AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP HOW TO PREPARE A SYNOPSIS FOR PHD RESEARCH? by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO☺OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763I solicit your response / ideas / articles / comments / feedback – pl. Send it at firstname.lastname@example.org======================================================================
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Now it has become a fashion that everyone wants to be have a Dr. Added to his / her name. Every one wants a PhD. However, a few know the pains it take to earn a Ph.D. A synopsis is the first document to be prepared by the researcher. The sysnopsis is an outline of the proposed research work. It must be prepared as per university guidelines. The aim of the research is to give the researcher an opportunity to learn and show that you can identify, define and analyse problems and issues and integrate knowledge. The only precise rule on what constitutes an acceptable research is that it should be an ordered critical exposition, which affords evidence of reasoning power and knowledge of the relevant literature in an approved field . The emphasis should be on applied research / basic research and the investigation of some practical problem or issue related to the situation in which an organisation or system operates.The researcher / scholar must ensure that they maintain regular contact with their supervisor and also that they provide the supervisor with drafts of their work at regular intervals. Finally, to keep yourself uptodate and under control as regards your research , it is imperative that you meet your supervisor regularly. 1. DEFINITIONS AND OVERIEW OF research The research is a practical, indepth study of a problem, issue, opportunity, technique or procedure – or some combination of these aspects of business. Typically, you will be required to define an area of investigation, carve out research design, assemble relevant data, analyse the data, draw conclusions and make recommendations. Your research should demonstrate organisational, analytical and evaluative skills, and, where appropriate, an ability to design a suitable implementation and review procedure. The Ph.D. research is the longest (about 50,000 words) and most original piece of work you will undertake. It will occupy, with varying degrees of commitment, a period of two semesters.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2. GUIDELINES AND REQUIREMENTS The purpose of the research is to give students the opportunity to carry out an indepth study of an applied nature, synthesizing various elements, yet pursing one area of interest in depth. Your research report should make clear what you have attempted and why you have attempted it; the methods that you have used to collect, collate and analyze the information obtained; and how you have evaluated it. Any recommendations made should be supported by the evidence presented and by logical argument using deductive and inductive reasoning. For a research to be of a high quality it is imperative to avoid detailed description devoid of analytical content. The assessment criteria for the research are vary from university to university. . 3. CHOOSING A TOPICChoosing your topic is probably the hardest thing you will do. The choice of topic is up to you, with guidance from your supervisor, but, he/ she is not there to make the decision for you. To a large extent, your ideas will be influenced by your situation. If you are in employment you may be able to research into a real life problem or, if you are not employed, you may choose a more general business issue. In either case, initial ideas are likely to originate in a vague form and may lack a clear focus. These then need to be developed into something manageable and practical by consideration of available literature/ texts and discussion with your research supervisors once allocated. 3.1. Most research ideas come from: • Personal experience of employment: this is an obvious starting point for the research because in every organisation there would be some issue that can be researched into. An example of a research originating from this way could be an evaluation of the Training Department of your organisation or an evaluation of the performance appraisal systems used for salesmen in your organisation. • Observation of events: Personal observation of events in the organisation/ environment can serve as a starting point for a research idea. An example of this could be that as an employee
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP you observe that the employee turnover in your organisation is very high and as your research you could research into the reasons for this and make suitable recommendations. • Issues of current interest: Reviewing key issues of broader relevance may be another useful indicator for a research idea. Specific consideration of the aspects of the effect of a government policy or a phenomenon on the performance of an organisation/segment/system may provide suitable ideas for a research . You need to take care when dealing with issues such as these. It may be necessary to confine yourself to an aspect of the issue or you could find yourself tackling something that is too big to handle effectively and gives you a very wide research area, which inevitably lacks depth of analysis.Whatever the source of your research idea, familiarity with the area is imperative for the successful completion of the research . 4. SCOPE An acceptable research will normally fall into one of the following categories: • Exploratory a study that involves carrying out original research in order to meet the organization’s continual need for new information for forward decisionmaking. The main issues may be human, economical, functional etc, but the construction and/or application of some kind of research instrument are the focus of the study. The analysis of the research findings (e.g. client’s responses to questionnaire about changing product specifications) should take place, resulting in proposals about how to manage relevant aspects of the organisation’s future. • Explanatory a study, which would involve studying relationships between different variables like a cause & effect relationship study. • Descriptive a study that would need an indepth portrayal of an accurate profile of events or situations from the business environment.5. ORGANISATION OF SYNOPSIS AND DOCTORAL RESEARCH REPORT This section presents some of the norms associated with a research . It is strongly recommended that you follow these guidelines. The synospsis consists of the following parts :
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP 1. introduction 2. importance of the proposed topic and objectives of the research 3. literature review 4. research methodology 5. expected contribution of the research and method of data analysis 6. expected limitations 7. proposed organistion of research work and schedule with time line 8. proposed organisation of the research report (chapterisation) 9. bibliography, references, questionnaire / schedule / instruments The final PhD disserttion report should be presented in the following sequence: Title page Student’s Declaration Supervisor’s Certificate Abstract Acknowledgements Table of Contents: List of Tables List of figures List of Appendices Chapter 1. Introduction: This chapter includes the research problem, need for study/significance of the research , objectives, hypotheses, methodology – scope, sample design, sources of information, tools and techniques of analysis, structure of the study with sound justifications/explanations. Chapter 2. Literature Review: This chapter should reflect the student’s understanding of the relevant theoretical and empirical background of the problem. Focus should be more on the logical presentation of the empirical evolution of conceptual and methodological issues pertaining to research problem. Also highlight the methodological clues drawn through this review for your research . Chapter 3. The company/Organisation/System: This chapter should contain a brief historical
