Hospitality and Tourism -email@example.com
[HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM]
Table of contents:
1. Assess a range of tools for use in managing a hospitality or tourism
2. Critically evaluate the concepts of project management and decision
making within a hospitality or tourism context.
1. Compare and contrast the challenges posed by different types of
hospitality or tourism projects.
2. Use research techniques to identify different project options for
hospitality or tourism organisations.
3. Define and justify a hospitality or tourism project.
4. Evaluate different approaches to managing the project within a
hospitality or tourism context.
5. Recommend and justify a project management approach.
1. Formulate quantifiable and justifiable project aims and objectives.
2. Evaluate the resources and organisational issues and specify
requirements associated with the project.
3. Identify the impact of not implementing a project for hospitality or
4. Formulate a project plan for a hospitality or tourism organisation.
5. Evaluate the risks to a project plan for a hospitality or tourism
6. Develop quantifiable measures to minimise and control risk during
the implementation of a project.
7. Evaluate project performance.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 2
Tourism and its definition
The definition of tourism as used by the UN and WTO (World Trade Organisation) states that
Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
There are much more opportunities in the tourism industry. When marketing the service side of
the hospitality and tourism industries, you need to consider the variables of perishability,
intangibility, and changeability.
Variables: These are the factors that can cause something to change or vary.
Perishability: It is the probability of a product ceasing to exist or becoming unusable within a
limited amount of time.
Intangibility: It is a state of being abstract, as are things that cannot be touched.
Changeability: It is a condition of being subject to change or alteration.
History of tourism: The word travel is related to the French word travail, which means “work.”
Throughout history, the growth of tourism has relied upon the development of transportation
systems to reduce the work involved with travelling. Tourism began as an outgrowth of travel
during the Greek and Roman Empires, beginning in the 5th century B.C. The Industrial
Revolution of the 1700s led to rail service. In the 1900s, mass production of the automobile and
the construction of superhighways made more destinations accessible to more travellers. The
Wright brothers’ experiment with the first airplane launched today’s modern air-travel system.
Hospitality and its definition
The word hospitality is derived from the Latin word ‘hospes’, meaning “guest, visitor, or one
who provides lodging for a guest or visitor.”
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 3
The Oxford English dictionary defines hospitality as, “The act or practise of being hospitable, the
reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers”.
According to Lashley the Joint Hospitality industry Congress defines hospitality as, “The
provision of food, drink and accommodation on a way from home”.
Brotherton and Wood (2000) offer a definition of hospitality as ‘A contemporaneous human
exchange, which is voluntarily entered into, and designed to enhance the mutual well being of
the parties concerned through the provision of accommodation, and/or food, and/or drink’.
We can also define hospitality as private and commercial hospitality where private is defined as
the acts by individuals towards individuals in a private setting such as home and commercial
hospitality is defined as meals, beverages, lodging and entertainment provided for profit.
Economically we should be looking at commercial definition.
Basically hospitality industry is a group of businesses composed of establishments related to
lodging and food-service management. The hospitality industry includes hotels, motels, inns, and
bed-and-breakfasts (B&Bs). The concept of hospitality lies in the three domains of the social, the
private and the commercial environments.
History of Hospitality: The first fixed-price menus for food appeared in a type of tavern called
an ordinary. By the end of the 13th century, the horse-drawn coach led to the development of
wayside inns known as post houses.
The word restaurant comes from the Latin word restaurateur, which means “to restore.” Because
of the French Revolution in the late 1700s, many chefs of the French nobility were settling
throughout Europe. By the 1800s, numerous fine eating-and-drinking establishments were
TASK 1: Critically evaluate the theories, concepts and tools relating to a project
management and decision making for a hospitality or tourism organisation
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 4
Some management theories
Several theories are given for effectively managing the hospitality and tourism organisations.
