• MICROPROCESSOR TECHNOLONGY ; SINGNAL CONDITIONING AND DATA ACQUIZIATION
• USE OF MICROPROCESSOR/MICROCONTROLLER, CONFIGURATION AND WORKING
• ELECTRICAL DRIVES ; TYPES, SELECTION CRITERIA AND OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE
AUTOMATION IN MANUFACTURING
What is a Data Acquisition System?
• A data acquisition system is a system that comprises sensors, measurement devices, and a computer. A data acquisition
system is used for processing acquired data, which involves collecting the information required to understand electrical or
• The reason for measuring and recording the electrical and physical phenomena using a
data acquisition system is to enable further analysis. A data acquisition system uses
software to perform its functions and it is capable of quickly processing and storing data in
many ways. Data acquisition systems can capture data from an actual system and store the
data in a simple format that is easily retrievable for further engineering or scientific
• Data acquisition systems are either handheld, or they can be remotely operated. Handheld
data acquisition systems are used when there is a requirement for taking readings of a
specimen which can be physically interacted with. When direct human interaction with an
object is not possible or necessary, this is when remote data acquisition systems are used
to take remote DAQ (data acquisition) measurements.
• Sensors or transducers serve the purpose of interacting with the subject measured. They interact with the subject
either directly or indirectly, or as defined in other words, contact or non-contact. These tools convert the physical
values to produce an output of electrical signals.
• The sensors utilized by DAQ systems are high-quality sensors that are capable of giving accurate readings with
minimal or no noise.
• The electrical signals obtained from the sensors may contain noise or other interference and need modification; they
could not be used directly as is. The signals might also be weak to a point where the data acquisition system cannot
measure them. Hence additional circuitry is utilized for optimizing the signals. This additional circuitry is known as a
signal conditioner. Signal conditioning then is the process of optimizing the signals.
Data Acquisition Hardware
• Data acquisition hardware is the hardware that is connected between the sensors and the computer. This hardware is
either connected to the computer employing a USB port or through the PCI-express ports that are found on the
motherboard. The data acquisition hardware serves to take in the signals from the sensors and then convert them into
digital signals that are readable by the computer. This is the function that DAQ hardware performs.
• This component of the DAQ system serves to convert analog signals into digital signals. This component is at the core of
all data acquisition systems. This chip serves to take data from the environment and convert it into separate levels that
can be interpreted by a processor. These distinct levels correspond to the smallest detectable change that can be found
in the measured signal.
• The function of this component of a DAQ system is to provide support for inputting, as well as outputting, binary signals
Single-Ended Input Converters
• This component has the function of providing support for taking input from single-ended wire. Some types of DAQ
hardware are standalone, capable of operating on their own without the requirement of a connection to a computer.
This is possible through the use of a processor as well as a computing unit that is embedded within the hardware of the
data acquisition system. Standalone data acquisition hardware is capable of helping users with real-time data
• The computer is the end piece of a DAQ chain. The computer’s function is to gather all data that comes through the DAQ
hardware for further analysis. However, it is not enough to simply connect the DAQ hardware to a computer in order to
make sense of the data collected. DAQ software that uses data from the DAQ hardware is still required for creating
readable and meaningful results. This data acquisition software acts as the layer between the DAQ hardware and the
user. With the data that is collected from the DAQ, computers are critical to performing higher-order computations.
Applications of Data Acquisition Systems
• Data acquisition systems are utilized in the electronics industry. They are utilized in the testing of many variables that are
involved in the design of electronics like heat production, resistance, conductivity, magnetics, etc.
• Data acquisition devices are utilized in automotive manufacturing for testing the quality of the parts that are
• Industrial machines are created to perform multiple times.
Therefore, repeatability is of critical importance. Data
acquisition systems are often utilized for testing these
machines for their tolerance to repetitive forces.
• Data acquisition systems are utilized in the non-destructive
testing of structures, geology, seismology, ultrasonic
measurements, as well as with the analysis of acoustic
• Data acquisition systems are used for the quality testing of imaging equipment like a photographic lens or video camera, as
well as with scientific equipment such as scanners, and microscopes.
• Data acquisition systems are utilized in laser technology to test laser performance, light intensity, and color
• Data acquisition systems use remote sensing technologies within radar and sonar applications to calculate their efficiency
• Industrial machines are created to perform multiple times. Therefore, repeatability is of critical importance. Data
acquisition systems are often utilized for testing these machines for their tolerance to repetitive forces.