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP retrospect about the entity of your study. Chapter 4 & 5: Present your data analysis and inferences Chapter 6. Summary and Conclusions: Gives an overview of the research , conclusions, implications and recommendations. Also specify the limitations of your study. You may indicate the scope for further research. Bibliography: List the books, articles, websites that are referred and useful for research on the topic of your specific research . Follow APA style of referencing or as per your university requirements . Appendices Your documents should be appropriately numbered. It is usual for Page 1 to start with the Introduction. The sections prior to the Introduction are usually numbered with small Romans, i.e. i, ii, iii. It is easier if appendices are numbered in a separate sequence (suggest A, B, C) rather than as a continuation of the main report.While presentation follows this sequence, it may be actually written in a very different order. For example, the introduction is often the last major section to be completed. 5.1. Title Page (example)Keep it very simple. Do not describe the contents. Have a working title and then decide a final title when you have finished the research . This is the standard format of the Title Page that every student is expected to use. 5.2. Abstract This is a summary of about 300 words (not more than one side of doublespaced A4) that describes the topic; explains the aims and methods of the study and gives a brief resume of the main conclusions and recommendations. 5.3. Acknowledgements
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Here you have the opportunity to thank the various people who have helped in the development of the research . It might include specific individuals who have given information, offered insights, or generally been supportive. Gratitude may be expressed to groups of people, like those who were studied, or fellow students. Try not to be too flippant or too “soppy”! 5.4. Table of ContentsThe contents page gives the reader the first view of how the research is structured and how the author attempted to develop the topic. It lists sequentially the sections and major subdivisions of the sections; each identified by a heading and located by a page number. The following box gives an example. Table of Contents CONTENTS PAGE NUMBERSList of Tables iList of Figures ii1. INTRODUCTION 12. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16 3. THE COMPANY 254. DATA ANALYSIS & PRESENTATION 40 4.1 Presentation and Analysis 40 4.2 Interpretations 455. SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS 506. BIBLIOGRAPHY 607. APPENDICES 65 Appendix A – Organisational structure of XYZ Ltd 66 Appendix B 67Your precise structure will have to be tailored to the needs of your own research s. If in doubt,
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP discuss with your research supervisor at an early stage. 5.5. List of Tables and FiguresThroughout the research , it is likely that you will want to present material in tabulated or diagrammatic form. Some such presentations will bear only indirectly or partially on your arguments, and in such cases you will need to decide about their proper location. Additional or less relevant information may be better placed in an appendix.Whether you decide to locate your tables/figures in the main body of the report or the appendices, it is conventional to provide special “contents pages” so that readers can easily find the information. Tables and figures should be listed on a separate page as shown below.Examples of List of Tables LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE NUMBERS I Redundancies in the Food Industry, by age, 1980-1987 3 II Employee’s Attitudes to Motivational Factors, by occupation 6 III Employee’s Attitudes to Motivational Factors,Examples of List of Figures LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE NUMBER I Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 5 II Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 10
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP 5.6. Introduction The introduction is crucial, since it sets the tone and context for the rest of the research . In the introduction, it is important to outline the reasons behind the study – your motives or rationale for conducting the study. You must give a broad introduction to the topic under review and types of issues it raises.Central to this part of the research is the setting of clear objectives, which you intend to achieve by the end of the study. Your statement of objectives should be concise and precise, and should be carefully considered in the light of your original aims and what you have been able to achieve in your study.Finally, you should include a summary of how you are going to treat the chosen topic, running briefly through the sections to show how the structure of the research allows you to explore the topic in your selected way. 5.7. The Main Body of the research The structuring of the research will reflect your preferences, so there is no one best way to do it. However, there are predictable issues that need covering and your structure should permit you to deal with them in an orderly fashion. For example, a research will include a literature review; most will involve the reporting of primary research; all will need to draw conclusions and consider recommendations. Additionally, all research s will include a section outlining, and justifying, the methodology you have adopted and should link research methods to the objectives and literature review.The main body of the research must take the reader logically through a variety of linked arguments, relating theory and practice, concepts and concrete observations, so that the reader can understand and identify with the conclusions and recommendations of the author. Your arguments need to be drawn demonstrably from your own observations and grounded in an authoritative set of ideas. They should not be anecdotal. Although the arguments should be presented in a tight structured
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP form – using headings at regular intervals to achieve this – they should also have an essential discursive character, i.e. you should fully explore the implications and ramifications of the topic by developing the arguments in a relevant way.You should ensure that you have covered all the major issues pertinent to the topic by the end of the main body of the research .Depending on the nature of your research , it might be appropriate to include a summary of your findings before embarking on your conclusions. 6.8 Summary and ConclusionYour Conclusion should include a summary of your main arguments, drawing together the variousthemes and issues so that they can be brought to bear on the defined objectives of the study. As withall reports, there should be no new information introduced in this section. Your Recommendationsshould be feasible, practical and must place your conclusions within a concrete and practicalframework. You need to consider your recommendations in the context of their possible human,financial, political, managerial, etc, implications. Your recommendations should be justified. 6.9 AppendicesYou should locate in the appendices all that information which gives an additional, quasirelevant support to the arguments you are constructing. It is important that you put all the information you require the reader to attend to, in the main body of the text. Appendices should be consistently signified by letter (APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B) or by number (Roman) and give titles that indicate their contents. Do remember to source information in appendices appropriately. 6.10 Bibliography and ReferencingReferencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to followup and read more fully the cited author’s arguments. Reference is given within the text of the research as well as at the end of the research . The basic difference between citation and a reference list (bibliography) is that the latter contains full details of all the intext citations. • Citation provides brief details of the author and date of publication for referencing the work in the body of the text.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP • Reference List is given at the end of the text and is a list of all references used with additional details provided to help identify each source.References should be made to sources of material throughout the report. Various conventions are used for referencing but you must use Harvard Referencing, as shown in Appendix A, throughout your report. Proper referencing is a crucial aspect of your research . You are therefore strongly advised to talk to your supervisor about this, in order to make sure that your research report follows the appropriate referencing system.6. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF THE research The research should be typed on A4 white paper, and be doubleline spaced. The left margin should not be less than 40 mm and the right margin not less than 20 mm. All pages should be numbered, and numbers should be placed at the centre of the bottom of the page, not less than 10 mm above the edge. All tables, figures and appendices should be consecutively numbered or lettered, and suitably labelled. 3 bound copies & a softcopy should be handed in to the Principal/Director of your College/Institute at the time of submission.NOTE: College in turn would submit Two bound copies of all the research s to the Controller of Examinations along with a consolidated CD containing the soft copy of the research s and the list of research titles sorted on the HT Numbers with linkages to the respective research file. The columns in the list should include HTNO., Name of the Student, Major Elective and the research Title. College name and the year should be mentioned on the CD. ROLE OF SUPERVISORThe supervisors role is one of guidance providing advice and pointing out possible problems that