These theories if used properly will definitely contribute for the effective management of these
According to management theory, manager is the central element of management. Manager is
Man + Ager, which helps subordinate’s abilities to mature or causes employees to grow old
According to A. H. Maslow, every managing organisation has some needs like primary needs
and secondary needs. The primary needs are innate or basic whereas secondary needs are those
needs which seem to exist because people live in a society composed of other people.
There are other different types of needs also. These are
1. Self actualization: It covers personal fulfilment of approximately 10%. It also covers the
needs for the realization of individual potential, the liberation of creative talents, the
widest possible use of abilities and aptitudes. In other words we can say it as personal
2. EGO: It is self esteem and these are the needs for reputation, self respect and self esteem.
People need respect recognition and status.
3. Social: Social needs covers love and affection. These are the needs people need to have
for gregariousness and social interaction. People like to group together for many purposes
of life. They need to associate, to belong, to accept and be accepted, to love and be loved.
4. Safety: This need covers the security aspects. These are the needs to be free from fear of
deprivation, danger and threat, on and off the job.
5. Physiological: These are the needs for food, water, air, shelter, rest, exercise and other
required to satisfy the biological demands of the human organism.
Tools relating to a project management and decision making for a hospitality or tourism
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 5
There are several tools used relating to a project management and decision making for a
hospitality or tourism organisation. Some of these are listed below:
2. Strategic planning
3. Mission and vision statements
4. Customer relationship management
6. Balanced scoreboard
7. Customer segmentation
8. Business process reengineering
9. Core competencies
10. Mergers and acquisitions
The hospitality industry uses elements from traditional management theory as well as best
practices based on industry-specific experience. Current trends focus on practices that
simultaneously benefit multiple aspects of a business, such as those promoting employee
productivity and improved quality and branding. Many best practices in hospitality reflect
broader social and economic trends and seek to reduce the way in which hotels are considered
interchangeable by consumers. Customer just needs a hygienic and beautiful location and
environment and a good tourism spot where he or she could find his or her spent money
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 6
Following are some of the theories and concepts for hospitality or tourism organisation.
Unique Selling Elements: The theory of "unique selling elements" analyzes how to make your
hotel or restaurant stand out from the crowd. Each hotel should identify three unique selling
elements and use them as a cornerstone of marketing efforts. These should be distinguishing
features such as famous guests, special items such as fresh fruit bowls or freshly baked cookies
for guests, superlatives such as "biggest" or "smallest" or "best," or unusual elements such as pet
goldfish in every room.
Company Culture: Organizational culture creates the preconditions for successful hospitality
management. Best practices for creating a productive corporate culture include fostering the
"C's" -- communication, coaching, collegiality, cooperation and compromise. These encourage
employees to be creative, focused and committed.
Green Initiatives: Hospitality industry leaders use green initiatives to save money, create
goodwill and create positive guest experiences. Green cleaning products can cost less than
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 7
traditional ones, improve the way a room smells, and avoid triggering allergies and chemical
sensitivities in employees and guests. Green appliances reduce energy use, and green materials
appeal to the tastes and preferences of affluent customers.
Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s theory of tourism: This theory is a provocative attempt to
understand and theorize tourism as an important manifestation of modern culture. Mass tourism
is still propelled by romantic notions of the far away, the pristine and the untouched and by the
desire to escape a social reality that is increasingly experienced as confining and suffocating.
Paradoxically, this desire falls victim to its own inherent dialectics: the yearning to be free from
society becomes harnessed by the very society it seeks to escape; the search for the authentic
inevitably leads to destruction.
Task 1.1: Assess a range of tools for use in managing a hospitality or tourism project
The information that could be used for immediate development or adaptation of situation
analysis and needs assessment tools to be used by industry operators in
1. Analyzing the current situation in their operations;
2. Identifying the gap in performance that training might reduce; and
3. Identifying their training needs.
For Situational Analysis:
1. Strategic Planning
2. Vision And Planning
For product development and innovation
1. Product Development: The Way of the Future
2. Innovating for Success: the Four Ds of Innovation - a non-interactive
tool/process including four steps (define, design, develop and deploy).