• Data acquisition systems are utilized in the non-destructive testing of structures, geology, seismology, ultrasonic
measurements, as well as with the analysis of acoustic emission phenomena.
• The microprocessor alsoknown asthe central processing unit, is the brain of all computers and
manyhousehold and electronic devices. Multiple microprocessors, working together, are the
"hearts" of datacenters, super-computers, communications products, and other digital devices.
●Fairchild Semiconductors (founded in 1957) invented the first IC
●In 1968, Robert Noyce, Gordan Moore, Andrew Grove
resigned from Fairchild Semiconductors.
●They founded their own company Intel (Integrated Electronics).
●The first microprocessor invented wasof 4-bit, after that 8-
bit,16-bit,.32-bit &64-bit are founded
●The MPUcommunicates with Memory and I/ O using the
●Memory and I/O Addresses
●Transfers Binary Data and Instructions
●Read andWrite timing signals
Microprocessor – Basic concept
32-bit / 64-bit wide
Timing signals, ready signals,
DATA BUS – bidirectional
8-bit / 16-bit / 32-bit / 128-bit
Microprocessor, by-itself, completely useless – must have external peripherals to
Interact with outside world
●A self-contained system in which aprocessor, support, memory,
and input/ output (I/ O) are all contained in asingle package.
●A small computer system on asingle IC
History of Microcontroller
●First used in 1975(Intel 8048)
●The introduction of EEPROMin 1993, allowed
microcontrollers to be electrically erased
●The same year,Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using
Basic Features of Microcontroller
●Program and Variable Memory (RAM)
●I/ O pins
●Instruction cycle timers
More Sophisticated Features
●Built-in monitor/ debugger program
●Analog I/ O (PWM and variable dc I/ O
●Serial I/ O (synchronous, asynchronous)
●Parallel I/ O (including direct interface to amaster processor
●External memory interface
Basic microcontroller architecture (3/3)
– Group of 8,16 or more wires
– Three type, address bus, data bus and control bus
• Input-output unit
– portA, port B, port C … …
– Input, output and bidirectional ports
• Serial communication
• Timer unit
– Automatic reset to prevent stall
• Analogto Digital Converter (ADC)
➢Large amount of instructions each carrying out adifferent
permutation of the same operation
➢Functionality of the instructions is more dependent upon
the processor’s designer.
➢Fundamental set of instructions
➢More control for users to design their own operations
- Memory Mapped I/ O Versus Programmed I/ O
Special instructions such as IN and OUT are used to transfer
data between aCPU register and an external device.
●Memory Mapped I/O
Standard instructions are used to transfer data between a CPU
register and an external device.
I/O ports appear as memory addresses.
Instruction support for interrupts
●Processors provide two instructions, enable priority
interrupt (EPI) and for disable priority interrupt (DPI).
●These are atomic instructions that are used for many
purposes, such as buffering, within interrupt handlers, and
for parameter passing.
Internal CPU handling of interrupts
Step 1: finish the currently executing macroinstruction. Step 2: save the contents of the
program counter to the interrupt return location. Step 3: load the address held in the
interrupt handler location into the program counter. Resume the fetch and execute
Single interrupt support
Internal CPU handling of interrupts
Step 1: complete the currently executing instruction. Step 2: save the contents of PC to
interrupt return location i. Step 3: load the address held in interrupt handler location i into the
PC. Resume the fetch-execute cycle.
Multiple interrupt support
●In rare instances individuation macroinstruction mayneed to be interruptible.
●This might be the case where the instruction takes agreat deal of time to complete.
E.g. amemory to memory instruction that moves large amounts of data.