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP may arise. The supervisors role is to appraise your ideas and work. You must take overall responsibility for both the content of your research and its management. This includes selection of an appropriate subject area (with the approval of the supervisor), setting up meetings with the supervisor, devising and keeping to a work schedule (to include contingency planning), and providing the supervisor with samples of your work.It is your responsibility to make contact with your supervisor and arrange meetings at appropriate times. You should use the time with the supervisors wisely. The students must meet their supervisors for a minimum of four meetings per semester, over the span of the entire research .You should spread your workload over the entire time available for carrying out your research . Draw up a realistic work schedule with inbuilt slack to allow for problems. Be sure you are aware of your specific handin dates. You must exchange contact details with your supervisor, and make sure that he or she has your relevant contact information. Your supervisor will keep a log of meetings with you. After each meeting with your supervisor, you will both sign a student contact and progression form. Note that if the records show that your contact with your supervisor is not good; your research may not be marked.Be sure you are clear about the assessment criteria for the research . Note that a significant proportion of the grade is allocated to presentation and style. A high level of communication skills is expected. However, it is not within the role or the duties of your supervisor to correct your grammar and syntax.Your supervisor will comment upon samples of your work but will not premark the whole document, or substantial portions of it. If asked, you must present a sample of your written work prior to a meeting with your supervisor, at an agreed time. Under no circumstances will your supervisor give you an indication of your expected final grade. You must keep hard copies of each version of your work, and save copies of the current version on a main and a backup disk (preferably kept apart from each other). Disks should
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP regularly be viruschecked. Also, make sure to keep printed copies of working documents, and the raw data from any questionnaires or other data collection. A FEW TIPS....Choose a topic, or an issue, in which you are interested.Get organised, give yourself time to think about your research . Look at the information available is there enough information available for you to be able to produce a good research ? Be wary if you are relying upon organisations to provide you with information. They will not give you confidential or sensitive information and you must not expect them to respond as promptly as you would like.Visit the Library and spend some time looking at previous research s.With the help of your research supervisor agree on the aims and objectives and the structure of the research as soon as possible.It is worthwhile investing in some reliable storage devices for storing your research related documents. Keep at least two copies (updated). Remember to virus check your storage devices.The final printing and binding of your research can be the most frustrating time. Allow five working days. Numbering pages, rearranging pagination and putting together the Contents page takes a deal of time – do not underestimate this part of your task. By this time you will have been working on your research for some months you will be bored with it; you just want to hand it in and move on to the next assignment. So, to save your time and frustration, allow yourself five working days for this part of the task.Do not underestimate the enormity of the task ahead of you. The key points are to organise your time; make and maintain contact with your supervisor, decide upon your topic and when you have formulated your aims, objectives and structure get on with it!Finally, remember to print and keep a copy of the research report for your own use, as no copy of the report submitted will be returned to you.Examples of synopsis :
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP A STUDY ON ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS IN JODHPUR AND BIKANER DISTRICTS SYNOPSIS OF THE THESIS SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY for consideration ( .... Name of programme ) By Researcher UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF (RESEARCH SUPERVISOR) INDIA 2010
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP SYNOPSISINTRODUCTION In India, entrepreneurial world is men’s world predominantly. But recently, there will be a change in the trend. The emphasis is on the idea that women also can contribute to the economy of the nation. Indian women have proved not only that they are second to none in proficiency of doing any work earlier meant for men, but also that they will be efficient in effective enterprise management under all circumstances. In the developing countries like India, the forces of commercialization, modernization and industrialization are actually operating and transforming the traditional modes of production in to modern capitalistic enterprises. Women are the most preponderant segment of the society. For women an opportunity to productive work is not merely a means to higher income but it is a means to self respect, to the development of her personality and to a sense of participation in the common purpose of the society. Till recently women will be considered unfit for roles other than those of housewife, nurse, primary school teacher, sales girl, telephone operator, stenographer and receptionist. The image of women in society is fast changing. Need for Women Entrepreneurship Women suffer the most in India. Her involvement in economic activities is marked by low work participation rate, excessive concentration in the unorganized sector of the economy and in low skill jobs. However, in rural areas, agriculture has provided more employment for women. Their literacy rate, which itself is the cause for low economic conditions, creates a vicious circle of low social and economic status. The status of
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP women in India is an illustration of paradox. At the micro level she has equal position in the family. The scriptures and mythologies give her even the status of a Goddess. However, over the period the position of women at the macro level of the society will be downgraded, so much so that she is the most abused person of the Indian society. The liberalization policy of the government has thrown open a vast area of the economy for private entrepreneurship. Under such circumstances, special efforts to develop women entrepreneurship are more keenly felt. The SHG Programme Approach The operations of SHGs are based on the principle of circulating the member’s own savings. Savings thus provide facility for borrowing by the member. The vast majority of MFIs in India has SHG based programme. Objective of the Formation of SHG The main objective of the formation of self help group is to strengthen cooperative movement by utilizing the resources available in the area. To achieve this objective, SHG selects its members from the same locality and the same income group who join together to live with dignity. As a holistic group, SHGs have many social and economic objectives like inculcating the habit of saving and banking among the rural women, building up trade and confidence between the rural women and the banker, developing group activity to implement various welfare and development programmes in a better way and to achieve women and child welfare goals by actually involving this women groups in universal immunization programmes, small family norms and universal elementary education etc.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Role of NGOs in Promoting SHGs There is no doubt about the fact that elimination of poverty to an appreciable extent seems to be not manageable only by Government sector. They need collaboration and cooperation from other nongovernmental institutions. Here arises the role of non governmental organizations in diverse fields to fight against poverty. There are vast areas concerning development and welfare that are left uncovered due to paucity of funds. It is in this scenario that NGOs step in and justify their existence in India. Generally NGOs follow four clear cut strategies. They are simple charity supplementing welfarism of the state, encouraging people’s participation and implementing programmes launched by the government for large benefit of the community involving people in programme planning, raising resources, implementing activities and sharing fruits of development and conscience instilling and organizing people, enabling them to demand and undertake planning and implementation of development programmes beneficial to them. Today in India there are 15000 registered NGOs and many more nonregistered informal groups. These organisations have touched the lives of an estimated number of 15 million persons. LITERATURE REVIEW (TO BE PREPARED) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Both men and women, who form the human resources, constitute the main strength of economic development of a nation. Women form an important segment of the labour force and economic role played by them cannot be isolated. The government is, therefore making planned efforts to inculcate the spirit of enterprising among women through many incentives and development programs. These efforts are expected to spin
