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What is Alkalinity of glasses? And its effects on different products....


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What is Alkalinity of glasses? And its effects on different products....

  2. 2. What is alkalinity? <ul><li>Alkalinity is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In the natural environment carbonate alkalinity tends to make up most of the total alkalinity due to the common occurrence and dissolution of carbonate rocks and presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Other common natural components that can contribute to alkalinity include borate, hydroxide, phosphate, silicate, nitrate, dissolved ammonia, the conjugate bases of some organic acids and sulfide. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Alkalinity is usually given in the unit mEq/L (milliequivalent per liter). Commercially, as in the pool industry, alkalinity might also be given in the unit ppm or parts per million. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Alkalinity of Glass occur?
  6. 6. <ul><li>In all glass, the sodium and potassium oxides are hygroscopic; therefore, the surface of the glass absorbs moisture from the air. The absorbed moisture and exposure to carbon dioxide causes the NaO 2  or NaOH and KO 2 or KOH to convert to sodium or potassium carbonate. Both NaCO 2 and KCO 2 are extremely hygroscopic. In water, especially salt water, the Na and K carbonates in unstable glass may leach out, leaving only fragile, porous hydrated silica (SiO 2 ) network. This causes the glass to craze, crack, flake, and pit, and gives the surface of the glass a frosty appearance. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Effect of Alkalinity of Glasses on Pharmaceutical Products </li></ul>
  8. 8. a) Effect on vaccines:- <ul><li>Vaccines made were tested periodically for stability of pH and of potency. The acetone-treated cultures prepared in buffered saline solutions retained potency beyond 30 months of storage at 0 to 5 ċ. similar vaccines in unbuffered saline solutions lost potency coincident with increase of alkalinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines packaged in United States Pharmacopeia borosilicate glass vials retained potency and pH stability, whereas those soda-lime glass vials were less stable due to occurrence of alkalinity. </li></ul>
  9. 9. a) Effect on Parentral Products: <ul><li>The scanning electron micrographs showed surprising differences in the appearance of the surface regions. “Sulfur treatment” of ampoules was associated with a pitting of the surface and the presence of sodium sulfate crystals. The sulfur treatment of vials altered the glass surface in a characteristically different manner. The dissimilarity between the surface appearances was attributed to the method of sulfur treatment. Ampoules exposed to sulfuric acid solutions at room temperature did not show the pitting associated with the sulfur treatment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. a) Effect on Solutions: <ul><li>Alkalinity of a solution is the capacity of it to react with a strong acid (usually sulfuric acid H2SO4) to a predetermined pH. The alkalinity of a solution is usually made up of carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxides. Similar to acidity, the higher the alkalinity is, the more neutralizing agent is needed to counteract it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treatment of unstable Glass: <ul><li>Unstable glass formulations can be treated by different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Here one treatment technique is described: </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Wash the glass thoroughly in runing tap water and then soak it in distilled water. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry the glass in two baths of alcohol. This treatment will retard the disintegration and also improves the appearance of the glass. It does not however, always stop the breakdown of the glass. </li></ul><ul><li>if applicable, apply an organic lacquer (PVA or Acryloid B-72) to impede disintegration. </li></ul><ul><li>For assurance, store the glass in a dry environment with the relative humidity not higher than 40 %. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Test of Alkalinity of Glass:
  14. 14. <ul><li>Apparatus used: </li></ul><ul><li>Autoclave </li></ul><ul><li>For those tests, use an autoclave capable of maintaining a temperature of 120 ±0.5 ċ, equipped with a thermometer, a pressure gauge, a vent cock and a rack, adequate to accommodate at least 12 tests containers above the water level. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Used a hardened-steel mortar and pestle. </li></ul><ul><li>Other equipments required are 8 inch, sieves No. 20, 40 and 50 along with the pan and cover, 250ml conical flask made of resistant glass as specified and adequate volumetric flask. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reagents <ul><li>1) Special Distilled water: </li></ul><ul><li>The water used in these tests has a specific conductivity of 0.5 µ mho to 1 µ mho (Siemens), determined at 20ċ just prior to use. It should meet the requirements specified under purified water. The water may be prepared by re-distillation process once distilled water from a still of such proportions that the steam flows at low velocity when still is operating at rated capacity. All parts of still are in contact with water or steam and are of borosilicate glass. Prior to distillation, add 1 drop of phosphoric acid (diluted with an equal volume of distilled water and boiled to the point of dense fumes) for each thousand ml of water contained in the still. Reject the first 10% or 15% of the distillate, and retain the next 75%. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2) Methyl red solution: <ul><li>Dissolve 24 mg of methyl red sodium in sufficient purified water to make 100ml. if necessary, neutralize the solution with 0.02 N sodium hydroxide, so that the titration of 100ml of specified distilled water (containing 5 drops of indicator), does not require more than 0.02 ml of 0.02N sodium hydroxide to affect the color change of the indicator, which should occur at the pH of 5.6. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Test Procedure for limits of alkalinity of whole Glass Container: <ul><li>Take sufficient containers, not less than 3 from each batch, so that the total volume of water to be tested is not less than 250 ml. rinse the containers thoroughly with distilled water and complete the rinsing with redistilled water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill each container to 90% of its overflow capacity with the redistilled water above. Cover the unsealed containers with crimped pieces of new tin foil wash thoroughly with acetone. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the containers on the rack in wash autoclave and close the door securely, leaving the vent cock and open. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Heat until steam issues vigorously from the vent cock and continue heating for 10 min. close the vent cock adjust the heating so that the temperature rises 1 ċ/min until it reaches 121ċ, taking 20 to 25 min to reach that temperature. Keep the temperature at 121ċ ± 0.5 ċ for one hour. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of that period decrease the supply of heat and cool at the rate of 0.5 ċ per min, until the internal pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The time to cool from 121ċ – 100 ċ should be from 40 to 50 min. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>open the autoclave take out the containers and allow to cool them to 25 ċ, transfer 100 ml of water from each container add 5 drops of methyl red solution, and titrate with 0.01 N sulphuric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>The time elapsing between opening the autoclave and titrating should not exceed 60 minutes. Carry out blank test on 100 ml of water from the same lot, and make the necessary correction. </li></ul><ul><li>The quantity of 0.01N sulphuric acid used for containers with a capacity of up to 100 ml should be, not more than 1.5 ml and for containers of capacity greater than 100ml, not more than 0.5 ml. </li></ul>