●In most cases, such an instruction should be interruptible between blocks to reduce
interrupt latency.However, interrupting this particular instruction could cause data
Advantages of Microcontroller over Microprocessor
●Pin count down
●Design time down, Board layout size down
●Upgrade path easier – matching between peripherals for speed
●Cost down – bulk purchases
●Common software / hardware design environment available
Issues when using microcontroller
●On-chip – fast, easy to access, “almost like a register”, limited amount of on-chip
●Off-chip – slower
●Use on-chip memory in a“cache” mode (copy off-chip data to on-chip when
processing data, then copy back)
●E.g. Video CODECs – need to use DMA– Direct MemoryAccess– so that the
controller can get on with the “processing”and let something else worry about
moving data in and out of the chip
●Event driven – can’t WAITfor a device to become ready, can’t POLLto see if
device is ready, interrupt handling is key
● All these resources are “power hungry” and compete for resources (data busses
etc) – special features
Difference between microprocessor &
Contains ALU, general purpose register, stack
pointer, programme counter, clock timing &
It hastoo manyinstructions to movethe
data between CPU&memory
It hasone or two bit handlinginstruction
Accesstime for memory &I/O devices ismore
Microprocessor basedsystem requires more
More flexible in design point of view
It hassingle memory mapfor data &code
Lessnumber ofpins are malfunctioned
Contains the circuitry ofmicroprocessor &in
addition it hasbuilt in ROM, I/ Odevices, timer
It hasone or two instruction to movethe data
It hasmanybit handling instruction
Lessaccesstime for built in memory &I/O
Microcontroller basedsystem requires less
hardware,reducing PCBsize&increasing the
Lessflexible in designpoint ofview
It hasseparate memory map for data &code
More number of pins are malfunctioned
The first electric drive was invented in 1838 by B.S.Iakobi in Russia. He tested a DC motor which is supplied
from a battery to push a boat. Although, the application of electric drive in industrial can happen after so many
years like in 1870. At present, this can be observed almost everywhere. We know that the speed of an electrical
machine(motor or generator) can be controlled by the source current’s frequency as well as the applied voltage.
Although, the revolution speed of a machine can also be controlled accurately by applying the electric drive
concept. The main benefit of this concept is too controlling the motion can be optimized simply using the drive.
What is an Electric Drive?
• An Electric Drive can be defined as, a system which is used to control the movement
of an electrical machine. This drive employs a prime mover such as a petrol engine,
otherwise diesel, steam turbines otherwise gas, electrical & hydraulic motors like a
main source of energy. These prime movers will supply the mechanical energy toward
the drive for controlling motion
An electric drive can be built with an electric drive motor as well as a
complicated control system to control the motor’s rotation shaft. At present, the
controlling of this can be done simply using the software. Thus, the controlling turns
into more accurate & this drive concept also offers the ease of utilizing
The types of electrical drives are two such as a standard inverter as well as a servo drive. A standard inverter drive is used
to control the torque & speed. A servo drive is used to control the torque as well as speed, and also components of the
positioning machine utilized within applications that need difficult motion
Block Diagram of Electric Drive
• The block diagram of an electric drive is shown below, and the load in the diagram signifies different kinds of
equipment which can be built with an electric motor such as washing machine, pumps, fans, etc. The electric drive
can be built with source, power modulator, motor, load, sensing unit, control unit, an input command.
• The power source in the above block diagram offers the necessary energy for the system. And both the converter and
the motor interfaces by the power source to provide changeable voltage, frequency and current to the motor.
• This modulator can be used to control the o/p power of the supply. The power controlling of the motor can be done in
such a way that the electrical motor sends out the speed-torque feature which is necessary with the load. During the
temporary operations, the extreme current will be drawn from the power source.
• The drawn current from the power source may excess it otherwise can cause a voltage drop. Therefore the power
modulator limits the motor current as well as the source.
• The power modulator can change the energy based on the motor requirement. For instance, if the basis is direct current
& an induction motor can be used after that power modulator changes the direct current into alternating current. And
it also chooses the motor’s mode of operation like braking otherwise motoring.
• The mechanical load can be decided by the environment of the industrial process & the power source can be decided by
an available source at the place. However, we can choose the other electric components namely electric motor,
controller, & converter.
• The control unit is mainly used to control the power modulator, and this modulator can operate at power levels as well as
small voltage. And it also works the power modulator as preferred. This unit produces the rules for the safety of the
motor as well as power modulator. The i/p control signal regulates the drive’s working point from i/p toward the control
• The sensing unit in the block diagram is used to sense the particular drive factor such as speed, motor current. This unit
is mainly used for the operation of closed loop otherwise protection.
• The electric motor intended for the specific application can be chosen by believing various features such as price,
reaching the level of power & performance necessary by the load throughout the stable state as well as active operations.
Types of electrical drives:
• Stepper Motor
• DC Motor
Characteristics of Electrical drives:
The electric drives generally require reduction gears of high ratios.
The high-gear ratio linearizes the system dynamics and reduces the coupling effects.
This is an added advantage of the electric drives but at the cost of increased joint friction,
elasticity and backlash.
On the author hand use of hydraulic or pneumatic actuators to directly drive the joint minimizes
the drawbacks due to friction, elasticity, and backlash.