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP good results with many more women taking up entrepreneurship. Several women are becoming entrepreneurs, especially the middle class women, due to the pull and push of traditional and changing values. Under the pull factors, the women entrepreneurs choose profession as a challenge or as an adventure with an urge to do something new and to have an independent occupation. Under the push factors women take up business enterprise to get over financial difficulties when responsibility is thrust on them due to family circumstances. Many research studies had been done on entrepreneurship, but very little had been done on women entrepreneurs. A lot of data are available on entrepreneurial characteristics and motivators of men but very little data are available regarding women. How far the driving forces and the socioeconomic factors applicable to women are valid is to be explored. A selfhelp group (SHG) is a voluntary association of people with common goal. The concept of ‘Self Help Group’ appears to be a good alternative strategy to involve people in the development process. In these circumstances, it is felt important and necessary to study the SHG concept, its pattern of functioning, its present status in India, the socio economic changes effected and empowerment acquired by women. Hence, the present study is undertaken to analyse the entrepreneurship of women through SHG scheme for JODHPUR and BIKANER districts of Rajasthan . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The specific objectives of the present study are 1 To present the socio-economic and personality profile of the women entrepreneurs. 2 To identify the factors influencing the women to start enterprise.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP 3 To analyze the enterprise management ability among women entrepreneurs. 4 To examine the factors that help to identify good and poor performers among women entrepreneurs. 5 To analyze the major strengths and weaknesses of women entrepreneurs. 6 To study the environmental opportunities which promote entrepreneurship and 7 To offer suggestions for promoting women entrepreneurship. HYPOTHESES The study aims at testing the following hypotheses in line with objectives mentioned above: 1 Entrepreneurship is independent of the socio- economic background of women respondents such as Age, Education, Caste, Type of Family and the like. 2 There is no relationship between entrepreneurship ability and personality traits of women. 3 There is no significant difference in the degree of involvement among women entrepreneurs of different Age groups, Educational status, Caste, Marital status, Family size, and Occupational background. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study suffers from certain limitations. One of the important limitations is that though there are large numbers of selfemployment programmes functioning in Rajasthan, the present study is confined only to the women entrepreneurs working under SHGs in BIKANER and Jodhpur districts. Thus the findings can be generalized only to certain extent.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP METHODOLOGY SAMPLE DESIGN The respondents will be selected on stratified random sampling basis. They will be chosen proportionately from Agricultural Sector, Manufacturing Sector Service Sector, Trading Sector, and Artisans. Two districts namely JODHPUR and BIKANER will be selected for the present study. The main reason for selecting these two districts is that the former is a backward district and the latter is a developed one. For the purpose of collecting primary data, blockwise list of SHG members will be obtained from the Project Officer, District Rural Development Agency, Programme Officer, and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) functioning in JODHPUR and BIKANER districts. Total of 300 women entrepreneurs, out of which 150 respondents from JODHPUR district will be randomly selected from SHGs functioning under 23 approved NGOs and one BLF; they are distributed over 12 town panchayats, The remaining 150 respondents from BIKANER district will be randomly selected from SHGs functioning in 10 blocks under 30 NGOs and ‘Mahalir Thittam’ scheme. PERIOD OF STUDY The field survey will be conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 for the collection of primary data. . COLLECTION OF DATA Both primary and secondary data will be used for the present study. A reconnaissance survey will be made of the selected respondents to get acquainted with the factors behind to start enterprises, problems and the like. On the basis of the information gathered, a well designed pre tested interview schedule will be drafted and used in the field survey to collect primary data. Before undertaking the main survey a tentative
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP interview schedule will be prepared and administered to 25 women entrepreneurs in order to test the validity of the interview schedule. It facilitated the removal of the ‘no response’ and unwarranted questions and then the modified final schedule will be prepared on this basis. The selected women entrepreneurs will be contacted in person and the objectives of the study will be clearly explained to them and their cooperation will be ensured. The details regarding the general characteristics of the sample members, their families, income, savings and the like relating to the overall objectives of the study will be collected from the sample respondents through the direct personal interview method. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK For analyzing the data collected during the investigation the following statistical tools will be used based of the nature of data and relevance of information required. 1 Chi Square Test Chi Square test is an important non parametric test and as such no rigid assumptions are necessary in respect of the type of population. The Chi Square test in the present study is used as a test of independence. In order to examine the relationship between socio economic profile and entrepreneurship, the Chi Square test will be applied = Where = Chi Square value O= Observed frequency E= Expected frequency
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP The Chi Square value is compared with the Table value to find out the association between the normal variables in the present study. 1 One Way ANOVA The one way ANOVA is applied in the present study when the variables are in intervals and the number of samples is in more than two groups. In order to find out the significant difference among the women entrepreneurs’ involvement and socio economic profile the F’ statistics is calculated F = s1 / s2 s1 variance between the groups s2 variance within the groups F ratio is calculated and compared with the respective table value of F to analyse the significant difference among the groups regarding each variable. 1 Factor Analysis In order to identify the factors with influence the starting of the enterprises Factor Analytical Method will be adopted. 1 Correlation Coefficient Pearson’s product movement correlation coefficient will be calculated to find the relationship between profile of the entrepreneurs and their enterprise involvement Where x =