For market and market development
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 8
1. Your Small-Business Marketing Tool - a partly interactive tool which includes
plan framework (tool)
priority action (interactive tool)
marketing agenda (tool)
For Organizational Analysis
1. Strategic Planning
3. Human Resources
5. Finance and Accounting
6. Information Management
For Human Resources Needs Analysis
1. human resources diagnostic (surplus / gaps)
3. employee orientation
4. employee communication
5. performance appraisal
6. job definition
7. training and development
8. compensation and benefits
9. employee relations
10. health and safety
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 9
Task 1.2: Critically evaluate the concepts of project management and decision making
within a hospitality or tourism context.
The concept of project management in tourism is that it minimizes the costs and maximizes the
benefits of tourism for natural environments and local communities, and can be carried out
indefinitely without harming the resources on which it depends. Tourism is one of the largest
global industries, with much of the growing market focused around pristine natural environments
such as coastal and marine protected areas. MPAs are increasingly attracting interest from
foreign visitors, as well as local residents. Tourism can benefit local communities and MPAs
through revenue generation and employment. However, tourism can also threaten MPA
resources by destroying habitat, disturbing wildlife, impacting water quality, and threaten
communities by over-development, crowding, and disruption of local culture.
The global tourism industry is becoming increasingly competitive and sophisticated and as such
the tourism practitioner needs to acquire new and different skills to set so that their organisation
could respond quickly and knowledgeably to the rapidly changing external environment.
Planning, developing, implementing, evaluating and monitoring tourism policies and actions
require both a sound knowledge of the constituent parts of tourism and effective project
Total quality management, information management and management by the objectives:
In most small and medium size companies, focus is on getting things done, hands-on to satisfy
the customer, realizing profits and growing the business. Often less focus is given to the
Business Management System also because these SME’s usually started out as micro companies and have been growing fast over time.
The QMS is offering an excellent business structure about how things should be done, how
registration should take place, what the requirements are for your documentation and records,
and how to realize continual improvement. Adopting such a QMS in your company will
streamline the management processes and will eventually pay back the time and effort you have
put in it to get it started. The figure shown below tells us how these tools are used.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 10
Task 2: Define a specific project for a hospitality and tourism organisation
Task 2.1: Compare and contrast the challenges posed by different types of hospitality or
The impact of the financial and economic crisis on the HCT(Hospitality Catering and Tourism)
1. The effects of the global recession: The sector is more or less affected by the current
economic conditions of developed and emerging countries. In the second half of 2008, a
decline in international tourism began and intensified in 2009 after several consecutive
years of growth. A sharp decline in tourist flows, length of stay, tourist spending and
increased restrictions on business travel expenses led to a significant contraction of HCT
economic activity worldwide. These effects resulted from increased unemployment,
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 11
market volatility, economic and social insecurity, and a significant decline in the average
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 12
2. Employment impact and recovery
The crisis had a significant, regionally distinctive impact on global employment in hotels and
restaurants. On a global level, employment grew by about 1 per cent between 2008 and 2009.
The Americas faced a major downturn of employment throughout the crisis period. By contrast,
the most resilient region appears to be Asia and the Pacific. Its positive development in
employment terms seems to have led to an increase in employment at the global level between
2008 and 2009.
During the first quarter of 2010, employment increased by 1.9 per cent globally, though
distinctive regional effects were still evident. Compared to the same quarter in 2009,
employment levels rose by 5.4 per cent in Asia and the Pacific and 2.7 per cent in Europe.
Employment levels declined, however, in the Americas by 0.8 per cent during the same period.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 13
The high employment rates in Asia and the Pacific and recent European employment increases
are likely to have resulted from temporary, casual, seasonal or part-time contracts and from
increases in domestic and regional tourism.
