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HIMANSHU BHATT
Id No.-39684
B.Sc. Ag Final YEAR
Group- C

SUBMITTED TO:
RAWE
COORDINATORS
INTRODUCTON
• Allelopathy is derived from two greek words “allelon or
allele” means “mutual or each other” and “pathos”
me...
The central principle in Allelopathy arises from the
fact that plants and microorganisms collectively
produce thousands of...
Cinnamic and benzoic acids, flavonoids , and
various terpenes are the most commonly found
allelochemicals,. A few allelo-c...
FORMS OF ALLELOPATHIC
INTERACTIONS
 Crop against other crops:
• Examples:
• Sunflower has been found allelopathic to grou...
• Crop against weeds:
•
•

Examples:
Sorghum releases hydrocynic acid (HCN) and suppresses many
weeds growing in vicinity....
Weed against crops:
S.No. Weeds

Crops

1

Cyperus rotundus

Sorghum , soybean

2

Imperata cylindrical

Several crops

3
...
SOURCES OF ALLELOPATHY
PLANT

CHEMICALS

REFERENCE

Secale cereal L.

2,4-dihydroxy-1,4(2H)benzoxazin-3-

Barnes & Putnam (1987)

(Rye)

one

(DI...
 The Glucoside which is present in wheat, rice, maize
can have many aspects:
• Influence growth of weed
• Involve in deto...
ALLELOPATHIC PROBLEMS IN AGRICULTURE,
HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY
1) Soil sickness
2) Auto toxicity under same crop monocrop...
INFLUENCES OF ALLELOPATHY IN CONTROLLED OR
AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS

1.

Modern crops have been selected by
desirable agric...
• c) Other numerous selections for desirable
plant virtues must of necessity reduced
levels of bitterness or other chemica...
POSITIVE ASPECTS
 2. Using allelopathy in agriculture.
• a) In new forests or in reforestation make use
of allelopathy by...
POSITIVE ASPECTS
 Helianthus tuberosus, a staple food crop in Europe in
past, which has now become a weed, can be used as...
THE END
ALLELOPATHY BY HIMANSHU
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ALLELOPATHY BY HIMANSHU