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP y= = mean of x variable = mean of y variable The significance of calculated ‘r’ values will be tested for 5 percent level of significance. The correlation coefficients between the variables will be calculated according to the need of study. 5. Multiple Regressions When a factor is dependent on more than one, analysis will not reveal the relationship. For this purpose, multiple regressions technique will be used to reveal the existence of nonlinear relationship between the dependent and independent variables which are in internal scales. Hence, the Log linear multiple regressions will be applied to identify the variables (profile) which influence the entrepreneurs involvement index of the following form. Log Y = b0+ b1log x1+……………….. b12log x12+u Where, Y= Enterprise Involvement Index x1….. x12 = Independent variables b0 b12 = Regression Coefficient b0 = Intercept or constant term u = Error term which are converted into log linear form
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP log y = loga(b1log x1) + bnlog xn +c…..( ) 6 Discriminant Function Analysis The Fisher’s Discriminant Functions Analysis test will be applied to analyse the interest of the independent variables which discriminate the two groups namely entrepreneurs Vs. nonentrepreneurs, good performers Vs. poor performers and satisfiers Vs. dissatisfiers in the present study Z = Where, Z = Total Discriminant score x1… xn = Discriminant variables L1… Ln= Linear Discriminant coefficient N = Number of variables The critical ‘z’ value= Where, z1 = Total Discriminant score for group I z 2 = Total Discriminant score for group II 6 Mahalenobis measures of distance Mahalenobis measures of distance between two groups is F F=
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Where, D2 = IiDi P = Number of Discriminant variables N1 = Number in group I N2 = Number in group II The values of ‘F’ to be tested at P and (N1+N21)degrees of freedom. 6 Index Preparation The index regarding personality, entrepreneurship, enterprise involvement are prepared on the basis of I= i = 1 to n where, I = Index S = Score obtained Ms = Maximum score i…n = number of variable included in the analysis The technique adopted to identify and analyse the factor influence the entrepreneurs to manage the enterprise will be Orthogonal Vaimax Rotations.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP CHAPTERIZATION The present study “Entrepreneurship development through self help groups in Bikaner and Jodhpur districts” will be divided into seven chapters. The introductory chapter discusses the need for women entrepreneurship, Concept of women entrepreneurs, Functions, Factors influencing women entrepreneurship, Women in development process, Women and Credit, SHG programme approach, Objectives of the formation of SHG, Benefits of linkage to the banks, Growth of SHG in India, Role of NGOs, Statement of the problem, Objectives of the study, Hypotheses, Limitations and Chapterization. Chapter I : introduction giving basic concepts Chapter II will reviews the literature of the past studies and describes the methodology adopted for the present study. Chapter III will discusse research methodology, hypothesis, sampling, sample frame, and the profile of the study area. Chapter IV will investigate the factors influencing the entrepreneurial development of women entrepreneurs. It will analyse the personality traits and the quality of entrepreneurship among the women respondents. Chapter V will analyse the nature of enterprises, enterprise involvement and performance of women entrepreneurs. Chapter VI will evaluate the attitude of entrepreneurs towards their enterprises. Chapter VII will present the Summary of Findings, Conclusion and offers suggestions based on the findings of the study.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP References (to be added) Bibliography (to be added ) ANATHER EXAMPLE OF SYNOPSIS : 1. Name of the Scholar : 2. Title of the Research work : ‘The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Career Achievement in Doctors’3. Location : 4. Introduction : Annexure I5. Importance of the proposed Research work or Relevance Of the Study : Annexure II6. Review of the work already Done on the Subject : Annexure III7. Hypothesis : Annexure IV8. Methodology : Annexure V9. Chapter wise Details : Annexure VI10. Bibliography : Annexure VIIOutline of the Synopsis approved Sig. of the CandidateSig. of the Supervisor with Date with Date ANNEXURE I
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Introduction : Doctor, one of the most respectful profession of our society. They serve the patients with the objective of 100% successful in curing but still some of the Doctors are more successful than others. What is the measure of success? Is it only a strong scientific mind? No! It was, in the past, but now some fundamental new theories have been introduced: The Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983) & The Emotional Intelligence Theory (Mayer & Salovey, 1990; Goleman, 1995). Then we can say that success depends on several intelligences and on the control of emotions. IQ alone is no more the measure for success; emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and luck also play a big role in a persons success (Goleman, 1995). In the work place all kinds of articles are written, workshops and conferences are held to help doctors (Epstein, 1999), employees and managers (Abraham, 1999; Laabs, 1999; Barrier & Bates, 1999) become aware of the components of emotional intelligence so that they improve themselves. If emotional intelligence is considered .The purpose of this study is to see whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and career success. Do the high achiever Doctors have a high emotional intelligence level or isn’t there any relationship between their achievement and their emotional intelligence? Do the low achievers have a low emotional intelligence level or isn’t there any relationship between their achievement and their emotional intelligence either? So, the population of this study will be the Doctors in Bikaner city. The sample will be 300 Doctors from both from both public and private hospitals in Bikaner city. The sampling will be stratified, making sure that Hospitals, genders, socioeconomic statuses, and abilities will be appropriately represented. There will be two separate instruments for data collection. Together two research questions will be addressed : what is the relationship between emotional intelligence and career success, and what is the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for a Doctors with high intelligence quotients? The career success will be measured on the basis of some questions that will be asked to the respondents( Doctors), based on the five point scale. Accordingly high achievers will be seperatd from the from the middle and the low achievers.The second will be the web based test that measures emotional intelligence called the MayerSaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Afterwards both results will be compared to find out whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and career achievement or not, in order for us to be able to accept or reject our hypothesis.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Problem Statement Understanding what makes career a success in an is very important in today’s complex and competitive environment. The importance of emotional intelligence has only recently become widely salient in the quest to identify high potential people in every field. The recent realization of the usability of EI to identify potential people, those who are most successful has left a gap between research and practice. With a limited amount of research into the subject there is a need for a study that evaluates the effect of EI on career success. Research Questions There are two research questions being investigated in this study. Research question one (R1) is: What is the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for a Doctors with high intelligence quotients? Research question two (R2) is: What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and career success? Annexure II: Importance of the proposed Research work or Relevance of the Study: Today Intelligence and success in Career is not viewed the same way as they were before. New theories of Intelligence have been introduced and are gradually replacing the traditional theory.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP The growing rate of private hospitals and their success over government hospitals has raised an issue of not only the facilities and ambiance of hospitals but also the interpersonal skills and Emotional Intelligence of Medical Staff specially the Doctors with respect to patients. This study is important because it will be the first research to examine emotional intelligence and its effect on career achievement among Doctors (specifically chosen for high intelligence). The career achievement or development of individual depends upon different qualities they posses. The individuals who selects a career in Healthcare industry should be able to manage good relations with clients as the success of this industry depends a lot on the relationship with the customers(patients) as observed. Emotions have to he positively managed to create better interaction with customers and for this, Emotional Intelligence will have selfawareness, self control and social skills which will help an individual (Doctors) to have better relationship with customers (Patients) . This research will also answer the questions that, In the presence of high IQ, is EI and its effect enhanced, depressed or even reversed from what is seen in the generally? If this study is successful it will open the door on that question and lead the way to other studies to fully answer it. This study will be important to analyze whether Doctors with high or low Emotional Intelligence get its effects on their career or not. Annexure III:Review of the work already done on the Subject: The Construct of Emotional Intelligence The use of IQ tests to identify the potential of a person has continued until this day, but new ideas of what it takes to be successful are taking hold. The construct of emotional intelligence was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990). The surge in the scientific investigation of emotional intelligence began thereafter and has increasingly gained momentum. It gained its most momentum after becoming popularized by Daniel Golemans’s book, Emotional