Although it varies from one location to another, within OECD‘s sub regions, the tourism sector
has been severely affected by the global economic crisis and associated fluctuations in exchange
rates. In terms of international tourist arrivals and employment, there are dissimilarities between
countries (i.e. important declines of 2 per cent and over were registered in Czech Republic,
Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands and New Zealand and while significant increases of 2 per
cent or more were reported in Finland, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden and
There is an obvious gap between employed men and women that could be due to typically high
levels of female part-time, temporary, casual and seasonal occupations in the sector, especially in
times of recession. The significant employment increase in Asia and the Pacific may also be
explained due to a rapid increase of female employment. The average employment rate of
women increased from 4,751,000 to 5,197,900 between 2008 and 2009, while male employment
grew from 3,127,600 to 3,282,700 during the same period. Although this trend has been
observed, research should be conducted to determine the quality of work, contracts and worker
employment status within these workplaces.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 14
Task 2.2: Use research techniques to identify different project options for hospitality or
For tourism research must encompass the impacts of tourist activities on staff and destinations
and consider how the complex structure of the industry mediates both tourist satisfaction and
destination impacts. In relation to hospitality, the scale is smaller and the staff who serve them in
the context of particular models for each hotel or restaurant. In many instances, investigation of a
research question and particularly attempts to develop theory may require a research design that
examines aspects of both the tourism and hospitality rather than attempting to make fundamental
distinctions between these subsectors.
Top-Down Management: There are numerous cases where tourism programmes formulated at
the top and implemented by people at the bottom have not achieved the desired outcomes. One
reason for this consequence is that the formulation and application of policies by central
government is out of touch with the needs of local people and is not based on detailed knowledge
of the local environment.
Ambiguous Institutional Arrangements: The tourism policy process takes place within a
certain institutionalised context and tourism programmes have little chance of success, unless
this context is considered and arranged carefully.
Uneven Distribution of Power and Responsibilities: The extent to which power is distributed
equally or it is concentrated in a relatively small group of organisations that dominate decision
processes can be an important influence on plan success or failure.
Task 2.3: Define and justify a hospitality or tourism project.
Tourism is defined as a composite of activities, services, and industries that delivers a travel
experience to individuals and groups traveling fifty miles or more from their homes for purposes
of pleasure. The business sectors comprising the tourism industry include: transportation,
accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment venues, activity
facilities, and a variety of hospitality service providers who cater to individuals or groups
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 15
travelling away from home. Tourism product is not produced by a single business, non-profit
organization, or governmental agency; rather, it is defined as “a satisfying visitor experience.”
This definition encompasses every activity and experience that a tourist encounters during his or
her entire trip away from home.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 16
Task 3: Develop a project plan
Sustainable tourism and hospitality development meets the needs of present tourists and host
regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to
management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be
fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity
and life support systems.
For sustainable tourism and hospitality management, several plans and principles need to be
carried out. Sustainable development needs to address economic, social and environmental
issues. Many businesses now include social and environmental factors as part of their
performance measurement. Sometimes referred to as ‘triple bottom line’ measurement and
reporting, this approach focuses on accountability, transparency, commitment to stakeholder and
community engagement and systematic measurement and reporting.
These plans, principles, guidelines and case studies illustrate success factors in tourism at natural
and cultural heritage places. The principles from Successful Tourism at Heritage Places are listed
1. Recognise the importance of heritage places
2. Look after heritage places
3. Develop mutually beneficial partnerships
4. Incorporate heritage issues into business planning
5. Invest in people and place
6. Market and promote products responsibly
7. Provide high-quality visitor experiences
8. Respect Indigenous rights and obligations.
Task 3.1: Formulate quantifiable and justifiable project aims and objectives.
1. To promote healthy relationship among individuals who are actively engaged in tourism
related business through useful interaction, organising regular meetings and cultural and
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 17
2. To set up educational institutions and other institutions which create an environment for
University/Universities or other institutions for conducting such courses.
3. To institute awards, prizes and gifts for encouraging tourism.
4. To promote and improve the standard and quality of tourist movement in India.
5. To reward and recognise, persons and organisations working in the field of tourism.
6. To provide medical insurance and other welfare schemes to tourism related persons.
7. To collaborate with tourism related industries like hotels for mutual benefit.
8. To establish a printing and publishing house or otherwise bring out periodicals,
magazines and books.
