LH 20 | Lawyering in Depression and War

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LH 20 | Lawyering in Depression and War

  1. 1. Professor Bernard Hibbitts<br />University of Pittsburgh School of Law | Fall 2010<br />Lawyering: A History<br />
  2. 2. Lawyering in Depression and War<br />
  3. 3. The Crash<br />
  4. 4. The Crash<br />
  5. 5. The Crash, continued…<br />
  6. 6. Incomes fall<br />
  7. 7. Unemployment spikes<br />
  8. 8. Social devastation<br />
  9. 9. Franklin Roosevelt<br />
  10. 10. The New Deal<br />
  11. 11. Lawyers in the Depression<br />
  12. 12. Leading New York law firms, 1930<br />
  13. 13. Leading New York law firms, 1935<br />
  14. 14. Leading New York law firms, 1940<br />
  15. 15. Small practices challenged<br />
  16. 16. 1929 $5,534<br />1930 $5,194<br />1931 $5,090<br />1932 $4,156<br />1933 $3,868<br />1934 $4,218<br />1935 $4,272<br />1936 $4,394<br />1937 $4,483<br />1938 $4,273<br />1939 $4,391<br />Mean incomes of non-salaried lawyers<br />
  17. 17. Impoverished lawyers<br />
  18. 18. 1929 104,000<br />1930 108,000<br />1931 113,000<br />1932 114,000<br />1933 116,000<br />1934 116,000<br />1935 119,000<br />1936 120,000<br />1937 122,000<br />1938 124,000<br />1939 126,000<br />But lawyers continue to multiply…<br />
  19. 19. “Overcrowding” at the bar<br />
  20. 20. Legal aid concerns<br />
  21. 21. Unauthorized practice<br />
  22. 22. A.L. Alexander’s Good Will Court<br />
  23. 23. By statutes and common law principles, corporations and non-lawyers are forbidden to furnish legal advice and service because of the danger to the public, just as "quack" doctors are prohibited from practicing medicine, and the radio is thus being misused in a manner which in many states would be unlawful and improper. This is particularly so in view of the fact that people asking advice through the "Good Will Court" are entirely deprived of the usual accepted safeguards and protections to which they are entitled and, if misled, have no recourse against the sponsors or others connected with the program.<br /> - ABA Committee on Unauthorized Practice, 1936<br />
  24. 24. No lawyer shall permit his professional services, or his name, to be used of, or to make possible, the unauthorized practice of law by any lay agency, personal or corporate.<br />Canon 47<br />
  25. 25. Lawyers in popular culture<br />
  26. 26. The “law factories”<br />
  27. 27. Counsellor at Law, 1933<br />
  28. 28. Government lawyers<br />
  29. 29. “Boys with their hair ablaze”<br />
  30. 30. Ferdinand Pecora<br />
  31. 31. Opposition<br />
  32. 32. The American Liberty League<br />
  33. 33. The American Bar Association<br />
  34. 34. The “court packing” plan <br />
  35. 35. The Realists<br />
  36. 36. Assault on the night schools<br />
  37. 37. Tough times at Suffolk<br />
  38. 38. African-American lawyers <br />
  39. 39. Migration and segregation<br />
  40. 40. Charles Hamilton Houston<br />
  41. 41. [The] Negro lawyer must be trained as a social engineer and group interpreter. Due to the Negro's social and political condition . . . the Negro lawyer must be prepared to anticipate, guide and interpret his group advancement. . . . [Moreover, he must act as] business advisor . . . for the protection of the scattered resources possessed or controlled by the group. . . . He must provide more ways and means for holding within the group the income now flowing through it.<br /> - Charles Hamilton Houston<br />
  42. 42. The National Lawyers Guild<br />
  43. 43. War<br />
  44. 44. Lawyers in the war effort<br />
  45. 45. 1940 128,000<br />1941 128,000<br />1942 117,000<br />1943 107,000<br />1944 107,000<br />1945 110,000<br />1946 130,000<br />1947 135,000<br />Reduced numbers in practice<br />
  46. 46. Rosie goes to Wall Street<br />
  47. 47. Law school enrollments plummet<br />
  48. 48. 1940 $4,507<br />1941 $4,794<br />1942 $5,527<br />1943 $5,945<br />1944 $6,504<br />1945 $6,861<br />Lawyers’ incomes rise again<br />
  49. 49. Lawyers in military leadership<br />
  50. 50. Military lawyers<br />
  51. 51. Lawyers and internment<br />
  52. 52. Japanese American exclusion…<br />
  53. 53. …and removal<br />
  54. 54. Fred Korematsu<br />
  55. 55. The ACLU divided<br />
  56. 56. Ernest Besig<br />
  57. 57. Lawyers and peace<br />
  58. 58. War crimes trials<br />
  59. 59. War crimes trials<br />
  60. 60. War crimes trials<br />
  61. 61. Maj. Ben Bruce Blakeney<br />
  62. 62. Zealous advocacy<br />
  63. 63. Zealous advocacy<br />
  64. 64. Green Hackworth and the ICJ<br />
  65. 65. Why did the large law firms fare relatively well in the Great Depression?<br />How did private practitioners and small firms cope with the economic downturn?<br />How did contemporary media depict lawyers and lawyering in the Depression era?<br />How did the Depression, and later World War II, affect American legal education?<br />What impcat did Roosevelt’s New Deal have on lawyers and lawyering?<br />Review questions<br />
  66. 66. Tomorrow…Post-war Lawyering, 1945-1960<br />
  67. 67. Lawyering in Crisis, 1929-1945<br />
  68. 68. Professor Bernard Hibbitts<br />University of Pittsburgh School of Law | Fall 2010<br />Lawyering: A History<br />

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