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Intelligence: Why it can matter more that IQ, published in 1995. Goleman’s book was widely popular, and when introduced became a number one best seller on the New York Times list of best selling books. In his writing, Goleman stresses the importance of EI in people’s general work success and achievement in life. Other researchers since Goleman have claimed that EI does predict important occupational and educational variables (Fisher, & Ashkanasy, 2000; Fox, & Spector, 2000; Saarni, 1999). The work and writings of Daniel Goleman since the 1990’s has popularized the use of emotional intelligence to identify workers who can perform best. Goleman (2002) explains why those who score high on IQ tests are not always successful. Emotional intelligence is the ability to handle oneself and relationships. Unlike the way IQ has traditionally been seen as a fixed innate characteristic, Goleman has not defined EI as an innate characteristic. Though Goleman (2002) does not ground EI in fixed biological terms, he does attribute underlying causes to biology. Goleman (2002) explains that we rely on those around us for our own emotional stability. This is because the human brain is designed with an openloop, limbic system. The limbic system controls our emotions and the “openloop” refers to how it is inevitably influenced by the external environment. This external environment is made up of people, and all persons have emotions that are continually affecting each other. It is leaders that can use emotional intelligence to drive other people’s emotions in a positive and beneficial manner. Leaders of high emotional intelligence can enter the “openloop” limbic system controls and effectively drive other people’s emotions in a positive and beneficial manner. In an effort to understand the role of EI verses IQ in career success, through his company Emotional Intelligence Services, Goleman (2002) has analyzed close to five hundred competency models from various businesses. His conclusion was that IQ does play a role in a person’s professional success though EI also does. The relative influence on performance of EI and IQ, Goleman says, varies depending on the job. Goleman (2002) goes on to explain that for the most successful people at least eighty to ninety percent of their success can be attributed to EI. Emotional Intelligence as Intelligence Despite its gaining popularity, there is still debate about whether emotional intelligence is a “true intelligence” (Roberts, Matthews, & Zeidner, 2001). This is in part due to popularized style of Goleman (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). Goleman was a journalist in addition to a
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP psychologist and his book was written for the general reader. In writing for the general public, Goleman stretched the definition of emotional intelligence so that it appeared to equate to good social behavior. The general concept of intelligence refers to one’s overall ability to adapt through effective cognition and information processing (Roberts, Matthews, & Zeidner, 2000). This involves the use of higher order mental abilities to perceive patterns and logically reason to solve problems. Abstract reasoning is said to be the main distinctive characteristic of intelligence (Mayer, Caruso, Salovey, & Sitarenios, 2001). Abstract reasoning may be the primary aspect of general intelligence but there are also other factors which affect the measurement of general intelligence. In a testing situation, the intelligence manifested by a person is dependent on the input a person is receiving and the general knowledge base from which that person operates. (Mayer, Caruso, Salovey, & Sitarenios, 2001). According to Mayer, Caruso, Salovey, and Sitarenios (2001) general intelligence is often broken down into different intelligences based on what inputs are being processed. It is common to see intelligence tests that specifically test for verbal intelligence and or spatial intelligence. So, emotional intelligence may be yet another intelligence, one that is referenced to emotional input. A relevant, organized, knowledge base assists in abstract reasoning. For instance, a person’s linguistic knowledge will assist them with solving problems on a verbal intelligence test. This becomes clear when nonnative speakers take a verbal intelligence test and score lower than native speakers. Similarly, there is emotional memory. This emotional memory is the knowledge base that comes from emotional experience and, as with linguistic knowledge, can help to guide abstract reasoning. Massy (2002) illustrates emotional memory by relating a study done by Ledoux, Wilson, and Gazzaniga (1977). In this study, Massy writes, “Ledoux, Wilson, and Gazzaniga showed disturbing images of people being thrown into flames to subjects wearing light refractive lenses, which channeled the information to the emotional brain but not to the rational brain. Afterward, the subjects had no declarative memory of what they had seen (p. 19).” Declarative memory is the memory for facts (Tulving, & Schater, 1990). Mass continues, “They could only describe a vague awareness of light and flashing. Yet, they felt quite upset and disturbed. Although they could not say why, they no longer liked the experimenter or felt comfortable in his presence (p. 19).” Emotional memories give insight into or expectations of situations we may not have otherwise achieved. The memories then play a role in determining how we will respond to situations that we have experienced in the past. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 give us a clear example of
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP emotional memory influencing actions. Although the odds remained small that a similar life ending event would occur if a person were to travel on an airplane many persons refused to fly. This is because of the fearful memories that were produced from watching the events of September 11, 2001 unfold. The rational understanding that flying was no more dangerous after the event was overshadowed by the emotional association in the decision to travel by airplane. Career Success: EI & IQ Changes in technology have brought about transformations in the way jobs are conducted and in turn have brought about changes in who succeeds or fails. Along with objective realities, perceived organizational needs often drive the success of persons in their careers. As tasks became more complex in organizations, a person’s “intelligence” gained more and more acceptance as a measure of potential. Organizations thought that those with the greatest intellectual abilities would be the most successful at work. The mindset that intellectual abilities determined one’s success or failure in life went hand and hand with the development of IQ testing. It was after Lewis Terman’s administration of his new IQ test to 1.75 million men for the army during WWI that IQ testing gained popularity. The proponents of IQ testing thought that it was a very decisive and fixed way to sort through persons. Debate still occurs regarding the nature of IQ, but there does seem to be a fixed genetic component that has great influence. SAT and ACT tests, like IQ tests, are to measure ones aptitude and are still used today as criteria for college admission. It is not always those who have the greatest success in their careers that have the highest IQs (Barth, 2003). Sometimes persons with low to average IQs come to be very successful and go far beyond the norm in their careers. This may be even truer in our current state of fast paced change than it was during the first half of the 20th century. The ability toadapt and work within a complex environment of information whichoverwhelms traditional intelligence, requires skill and traits that lie outside definitions of traditional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is but one of a number of intelligences theories that expand the concept of intelligence to better address the complexities of humans’ interaction with their environment. In 1983 Howard Gardner introduced his theory of Multiple Intelligences in his influential publication, Frames of Mind. Gardner’s theory has not been as directly influential upon the business world as it has been in educational spheres, but has played a role in reshaping how we think about intelligence. It was the predecessor to the popularization of Emotional Intelligence
