Precise Charge Controller for Solar Photo Voltaic Panel used
Embedded based Micro controller concept.
The main scope of project is, the photovoltaic cells are
converting the sunlight in to electricity a charge controller is
PV cells are bundled together in modules or panels to produce
higher voltages and increased power.
As the sunlight varies in intensity the electricity so generated
usually charges through the charge a set of batteries for
storing the energy.
PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM
The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect
transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS
FET) is a device used for amplifying or
switching electronic signals
The basic principle of the device a voltage on
the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a
conducting channel between the two other
contacts called source and drain
It is by far the most common transistor in
both digital and analog circuits, though the
bipolar junction transistor was at one time
much more common.
Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
Wideband with 1Mhz (Temperature compensated)
Wide power supply range:
Single supply 3V to 32V
or dual supplies ±1.5V to ±16V
Very low supply current drain (700 μA) essentially
independent of supply voltage
Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature
Low input offset voltage 2mV and offset current:5
Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial
It is used in general-purpose switching and
amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100
mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
The ratio of two currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain of
the device and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays Beta, (β).
The current gain from the emitter to the collector
terminal, Ic/Ie, is called Alpha, (α), and is a function of the
The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon
diode used in signal processing.
The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO-35
glass package and is very useful at high frequencies
with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns.
This permits rectification and detection of radio
frequency signals very effectively, as long as their
amplitude is above the forward conduction
threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of special materials called
semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently the most commonly
Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is
absorbed within the semiconductor material.
PV cells also all have one or more electric fields that act to force
electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction.
This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on
the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off to use
Expose the cell to light, and the energy
from each photon (light particle) hitting
the silicon, will liberate an electron and a
If this happens within range of the
electric field’s influence, the electrons will
be sent to the N side and the holes to the P
one, resulting in yet further disruption of
This flow of electrons is a current; the
electrical field in the cell causes a voltage
and the product of these two is power
An electrical battery is a combination
of one or more electrochemical
cells, used to convert stored chemical
energy into electrical energy.
The battery has become a common
power source for many
household, robotics and industrial
Larger batteries provide standby
power for telephone exchanges or
computer data centers