1) Easy to control
2) From W to MW
3) Normally high velocities 1000 - 10000 rpm
4) Several types
(5) Accurate servo control
6) Ideal torque for driving
7) Excellent efficiency
8) Autonomous power system
The servo motor is most commonly used for high technology devices in the industrial
application like automation technology.
It is a self contained electrical device, that rotate parts of a machine with high efficiency and
The output shaft of this motor can be moved to a particular angle.
Servo motors are mainly used in home electronics, toys, cars, airplanes, etc.
Types of Servo Motors
• Servo motors are classified into different types based on their application, such as AC servo
• motor, DC servo motor, brushless DC servo motor, positional rotation, continuous rotation and linear servo
• Typical servo motors comprise of three wires namely, power control and ground.
• The shape and size of these motors depend on their applications.
• Servo motor is the most common type which is used in hobby applications, robotics due to their simplicity,
affordability and reliability of control by microprocessors.
DC Servo Motor
• The motor which is used as a DC servo motor generally have a separate DC source in the field of winding &
• The control can be archived either by controlling the armature current or field current.
• Field control includes some particular advantages over armature control.
• In the same way armature control includes some advantages over field
• Based on the applications the control should be applied to
• the DC servo motor.
• DC servo motor provides very accurate and also fast respond
to start or stop command signals due to the low armature
• DC servo motors are used in similar equipment's and
• computerized numerically controlled machines.
AC Servo Motor
AC servo motor is an AC motor that includes
encoder is used with controllers for giving
closed loop control and feedback.
This motor can be placed to high accuracy and
also controlled precisely as compulsory for the
Frequently these motors have higher designs of tolerance or better bearings and some simple
designs also use higher voltages in order to accomplish greater torque.
Applications of an AC motor mainly involve in automation, robotics, CNC machinery, and other
applications a high level of precision and needful versatility.
Positional Rotation Servo Motor
• Positional rotation servo motor is a most common type of servo motor.
• The shaft’s o/p rotates in about 180o.
• It includes physical stops located in the gear mechanism to stop turning outside
• limits to guard the rotation sensor.
• These common servos involve in radio controlled water, radio controlled cars,
• robots, toys and many other applications.
Continuous Rotation Servo Motor
Continuous rotation servo motor is quite related to the common positional rotation servo motor,
but it can go in any direction indefinitely.
The control signal, rather than set the static position of the servo, is understood as the speed and
direction of rotation.
The range of potential commands sources the servo to rotate clockwise or anticlockwise as
preferred, at changing speed, depending on the command signal.
This type of motor is used in a radar dish if you are riding one on a robot or you can use one as a
drive motor on a mobile robot.
Applications of Servo Motor
• The servo motor is small and efficient, but serious to use in some applications like precise position
control. This motor is controlled by a pulse width modulator signal.
• The applications of servo motors mainly involve in computers, robotics, toys, CD/DVD players, etc. These motors
are extensively used in those applications where a particular task is to be done frequently in an exact manner.
• The servo motor is used in robotics to activate movements, giving the arm to its precise angle.
• The Servo motor is used to start, move and stop conveyor belts carrying the product along with many stages.
For instance, product labeling, bottling and packaging
• The servo motor is built into the camera to correct a lens of the camera to improve out of focus images.
• The servo motor is used in robotic vehicle to control the robot wheels, producing plenty torque to move,
start and stop the vehicle and control its speed.
• The servo motor is used in solar tracking system to correct the angle of the panel so that each solar
• panel stays to face the sun
• The Servo motor is used in metal forming and cutting machines to provide specific motion control for milling
• The Servo motor is used in automatic door openers to control the door in public places like
supermarkets, hospitals and theatres
A stepper motor is an electromechanical device it converts electrical power into mechanical
Also it is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into an
expansive number of steps.
The motor’s position can be controlled accurately without any feedback mechanism, as long as
the motor is carefully sized to the application.
Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors.
The stepper motor uses the theory of operation for magnets to make the motor shaft turn a
precise distance when a pulse of electricity is provided.
The stator has eight poles, and the rotor has six poles. The rotor will require 24 pulses of
electricity to move the 24 steps to make one complete revolution.
Another way to say this is that the rotor will move precisely 15° for each pulse of electricity that
the motor receives.
Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors, which rotate when voltage is applied
to their terminals.
Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple toothed electromagnets arranged
around a central gear-shaped piece of iron.
The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, for example a microcontroller.