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP theory, and certainly played some role in helping open the doors to its acceptance. With Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory Gardner wanted to show that intelligence existed in many different dimensions unlike Binet’s single dimension. MI Theory took into account that persons worked within multiple different contexts that demanded different types and combinations of intelligences. The original seven intelligences Gardner (1983) identified are: 1. Linguistic: sensitivity to sound, meaning of words, and the function of language. 2. Logical/mathematical: ability to discern logical patterns, numerical patterns, symbols and complex chains of reasoning. 3. Bodily/kinesthetic: ability to control body movements and manipulate objects skillfully. 4. Spatial/visual: ability to accurately perceive the visualspatial world and make transformations based on those perceptions. 5. Musical: ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and musical expression. 6. Interpersonal: ability to sense and respond to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of others. 7. Intrapersonal: ability to understand personal feelings that guide behavior, knowledge of personal strengths, weaknesses and desires. One reason that MI Theory has not gained popularity in the business world is suggested by Weller (1999), “The reason for this is that there is an expectation that adults should possess the innate ability to learn and behave ‘intelligently’ according to the demands of the work environment they find themselves in.” Nonetheless, MI Theory can play an important role in career success. Persons tend to choose occupations that are aligned with their strengths. For instance, a sculptor would have strong spatial/visual intelligence and an accountant would likely have strong logical mathematical intelligence. Despite the lack of uptake of MI Theory by business organizations as a whole, the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences can be related to the concept of Emotional Intelligence which has been engaged by business (Weller, 1999). Interpersonal, intrapersonal and emotional intelligences all deal with how persons understand and react to various types of emotional input. This has become important for businesses because work has become more collaborative. Business organizations have been reshaped from once hierarchical entities relying on physical capital to organizations where people work on teams and rely on intellectual capital. People working in teams face many challenges beyond the simple creation of an outcome. Those involved in teams must work closely with one another and manage
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP the social relationships as well as the duties they must perform. For work teams to be highly effective they must develop “emotionally intelligent” behaviors that do not hinder their work. Jarrett and Kellner (1996) point to what makes teams effective, “openness and mutual trust; free expression of feelings; common objectives; high commitment to shared task; conflict is surfaced and worked through; decisions are by consensus; and group process issues are an important part of work (p. 54).” The reality is that teams usually do not exhibit the behaviors that would make them most effective (Jarrett, & Kellner, 1996). Members of work teams are often afraid they will hurt someone’s feelings and do not exhibit needed openness regarding team behavior. One may also be worried about the political impact of their views if expressed. The things that hold back teams are often not a lack of intellectual abilities, but lack of intrapersonal and interpersonal abilities. Those who are best at addressing and dealing with emotional content within a team will often have greater career success.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Hypothesis / Objective of the study:There is a significant Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Career Achievements in Doctors. Objectives of the Study: • To understand the Concept of Emotional Intelligence • To understand and analyze the different factors affecting Career Achievement.
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP • To understand and analyze the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Career Achievement. • To Study the effect of high or low Emotional Intelligence on Career Achievement of Doctors. • To understand the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for Doctors with high intelligence quotients. • To Design some suggestions for the improvement of Emotional Intelligence level in Doctors.Methodology:a) Procedure:The population of this study will be the 300 Doctors from both the government and private Hospitals of Bikaner city.The Sampling will be stratified, making sure that Hospitals (Public & Private),gender( Male&Female), Socioeconomic status and abilities ( high & low achievers) will be appropriately represented.b) Experimental Design and Method: The 300 Doctors chosen from the different Hospitals will be given two separate tests for data collection to address two research together.: what is the relationship between emotional intelligence and career success, and what is the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for a Doctors with high intelligence quotients? The career success will be measured on the basis of some questions that will be asked to the respondents ( Doctors), based on the five point scale. Accordingly high achievers will be seperatd from the from the middle and the low achievers. The second will be the web based test that measures emotional intelligence called the MayerSaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Afterwards both results will be compared to find out whether there is a relationship between emotional
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP intelligence and career achievement or not, in order for us to be able to accept or reject our hypothesis. c) Data Collection: The primary scale for measuring career success will be taken from Greenhaus, Parasuraman & Wormley (1990). They refer to the scale as measuring “career progress.” In this research the terms “career progress and “career success” are used interchangeably. The scale has an anchor 1 to 5, where 1=strongly dissatisfied, 3=neutral, 5=very satisfied. The questions asked will be like: How satisfied are you with the following aspects of your career? Participants will use the aforementioned scale and question to rate themselves on the following aspects of their career success: 1. The progress I have made toward meeting my goals for advancement 2. The progress I have made toward development of new skills 3. The success I have achieved in my career 4. The progress I have made toward meeting my goals for income 5. The progress I have made toward meeting my overall career goals This is clearly a subjective measure as respondents are asked to rate career success in their own terms. In addition to the subjective measure of career success, additional questions will be asked to obtain a more objective look at career success. These questions will inquire about the participant’s salary and promotion rate etc. The MSCEIT is chosen to measure emotional intelligence because it is composed of tasks that must be performed (Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2003). This is similar to the composition of intelligence quotient tests. With taskbased questioning this test avoids having participants choose what they perceive as the best answer over what they actually do, as often occurs in measures that rely solely on self reporting The MSCEIT adheres to Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) FourBranch model of emotional intelligence. Each of the four Branches represents a different skill set within EI. The four branches in their model are: Perceiving Emotions, Facilitating Thought, Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002).