9. To engage in charitable and social service activities of every kind to help the poor, needy,
aged, ill, backward and weaker sections of the general public without discrimination of
religion, caste, creed or sex.
10. To purchase, construct, take on lease or otherwise acquire land, building and other
movable and immovable properties and to sell, lease, mortgage or hypothecate or
otherwise dispose of all or any of the property and assets of the society on such terms and
conditions as the society may deem fit for attaining the objects.
11. To accept donations in cash or in kind, grants and collect subscriptions, fees and other
charges for the services rendered by the society and take and raise funds by way of loans
or otherwise and the receipts shall be solely utilised and applied towards the promotion of
aim and objectives of the society.
12. To do all other lawful acts, as are necessary for and/or incidental to the attainment of the
aims and objectives of the society.
Task 3.2: Evaluate the resources and organisational issues and specify requirements
associated with the project.
The aims of the Tourism Development Programme are as follows:
1. To assess recent changes in the tourism sector;
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 18
2. To elaborate a further tourism development policy and means for its implementation
which would encourage development of the tourism sector;
3. To establish priorities for state aids, investment promotion and investment priorities;
4. To enhance the scope of local and foreign tourism;
5. To table means for forming a good image and popularising tourism.
General preconditions: There exist favourable conditions for tourism and its development
favourable geographical location
plenitude of tourism resources
interest shared by miscellaneous ethnical groups
currently revived relations
improvement of general and international tourism image
abundant neighbouring tourism markets
interest in Lithuania as a new region for tourism.
Major social-economical preconditions for tourism development
sustainable macroeconomic situation and economic growth
increased foreign investments
increased scope of foreign trade and international relations
enhanced standard of living and purchasing capacity
use of existing and new manufacturing capacities, employment and creation of new jobs
Legal preconditions: The field of tourism is directly regulated by the Law on Tourism. In the
Law there are defined means of state tourism policy and planning, namely National Tourism
Development Programme and regional projects. The state commits itself to do the following for
the promotion of tourism: to create favourable conditions in the procedure of issuing visas as
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 19
well as for proper functioning of border check points and customs offices for the local and
foreign travellers; to form tax policy favourable for foreign tourism and for tourism business in
general; to establish tourism information system and country’s tourism image, properly regulate
the use and protection of tourism resources. Domestic and foreign tourism defined in the Law as
state priority is designated as an export service.
Task 3.3: Identify the impact of not implementing a project for hospitality or tourism
The major impact of not implementing a project for hospitality or tourism organisation may lead
to financial crisis in its worst cases. It helps a lot in improving the economical condition of a
Tourism's role in the economy is often perceived as being limited to the hospitality industry and
outbound and inbound travel agencies and carriers, which form the leading service sector in
many countries. However, the economic impact of tourism is much greater, since many inputs
are needed in order to produce tourism and leisure services, spanning the whole range of farm,
agrifood and industrial production, including the production of capital goods as well as
construction and public works.
Task 3.4: Formulate a project plan for a hospitality or tourism organisation.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 20
All these step will help us as shown in the two photos shown below:
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 21
Step 1: What are your aims?
A clearly defined aim will guide the work ahead. It can be as simple as you like and can be
worded many different ways such as in a vision statement, mission statement or statement of
purpose. Invest a little time in making sure this statement is tight, clear and achievable.
Step 2: Who is, could be or needs to be involved?
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 23
It is important to find out who is concerned about and responsible for tourism, environment and
heritage issues relating to your place or region.
If you systematically and strategically identify and involve those with a stake in your place,
region or tourism product, you will:
ensure the right people are involved in planning and future activities
help determine heritage significance of places involved
help make sure all the important issues are considered
help to decide what future actions are realistic and will best meet everyone’s needs and
help build support for regional plans, management plans and development proposals.
Step 3: What is known?