To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear’s
teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet’s teeth.
The point when the gear’s teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly
offset from the next electromagnet.
So when the next electromagnet is turned ON and the first is turned OFF, the gear rotates
slightly to align with the next one and from there the process is repeated.
Each of those slight rotations is called a step, with an integer number of steps making a full
In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise. Stepper motor doesn’t rotate continuously,
they rotate in steps.
There are 4 coils with 90o angle between each other fixed on the stator. The stepper motor
connections are determined by the way the coils are interconnected.
In stepper motor, the coils are not connected together. The motor has 90o rotation step with the
coils being energized in a cyclic order, determining the shaft rotation direction.
The working of this motor is shown by operating the switch. The coils are activated in series in
1 sec intervals. The shaft rotates 90o each time the next coil is activated. Its low speed torque will
vary directly with current.
Types of Stepper Motor:
There are three main types of stepper motors, they are:
1.Permanent magnet stepper
2.Variable reluctance stepper
3.Hybrid synchronous stepper
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor: Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in
the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator
Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor: Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor
and operate based on the principle that minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap, hence the
rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles.
Hybrid Synchronous Stepper Motor: Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a
combination of permanent magnet (PM) and variable reluctance (VR) techniques to achieve
maximum power in a small package size.
Advantages of Stepper Motor:
1.The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse.
2.The motor has full torque at standstill.
3.Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy
of 3 – 5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next.
4.Excellent response to starting, stopping and reversing.
5.Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Therefore the life of the motor is
simply dependent on the life of the bearing.
6.The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor
simpler and less costly to control.
7.It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled
to the shaft.
8.A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of
the input pulses.
1.Industrial Machines – Stepper motors are used in automotive gauges and machine tooling
automated production equipment's.
2.Security – new surveillance products for the security industry.
3.Medical – Stepper motors are used inside medical scanners, samplers, and also found inside
digital dental photography, fluid pumps, respirators and blood analysis machinery.
4.Consumer Electronics – Stepper motors in cameras for automatic digital camera focus and
And also have business machines applications, computer peripherals applications.
Permanent Magnet DC Motor
In a DC motor, an armature rotates inside a magnetic field. Basic working principle
of DC motor is based on the fact that whenever a current carrying conductor is
placed inside a magnetic field, there will be mechanical force experienced by that
Working Principle of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
The working principle of PMDC motor is just similar to the general working principle of DC motor.
That is when a carrying conductor comes inside a magnetic field, a mechanical force will be experienced
by the conductor and the direction of this force is governed by Fleming’s left hand rule.
As in a permanent magnet DC motor, the armature is placed inside the magnetic field of permanent
magnet; the armature rotates in the direction of the generated force.
Here each conductor of the armature experiences the mechanical force F = B.I.L Newton
where, B is the magnetic field strength in Tesla (weber / m2),
I is the current in Ampere flowing through that conductor and L is length of the conductor in metre comes
under the magnetic field. Each conductor of the armature experiences a force and the compilation of those
forces produces a torque, which tends to rotate the armature.
Equivalent Circuit of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
As in PMDC motor the field is produced by permanent magnet, there is no
need of drawing field coils in the equivalent circuit of permanent magnet DC
The supply voltage to the armature will have armature resistance drop and
rest of the supply voltage is countered by back emf of the motor. Hence voltage
equation of the motor is given by,
Where, I is armature current and R is armature resistance of the motor. Eb
is the back emf and V is the supply voltage.
Advantages of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
PMDC motor have some advantages over other types of DC motors. They are :
1.No need of field excitation arrangement.
2.No input power in consumed for excitation which improve efficiency of DC motor.
3.No field coil hence space for field coil is saved which reduces the overall size of the motor.
4.Cheaper and economical for fractional kW rated applications.
Disadvantages of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
1.In this case, the armature reaction of DC motor cannot be compensated hence the magnetic
strength of the field may get weak due to demagnetizing effect armature reaction.
2.There is also a chance of getting the poles permanently demagnetized (partial) due to excessive
armature current during starting, reversal and overloading condition of the motor.
3.Another major disadvantage of PMDC motor is that, the field in the air gap is fixed and limited
and it cannot be controlled externally. Therefore, very efficient speed control of DC motor in this type of
motor is difficult.
Applications of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
PMDC motor is extensively used where small DC motors are required and also very effective control is not
required, such as in automobiles starter, toys, wipers, washers, hot blowers, air conditioners, computer disc
drives and in many more.