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP d) Proposed Statistical Procedure: Both the scores of the EQ tests and the results of being successful or not will be compared to analyzed and see whether there is a correlation between Emotional Intelligence and career achievement or not e) Expected Outcome Results: Based on the similar studies done in the past the researcher expects to accept the hypothesis and find the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Career achievement.Chapter wise Details: PARTI 1) Introduction 2) Review of the Literature 3) Research Design and Methodology PARTII 4) Theories of Emotional Intelligence 5) Components and Measures of Emotional Intelligence. 6) Factors Responsible for Career Achievement. 7) Relationship between Career Achievements and Emotional Intelligence. PART –III 8) Findings and Suggestions
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP 9) ConclusionAppendixes: Questionnaires, Details of the Respondents.Bibliography Chapter wise details of Proposed research:The proposed research will contain the following chapters:Chapter 1: Introduction: Doctor, one of the most respectful profession of our society. They serve the patients with the objective of 100% successful in curing but still some of the Doctors are more successful than others. What is the measure of success? Is it only a strong scientific mind? The purpose of this study is to see whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and career success. Chapter 2: Literature ReviewA study of the relevant literature available on the chosen topic of various authors, their researches, papers and material available on the Internet will be incorporated to help gain a better insight in the topicChapter 3: Research Design and Methodology The 300 Doctors will be chosen from the different Hospitals to give two separate tests for data collection to address two research together.: what is the relationship between emotional intelligence and career success, and what is the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for a Doctors with high intelligence quotients? The career success will be measured on the basis of
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP some questions that will be asked to the respondents( Doctors), based on the five point scale. The emotional intelligence will tested on the basis of the MayerSaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Afterwards both results will be compared to find out whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and career achievement or not, in order for us to be able to accept or reject our hypothesisChapter 4: Theories of Emotional IntelligenceThere are following theories of Emotional Intelligence: 1) The Multiple Intelligence Theory 2) Mayer and Salovey’s theory of Emotional Intelligence 3) Goleman’s theory of performance 1) The Multiple Intelligence Theory: This theory was given by Gardner. In this theory seven kinds of Intelligence were described. Out of these two were different from usual skills related to intelligence like verbal or arithmetic skills. These skills were: a) Social Adaptive ness b) Knowing one’s inner world. 2) Mayer and Salovey’s theory of Emotional Intelligence: In this theory of Emotional Intelligence MayerSalovey identified four abilities and skills required for Emotional Intelligence and called them four branches of Emotional Intelligence. • The ability to recognize emotions • The ability to use emotions to assist the thought process • The ability of being aware emotions • The ability to manage emotions 3) Goleman’s theory of Performance: In 1995 Goleman proposed a theory in which he said that Emotional Intelligence can
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP matter more in leadership qualities and effectiveness in work situation and explained in detail. Chapter 5: Components and Measures of Emotional Intelligence:The Components and measures of Emotional Intelligence is basically of two kinds: 1) SelfReport Measures 2) Ability – Based Measures SelfReport Measures: This measure of Emotional Intelligence includes: Personal Competence Social Competence a) Personal Competence: Self Awareness: Recognizing and understanding your emotions in the moment, as well as your tendencies across time and situation. SelfAwareness: Using awareness of emotions to manage to response to different situations and people. Social Competence Understanding the perspectives of other people including their motivations, their emotions and the meaning of what they do and say. Relationship Management: Using awareness of one’s emotions and the emotions of others to manage relationships
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP to a successful outcome. Abilitycleared Measurement of Emotional Intelligence: Ability based measure of Emotional Intelligence includes the following domains: Experimental Area: Perceiving Emotions Branch Facilitating Thinking Branch Strategic Area: Understanding Emotional Meaning Branch Managing Emotions BranchChapter 6: Factors Responsible for Career Achievement:There is no single rather multiple factors affecting the Career Achievement: 1. SelfConfidence: Successful people often have self worth and self acceptance. 2. High IQ: Successful people have a high mental level. 3. High Emotional Quotient: High career achievers have a high capacity to understand oneself and others feelings and have a high adaptability to situations. 4. Personal Esteem: Person’s selfimage is crucial to career effectiveness and success as what we believe do effect our outcome. 5. Persistence and perseverance: Persistence frequently is even more important for career success than talent or special skills. 6. Enthusiasm: When a person is enthusiastic, his perception of opportunities abounds, as does our ability. 7. The Luck Factor: Luck is essentially a readiness to perceive, opportunities, coupled with a willingness to take advantage of them. Many individuals fail not only to notice but to size
AFTERSCHOOOL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP opportunities. 8. Response to Failure: Characteristically, highperforming individual view mistakes and setbacks only as temporary detours or barriers to their goals.Chapter 7: Relationship between Career Achievements and Emotional Intelligence:Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is the ability of an individual to deal successfully with other people, to manage one’s self, motivate others, understand one’s own feelings and appropriately respond to the everyday environment. In essence, EQ is about interpersonal skills. Researchers and management scholars have found that individuals with high EQ are better at creating positive outcomes. A decrease in productivity occurs with each claim of harassment, incident of temper flair ups, and/or any inappropriate workplace conduct People who rise to the top of their field—whether it’s psychology, law, medicine, engineering or banking—aren’t just good at their jobs. They’re affable, resilient and optimistic, suggests a growing store of studies on professional leaders. Here the study will be done on the same lines with reference to Doctors.Chapter 8: Findings and Suggestions: The major findings of the study related to the relation between career success and Emotional Intelligence and the distribution of emotional intelligence scores for Doctors with high intelligence quotients will be incorporated here. An effort will be made to give suggestions for improving Emotional Intelligence of Doctors through training, if the Hypothesis proves. Chapter 9: ConclusionsThe research will involve various other areas, which will be highlighted during the course of thestudy. Such areas may need further research or interpretations. Such areas along with the majorinferences will be included in this chapter.
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