This step will help you to:
identify existing studies or sources of information relevant to your process or project
locate and summarise available information on the current and potential market for
determine the heritage assets, their heritage values and themes
Environment and heritage information: A useful starting place for environment and heritage
information is through the internet at sites such as the Australian Heritage Directory
(www.heritage.gov.au). The websites of the Australian Government Department of the
Environment and Heritage, and state environment, park and heritage agencies are also useful.
Tourism data: The websites of the Australian Tourist Commission and state tourism
organisations may be helpful. If you prefer, you can contact these organisations directly and
other bodies such as regional tourism organisations, local tourist information centres and
research authorities such as the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Sustainable Tourism.
Step 4: What makes this region, place or product special?
This step will help you to:
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 24
identify what is special about your region, place or product
establish how well its special values are recognised and currently communicated
establish whether further potential exists to use these special values in tourism and
In this step you need to identify the important values of your place, region or product, and the
ways in which they are understood and communicated. Places can be special for all kinds of
reasons — they may be important to the local community or to the world as a whole.
Tourism, heritage and local community interests will benefit from developing a common
understanding of what is significant so that they have a unified approach to presenting local and
regional heritage to visitors.
Identifying natural and cultural heritage values: Natural and cultural heritage places are often
the key assets for tourism. The unique qualities of a place, or its values, can be a large part of a
tourism business and its key selling points.
Step 5: What are the issues?
This step is about identifying all the important issues or factors that might affect what happens in
the future. This means talking to people and looking at the information you have collected to
date. Tease out the important matters that are unresolved or that will impact on your place,
region or tourism product. Following points must be considered:
issues are not always problems — they can be worked on and with
identify conflicts in perspectives or issues — flag these for further clarification and
analysis so that you can find ways to address them later
focus on the issues and not the people raising them
if people have identified issues, make sure these are considered through the next steps.
People’s views need to be reflected in the process and individuals should also be able to
see their input
in identifying issues, you may come across some which require expert advice or further
investigation. This could include professional assessments of the condition of places,
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 25
market potential, and visitor management and interpretation. Obtaining professional
advice or digging out extra information may help to build a sturdier foundation for
planning future work, forecasting budgets and preparing for any necessary approvals
a thorough knowledge of issues will also help you to develop performance measures and
monitoring indicators as you address the issues over time.
Step 6: Analysing the issues
Now that the issues have emerged from the last step, you may need to delve further to clarify
what is going on. Important issues need to be fully understood if the right decision is to be made
about a particular course of action. Concentrate your efforts on analysing priority issues. If
resources are limited you may need to make a judgement based on available information and
analysis. Analysis may simply be a matter of presenting a reasoned judgement about an issue
with justification of how you came to that position and citing what data or information supports
this. More sophisticated analysis may help you to make better business and management
decisions, but this can also be time-consuming and costly, so compromises may have to be made.
In any case you should clearly state how you have reached your current understanding of the
Step 7: Principles or objectives to guide action
These principles or objectives, need to deal with the realities of tourism while maintaining and
protecting what is special about the area’s natural and cultural heritage. It is very important that
principles or objectives are agreed by key stakeholders and that they have a high level of
ownership. Implementation of the principles works best when people feel they have played an
important part in their development.
Step 8: What are your ideas and options?
It’s likely that you will have many different options and pathways to your final goal or goals. If
you are working in a region or community, you may need to consider many possibilities before
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 26
making a final decision. In planning for tourism the feasibility of one or more options may need
to be tested and presented before funding or approvals are granted.
Step 9: How you do it?
Making new projects or ideas happen may involve many stakeholders, organisations and groups.
Even if implementation is the responsibility of one organisation or business, you will probably
need to gain the support or approval of others. Whatever your situation, a clear implementation
plan is essential. This not only makes sound business sense but is standard practice in project
management. This plan can also be called an action plan or a work plan.
