INDIAN DIASPORA ANDCULTURAL DIPLOMACY Dr. Bhawna Gupta Assistant Professor in Public Administration, PG GCG – 42, Chandigarh
CULTURAL DIPLOMACY - MEANING• multifaceted – cultural policy, – information and – advocacy.• Willy Brandt - the „third pillar of foreign policy‟.
.• Changing place of Culture in foreign policy – funding artists‟ tours or by promoting the study of country‟s language and culture in universities abroad. – music, – literature, – performance and – the visual arts The Role of UNESCO
Hard Power• HARD = actual use of military force, economic sanctions, coercive diplomacy etc„Hard power is the ability to get others to do what they otherwise would not do through threats or rewards. Whether by economic carrots or military sticks, the ability to coax or coerce has long been the central element of power.‟
Soft Power„Soft power …is the ability to achieve goals throughattraction rather than coercion. It works by convincingothers to follow or getting them to agree to norms andinstitutions that produce the desired behavior.Soft power can rest on the appeal of ones ideas or culture… and …depends largely on the persuasiveness of the freeinformation that an actor seeks to transmit. If a state can[do this] it may not need to expend as many costlytraditional economic or military resources.‟
PUBLIC DIPLOMACY ‘Soft Power’ CULTURAL INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMACY BROADCASTING Long-term; Short-term; Education News & Views• Indian Council of Cultural Relations • Media •International Agencies
Nation Branding• Nation branding has been identified as a useful tool to counter negative stereotypes• Aims : – boost tourism, – be used to promote trade and investment. – establish regular trade routes and – facilitate the exchange of local knowledge. – can improve interstate relations and – build foundations for economic, political and cultural dialogue.
INDIA• India is home to – all the world‟s major religions – 500 dialects,. – “Vasudeva Kutumbakam• Recognizing “the importance of the Indian Diaspora as it has brought economic, financial, and global benefits to India,” the government has initiated a number of programs focusing on outreach to Indians abroad.
Nehru and Non-Alignment• 1947 – late 80s - non-aligned foreign policy stance• For Nehru, cultural linkages and cooperation between nations and people were an important• The end of the Cold War in the 1990s - change• India‟s relationships with the United States, China and Russia were reconfigured, as were those with immediate neighbours, including Pakistan.
• The idealism replaced by pragmatism.• Major thrust - fostering better trade and economic relations and at the political level through public and cultural diplomacy. – “Know India Program”. – the annual „Pravasi Bharatiya Divas‟ – “Brand India” image as part of its outreach to a global audience.• Uploading Website
INDIAN DIASPORA• 30 million and spread across 120 countries. – NRIs (Non-resident Indians) and – "PIOs" (Persons of Indian Origin), they cover practically every part of the Indian Ocean.• Migration – to the far-flung coasts of the Indian Ocean – As indentured laborers by the British to South Africa, and Kenya, in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Role of Indian Diaspora• professionals - provide technical skills and expertise.• decision-makers in their respective countries.• government and in key non-government sectors.• Indian associations – regional, – religious and – caste-based „mini-Indias‟ across the world.
SIGNIFICANT INSTRUMENTS USED IN CULTURAL DIPLOMACY
Indian Cultural Centres• The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) - 24 cultural centres outside India to project Indian culture to local people.• under the administrative control of the respective Indian diplomacy missions in which the centres are located. – „strong ethnic link‟ i.e. a sizeable Indian community (Mauritius, Guyana, Suriname, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa (Johannesberg and Durban), Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Fiji); – those in major European capitals (Moscow, London and Berlin); – those in newly independent republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union (Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan); – the cultural centre in Egypt (Cairo).
Cultural Agreements• Department of Culture - 121 cultural agreements with countries.• Department of Culture - „the overall responsibility for chalking out plans for cultural exchanges with other countries through concluding agreements on Cultural Cooperation and Cultural Exchange Programmes.‟• The ICCR - „essentially concerned with implementation of relevant provisions of these agreements and exchange programmes.‟
Festivals of India Abroad• counter stereotypical images abroad.• showing a once-great India, a country founded on a millenia-old civilisation• national pride.Cultural group performances, artist performances and exhibitions
Educational scholarships and distinguished scholars• The ICCR also facilitates scholarships and exchange programmes for students and scholars.• focused on students from developing countries• But the numbers of such scholarships have to increase for a greater impact.
Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas• “Diaspora Day,” is major annual event that encourages the involvement of the Diaspora community in the development of their homeland:• Aims: – bringing the expertise and knowledge of the Indian overseas community to India and integrating it into India‟s development process. – highlighting networking opportunities and collaborating to confer a mutual development platform.• The event involves a number of activities bringing together representatives from around the world.
Know India Program• KIP is hosted through the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs. – connecting the younger generation of Indians living abroad to Indian heritage and culture:• Also known as the Internship Program for Indian Diaspora (IPDY)• forum to students and young professionals of Indian origin to visit India and share their views, expectations and experiences.• Youth Festivals and Cultural Camps
Religion• different groups and cults in Indian religion and some of them have their presence in other countries also.• Gurus visited countries abroad for lectures• The emphasis - on spiritualism, rather than on religion per se, on yoga, vegetarian food, meditation, mental peace.
Yoga• Training institutes/centres for Yoga are to be seen in almost all countries• Aim – gain peace of mind, – putting body in shape and – learn how to meditate and concentrate one‟s mind power.• “spirituality” and not on religion.
Indian Films and Bollywood• Indian films and Indian TV serials• Indian male and female film stars - judges or as prominent guests at international film festivals.• honorary doctorates
Indian Fashions• Nehru Sherwani• Indian fashion designers set up their stores in Paris, London, New York, Dubai and/or Abu Dhabi.• Some of the Indian Diaspora members in Europe have also popularized their designs like the House of Mexx.• the Indian Pashmina Shawls and richly embroidered male long shirts are becoming popular.• Beauty Queens
Indian Cuisine• The “curry appeal” is irresistible.• Number of Indian restaurants in major cities of the world – employment of a large number of people, – considerable import of Indian grains, lentils, condiments and other ingredients from India.• display paintings by famous Indian artists• display of Indian music and dance.
Indian Music•Both Indian Classical and PopMusic is very popular•Ravi Shanker‟s Sitar music•Zakir Hussain‟s percussionthemes•Bhangra Music,•Rythm and Dance.• music and dance schools
Indian literature• Indian correspondents of influential newspapers and periodicals, and also anchors of CNN, BBC News Service.• Man Booker and Pulitzer Prizes,• India is the second largest newspaper market in the world.• India has more than 60,000,000 internet users,• and the country ranks 8thin the world by number of TV stations.
Public Diplomacy in the Information Age• The Public Diplomacy Division of the Ministry of External Affairs was established in May 2006.• Indian diplomacy has to exploit systems and active communication tools such as twitter, blogs, facebook, etc. that are symbols of an increasingly interconnected world.• It is thus time that Indian diplomats took up Public Diplomacy and its tools to convey their message to a global audience.
CONCLUSION• tapping media resources through the use of modern communication tools.• Indian diplomacy can leverage is Indian culture and civilization which date back to 5000 years.• tap all available resources and seek ways of projecting the country‟s soft power.• “Leveraging public diplomacy and cultural diplomacy is key for this purpose.”