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Nanomedicine

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Nanomedicine

  1. 1. Nanotechnology In Medical field
  2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Nano scale </li></ul><ul><li>Nano medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of nano technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Shortened as “nanotech”. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with structures ranging from 1 to 100nm. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves developing materials of the same size. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured using Nanoscale. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is nano technology? <ul><li>The official definition of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative says that nanotechnology involves ‘research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 to 100 nm range. </li></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>First coined by Richard Feynman. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulating material at a scale of individual atoms and molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo university defined the term </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. K. Eric Drexler’s promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of STM and AFM. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nanoscale <ul><li>The prefix “ nano ”is a Greek word for “ dwarf ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by nano meter. </li></ul><ul><li>One billionth of meter. </li></ul><ul><li>About a width of 6 carbon atoms or 10 water molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>A human hair is approximately 80,000 nm wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells is 7000 nm wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are smaller than 1 nanometer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nanomedicine <ul><li>The science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Application of Nanotechnology in Medicine <ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diagnostic applications <ul><li>Imaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Therapeutic applications <ul><li>Delivering medication to the exact location. </li></ul><ul><li>Killing of bacteria, viruses & cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Repair of damaged tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin and dental care. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nanorobots <ul><li>What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Nanorobots are nanodevices. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameters and dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>To repair or detect damages and infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Exfuse themselves through human excretory system. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nanorobots – Features <ul><li>The powering of the nanorobots. </li></ul><ul><li>Other sources of energy . </li></ul><ul><li>Will be having onboard computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of 0.5-3 micrometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon is the primary component. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-replication. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nanorobots – functional requirements <ul><li>A navigational network has to be installed. </li></ul><ul><li>This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diagnostic Applications – Imaging <ul><li>Improved imaging of the human. </li></ul><ul><li>Emit magnetic field. </li></ul><ul><li>Probes that aren’t attached to anything don’t create a detectable magnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Detect tumors . </li></ul>
  15. 15. “ A microscopic machine roaming through the bloodstream, injecting or taking samples for identification and determining the concentrations of different compounds&quot;
  16. 16. Diagnostic application – Quantum dotes <ul><li>These are tiny crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjected to ultraviolet rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce sequence of colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce quantum dotes of various sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Various probes are created. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a spectrum. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Therapeutic Applications –drug delivary. <ul><li>Medication to the exact location. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves bio-availability </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular targeting by nano engineered devices </li></ul>
  18. 18. A single inhaled nanorobot reaches, deeply inspired into the lungs and attaches to the tissue surface.
  19. 19. Therapeutic Applications – cancer treatment. <ul><li>Detection of harmful cancer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanophores </li></ul><ul><li>Nano tubes </li></ul>
  20. 20. Therapeutic Applications – destruction of cancer cells. <ul><li>Nanoprobe can be made to generate radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Detection using actinium-225 </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of cancer cells by acoustic signals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. COMPARISON OF NORMAL AND CANCEROUS CELLS IN RESPIRATORY AIRWAY OF THE LUNG Cancer cells Normal cells
  22. 22. Cancer cell Lethal holes Cytotoxic T cell A CYTOTOXIC T CELL DESTROYING A CANCER CELL
  23. 23. Mechanical drilling of a small tumor mass by a nanorobot
  24. 24. Therapeutic Applications – biological process. <ul><li>R epair of damaged tissues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of bone cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken bones would heal much faster. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating an artificial red blood cell. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Therapeutic Applications – skin diseases <ul><li>To cure skin diseases , a cream containing nanorobots may be used it may: </li></ul><ul><li>- Remove the right amount of dead skin </li></ul><ul><li>- Remove excess oils </li></ul><ul><li>- Add missing oils </li></ul><ul><li>- Apply the right amounts of natural moisturizing compounds </li></ul>
  26. 26. Therapeutic Applications –cleaning of mouth. <ul><li>A mouthwash full of smart nanomachines could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of the mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem </li></ul>
  27. 27. Four remote-controlled nanorobots examine and clean the subocclusal surfaces of a patient's teeth, near the gum line. Dental Robots
  28. 28. Therapeutic Applications – detection of virus. <ul><li>Medical nanodevices could improves the immune system by finding and disabling unwanted bacteria and viruses. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Virus Finder
  30. 30. Therapeutic Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicine <ul><li>Devices working in the bloodstream could nibble away at atherosclerotic deposits , widening the affected blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>This would prevent most heart attacks </li></ul>
  31. 31. A NANOROBOT NIBBLING ON AN ATHEROSCLEROTIC DEPOSIT IN A BLOOD VESSEL
  32. 32. Advantages of nano medicine <ul><li>Detection is very easy. </li></ul><ul><li>No side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>No surgery required. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases can be easily cured. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Disadvantages <ul><li>Not practical yet. </li></ul><ul><li>High cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation difficulties. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Conclusion <ul><li>Nano medicine one of the important applications of the nanotechnology has made a revolutionary development in the medical field. So now various diseases are just far away from us. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Thank you

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