and the job provides considerable <br />freedom to reward or punish the employees (strong <br />position power). <br />
  7. 7. However an unfavorable condition might be the leader has a very little control. Altogether by mixing the 3 dimension there are potentially 8 different situation in which leaders could find themselves.<br />
  8. 8. 3. Relationship between style and situation:<br /> With knowledge of an individual’s LPC score and assessment of the 3 contingency dimension, the Fiedler’s model matching them up, to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. He concluded that task oriented leader tend to perform better in situation that are very favourable to them instead of unfavourable condition so, Fiedler predict that when task oriented leader faced with category 1,2,3,7,8 situation perform better. Relationship oriented leader however perform better in moderately favourable situation with category 4,5,6. Thus we can say task-oriented leader perform best in situation of high and low control while relationship oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situation.<br />
  10. 10. Implications of Fiedler’s Model:<br /> Fiedler’s model offers a number of implications. The<br />model provides a promising breakthrough in leadership <br />research. Fiedler’s contingency model provides two<br />implications:<br />No leadership style is appropriate for all situations. Thus manager can adopt the leadership style according to the requirements of the situation.<br />There is a need for matching leaders and job situations to achieve organisational effectiveness. Fiedler says that “if we wish to increase organisational and group effectiveness, we must learn not only how to train leaders more effectively but also how to build an organisational environment in which the leader can perform well.”<br />
  11. 11. THANK YOU<br />