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ALLELOPATHY BY HIMANSHU

  1. 1. HIMANSHU BHATT Id No.-39684 B.Sc. Ag Final YEAR Group- C SUBMITTED TO: RAWE COORDINATORS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTON • Allelopathy is derived from two greek words “allelon or allele” means “mutual or each other” and “pathos” means “suffering or to suffer.” • Hans Molisch (1937), plant physiologist, University of Vienna, Austria, coined the term allelopathy • It was first reported in alfa-alfa, and the first allelochemical was extracted from walnut. • Actually, it is the process involving secondary metabolites, produced by algae, bacteria, plants , which influence the growth of the other or same species.
  3. 3. The central principle in Allelopathy arises from the fact that plants and microorganisms collectively produce thousands of chemicals, and many of these chemicals are released from the producing organism by leaching, exudation, volatilization, or decomposition processes. Subsequently, some of these compounds (known as allelochemicals) alter the growth or physiological functions of organisms that encounter them during growth. • For example, almost pure droplets of sorgoleone (a quinone) are exuded from the roots of Sorghum species, which inhibits growth in plants that contact it by blocking photosynthesis and respiration. •
  4. 4. Cinnamic and benzoic acids, flavonoids , and various terpenes are the most commonly found allelochemicals,. A few allelo-chemicals have been developed as herbicides and pesticides, and it may be possible to genetically engineer a crop to produce its own herbicides. TYPES OF ALLELOPATHY a) Alloallelopathy and Autoallelopathy b) True allelopathy and Functional allelopathy
  5. 5. FORMS OF ALLELOPATHIC INTERACTIONS  Crop against other crops: • Examples: • Sunflower has been found allelopathic to groundnut under intercropping situation • Tree crops like Eucalyptus also shows some allelopathic interactions to vegetables and some field crops grown as intercrop with it. • Crop residues of lentil are phytotoxic to wheat and of sunflower and mustard to several crops • Sorghum is allelopathic to wheat and sweet potato to cowpea. • Mung/ green gram and cowpea are stimulatory to the growth of wheat.
  6. 6. • Crop against weeds: • • Examples: Sorghum releases hydrocynic acid (HCN) and suppresses many weeds growing in vicinity. Barley produces “gramine” an alkaloid, which inhibits weed growth • S.No. Crops Weed species 1 Maize Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus 2 Sorghum Setaris viridis, Bromus pectinatus, Amaranthus hybridus 3 Cucumber Echinochloa crusgalli 4 Sweet potato Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus esculentus
  7. 7. Weed against crops: S.No. Weeds Crops 1 Cyperus rotundus Sorghum , soybean 2 Imperata cylindrical Several crops 3 Chinopodium album Alfalfa, cucumber, oat, maize 4 Cirsium arvense Several crops 5 Avena fatua Several crops Weed against other weeds Cassi sericea, has shown encouraging result to oust parthenium in Karnataka state. state
  8. 8. SOURCES OF ALLELOPATHY
  9. 9. PLANT CHEMICALS REFERENCE Secale cereal L. 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4(2H)benzoxazin-3- Barnes & Putnam (1987) (Rye) one (DIBOA) 2(3H)- benzoxazolinone (BOA) Avena sativa L. Sorghum Ferulic acid bicolor (Sorghum),Triticum aestivum (wheat) Rice (1984) L. P-cumaric acid L. 2,4- Dihydroxy- 7- methoxy-1, 4benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) Perez ( 1990) Hordenine Barley Hydroxamic acid Liu and Lovett (1993) Mungbean Saponins Corcurea et al. (1992) Medicago sativa L. Ascaridole, alpha-terpinene Krol et al. (1995) Chenopodium Gamma-linolenic acid, Corcurea et al. (1992) Alpha-asarone Cucumis sativus L. (Cucumber) Benzoic and Cinnamic acids Yu and Matsui, 1994
  10. 10.  The Glucoside which is present in wheat, rice, maize can have many aspects: • Influence growth of weed • Involve in detoxification of pesticides, • Increase the resistance of insects, fungi and bacteria, in cereals. • Trigger the reproduction of grass-feeding mammals, • Are mutagenic agents
  11. 11. ALLELOPATHIC PROBLEMS IN AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY 1) Soil sickness 2) Auto toxicity under same crop monocropping. 3) Increased crop- weed interference 4) Growing susceptibility of plants to disease/ pests 5) Reduced nitrification and biological nitrogen fixation 6) Reduced nutrient uptake 7) Weed seed decomposition delayed/ prevented 8) Poor success on replanting of tree crops 9) Failure of vegetative propagation (e.g. grafting, budding) 10)Suppression effect from trees
  12. 12. INFLUENCES OF ALLELOPATHY IN CONTROLLED OR AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS 1. Modern crops have been selected by desirable agricultural characteristics, removed allelopathic properties. breeders for which have a) Rapid seed germination achieved by selecting lines with reduced seed coat inhibitors. Some germination inhibitors also act as antibiotics/fungicides. b) Increase production of edible parts, allelopathic compounds and all other secondary (defensive metabolites) require energy. Cultivated crops are developed for either high sugar content or larger heads of grain or bigger storage roots.
  13. 13. • c) Other numerous selections for desirable plant virtues must of necessity reduced levels of bitterness or other chemical which wild forms make use of for defense.
  14. 14. POSITIVE ASPECTS  2. Using allelopathy in agriculture. • a) In new forests or in reforestation make use of allelopathy by planting a mix of species that speed up succession thus preparing the soil for long term support of tree crops. • b) For nematode and soil born disease control use rotations with ground covers shown to strongly reduce these problems. • Rhodes grass useful for reniform nematodes and soybeans for potato scab.
  15. 15. POSITIVE ASPECTS  Helianthus tuberosus, a staple food crop in Europe in past, which has now become a weed, can be used as method to control weeds, especially monocot weeds. • Soil+HT @ 25 tonne/ha, • Soil+HT @ 50 tonne/ha. • After 25 days, there is severe impact on weeds both during growth period and germination period., e.g., Oxalis spp., Phalaris minor, Avena spp.  Chopped radish along with manure have also controlling effect on weeds up to 60% in crops like cotton, soybean.
  16. 16. THE END

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