Step 10: Statement of directions
If you are using this process to run a meeting or series of meetings, or a major project, this step
comes at the end so that all the people involved can see what they have achieved and can be clear
about the outcomes. There may also be other creative ways to present your outcomes through
images or other forms of communication. Whatever case, you will find this summary very useful
for briefing colleagues, superiors and for including in newsletters, electronic information or
Task 3.5: Evaluate the risks to a project plan for a hospitality or tourism organisation.
Following are some of the risks:
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 27
Earth or geological risks
1. Human epidemics
2. Plant epidemics
3. Animal epidemics
1. Industrial accidents
2. Traffic accidents
6. Political conflict
Task 3.6: Develop quantifiable measures to minimise and control risk during the
implementation of a project.
Following are some of the measures to minimise and control risk during the implementation of a
Seasonality of tourism:
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 28
Load of tourists as an absolute number during different seasons
Load of tourism in relation to seasons with higher exposure to natural hazards
Composition of the tourism load:
Age groups with special needs (children, old people, families)
People with disabilities
Tourists with specific interests and capacities
Distribution of the tourism load:
Restaurants and other entertainment places
Open areas (including beaches)
Other places with high visitation
Task 3.7: Evaluate the project performance
1. The project has significant potential as a driver for growth for the world economy: The
tourism economy represents 5 per cent of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while it
contributes to about 8 per cent of total employment
2. The development of project is accompanied by significant challenges: The rapid growth
in both international and domestic travel, the trends to travel farther and over shorter
periods of time, and the preference given to energy-intensive transportation are increasing
the non-renewable energy dependency of tourism, resulting in the sector’s contribution of
5 per cent to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which is expected to grow
substantially under a business–as-usual (BAU) scenario.
3. The project has the potential to create new, green jobs: Travel and tourism are humanresource intensive, employing directly and indirectly 8 per cent of the global workforce.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 29
It is estimated that one job in the core tourism industry creates about one and a half
additional or indirect jobs in the tourism related economy.
Five key dimensions of hospitality organisation as a commercial experience are identified; the
host-guest relationship, generosity, theatre and performance, lots of little surprises and safety and
security. To conclude, hospitality businesses must focus on the guest experience and stage
memorable experiences that stimulate all five senses. They must behave like hosts taking
responsibility for the experience and creating lots of little surprises. They must appoint and
develop their staff as performers and the cast in the experience. They must create a feeling of
generosity, avoid parsimony, and not allow financial and operational control procedures to
dominate the guest experience. Hospitality organisations that are able to capture this sense of
theatre and generosity will gain competitive advantage by providing their guests with
experiences that are personal, memorable and add value to their lives.
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 30
1. Aitchison, C. 1999. New cultural geographies: the spatiality of leisure, gender and
sexuality. Leisure Studies 18(1):19–39.
2. Ateljevic, I. 2000. Circuits of tourism: stepping beyond a production–consumption
dichotomy. Tourism Geographies 2(4): 369–88.
3. Chang, T. C., Milne, S. and Fallon, D. 1996. Urban heritage tourism: exploring the
global–local nexus. Annals of Tourism Research 29(2): 1–19.
4. Featherstone, M. 1987. Lifestyle and consumer culture. Theory, Culture and Society 4:
5. Burgess, J. 1990. The production and consumption of environmental meanings in the
mass media: a research agenda for the 1990s. Transactions of the Institute of British
Geographers 15(1): 139–61.
6. Hirst, P. and Zeitlin, J. 1991. Flexible specialisation versus post–Fordism: theory,
evidence and policy implications. Economy and Society 20(1): 1–56.
7. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. (2003a). About APEC. [Online] Available at:
www.apecsec.org.sg, accessed 30 June 2003.
8. Inocon Group. (2003). Crisis Management. Workshop Materials. Brisbane, Queensland,
3 July. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. (2002). Living with Risk. A Global
Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives. Geneva: ISDR (CD Rom, preliminary version
9. Quality Control Handbook, J.M. Juran, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. New York 1999
10. Guide to Quality Control, Kaoru Ishikawa, Asian Productivity Organisation, Tokyo 1982
SAMPLE | Hospitality and Tourism 31