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Pharmacologic principles

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Pharmacologic principles

  1. 1. Pharmacologic Principles Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Pharmacologic Principles Drug • Any chemical that affects the processes of a living organism Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmacology • The study or science of drugs Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Pharmacologic Principles: Drug Names Chemical name • The drug’s chemical composition and molecular structure Generic name (nonproprietary name) • Name given by the United States Adopted Name Council Trade name (proprietary name) • The drug has a registered trademark; use of the name restricted by the drug’s owner (usually the manufacturer) Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Pharmacologic Principles: Drug Names Chemical name • (+/-)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid Generic name • ibuprofen Trade name • Motrin Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Instructors may wish to use EIC Image #3: The Chemical, Generic, and Trade Names for the Common Analgesic Ibuprofen Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Pharmacologic Principles • Pharmaceutics • Pharmacokinetics • Pharmacodynamics • Pharmacotherapeutics • Pharmacognosy Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmaceutics • The study of how various drug forms influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmacokinetics • The study of what the body does to the drug: – Absorption – Distribution – Metabolism – Excretion Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmacodynamics • The study of what the drug does to the body: – The mechanism of drug actions in living tissues Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmacotherapeutics • The use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat diseases Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Pharmacologic Principles Pharmacognosy • The study of natural (plant and animal) drug sources Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Drug Absorption of Various Oral Preparations Liquids, elixirs, syrups Fastest Suspension solutions  Powders  Capsules  Tablets  Coated tablets  Enteric-coated tablets Slowest Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption • The rate at which a drug leaves its site of administration, and the extent to which absorption occurs. – Bioavailability – Bioequivalent Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption Factors That Affect Absorption • Administration route of the drug • Food or fluids administered with the drug • Dosage formulation • Status of the absorptive surface • Rate of blood flow to the small intestine • Acidity of the stomach • Status of GI motility Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption Routes • A drug’s route of administration affects the rate and extent of absorption of that drug. – Enteral – Parenteral – Topical Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption Enteral Route • Drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the oral or gastric mucosa, the small intestine, or rectum. – Oral – Sublingual – Buccal – Rectal Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  18. 18. First-Pass Effect The metabolism of a drug and its passage from the liver into the circulation. • A drug given via the oral route may be extensively metabolized by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation (high first-pass effect). • The same drug—given IV—bypasses the liver, preventing the first-pass effect from taking place, and more drug reaches the circulation. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Instructors may want to use EIC Image #4: First-Pass Effect Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  20. 20. First-Pass Effect • Routes that bypass the liver: – Sublingual Transdermal – Buccal Vaginal – Rectal* Intramuscular – Intravenous Subcutaneous – Intranasal Inhalation *Rectal route undergoes a higher degree of first- pass effects than the other routes listed. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption Parenteral Route • Intravenous* • Intramuscular • Subcutaneous • Intradermal • Intrathecal • Intraarticular *Fastest delivery into the blood circulation Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption Topical Route • Skin (including transdermal patches) • Eyes • Ears • Nose • Lungs (inhalation) • Vagina Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Pharmacokinetics: Distribution The transport of a drug in the body by the bloodstream to its site of action. • Protein-binding • Water soluble vs. fat soluble • Blood-brain barrier • Areas of rapid distribution: heart, liver, kidneys, brain • Areas of slow distribution: muscle, skin, fat Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism (also known as Biotransformation) The biologic transformation of a drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound, or a more potent metabolite. • Liver (main organ) • Kidneys • Lungs • Plasma • Intestinal mucosa Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism Factors that decrease metabolism: • Cardiovascular dysfunction • Renal insufficiency • Starvation • Obstructive jaundice • Slow acetylator • Erythromycin or ketoconazole drug therapy Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism Factors that increase metabolism: • Fast acetylator • Barbiturates • Rifampin therapy Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism Delayed drug metabolism results in: • Accumulation of drugs • Prolonged action of the effects of the drugs Stimulating drug metabolism causes: • Diminished pharmacologic effects Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Pharmacokinetics: Excretion The elimination of drugs from the body • Kidneys (main organ) • Liver • Bowel – Biliary excretion – Enterohepatic circulation Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Instructors may wish to use EIC Image #5: Renal Drug Excretion Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Pharmacokinetics Half-Life • The time it takes for one half of the original amount of a drug in the body to be removed. • A measure of the rate at which drugs are removed from the body. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Instructors may wish to use EIC Image #6: Drug Half-Life Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Pharmacodynamics Drug actions: • The cellular processes involved in the drug and cell interaction Drug effect: • The physiologic reaction of the body to the drug Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Pharmacodynamics Onset • The time it takes for the drug to elicit a therapeutic response Peak • The time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response Duration • The time a drug concentration is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Pharmacodynamics: Mechanisms of Action The ways by which drugs can produce therapeutic effects: • Once the drug is at the site of action, it can modify the rate (increase or decrease) at which the cells or tissues function. • A drug cannot make a cell or tissue perform a function it was not designed to perform. Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Pharmacodynamics: Mechanisms of Action • Receptor interaction • Enzyme interaction • Nonspecific interactions Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Instructors may wish to insert EIC Image #2: Drugs and Receptors and possibly EIC Image #7: Drug-Receptor Interactions: Definitions Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Pharmacotherapeutics: Types of Therapies • Acute therapy • Maintenance therapy • Supplemental therapy • Palliative therapy • Supportive therapy • Prophylactic therapy Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring • The effectiveness of the drug therapy must be evaluated. • One must be familiar with the drug’s • intended therapeutic action (beneficial) • and the drug’s unintended but potential side effects (predictable, adverse drug reactions). Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring • Therapeutic index • Drug concentration • Patient’s condition • Tolerance and dependence • Interactions • Side effects/adverse drug effects Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  40. 40. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Therapeutic Index • The ratio between a drug’s therapeutic benefits and its toxic effects Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  41. 41. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Tolerance • A decreasing response to repetitive drug doses Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  42. 42. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Dependence • A physiologic or psychological need for a drug Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  43. 43. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Interactions may occur with other drugs or food • Drug interactions: the alteration of action of a drug by: – Other prescribed drugs – Over-the-counter medications – Herbal therapies Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  44. 44. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Interactions • Additive effect • Synergistic effect • Antagonistic effect • Incompatibility Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  45. 45. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Medication Misadventures Adverse drug events • ALL are preventable • Medication errors that result in patient harm Adverse drug reactions • Inherent, not preventable event occurring in the normal therapeutic use of a drug • Any reaction that is unexpected, undesirable, and occurs at doses normally used Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  46. 46. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Some adverse drug reactions are classified as side effects. • Expected, well-known reactions that result in little or no change in patient management • Predictable frequency • The effect’s intensity and occurrence is related to the size of the dose Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  47. 47. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Adverse Drug Reaction An undesirable response to drug therapy • Idiosyncratic • Hypersensitivity reactions • Drug interactions Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  48. 48. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Iatrogenic Responses Unintentional adverse effects that are treatment-induced • Dermatologic • Renal damage • Blood dyscrasias • Hepatic toxicity Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  49. 49. Pharmacotherapeutics: Monitoring Other Drug-Related Effects • Teratogenic • Mutagenic • Carcinogenic Copyright © 2002, 1998, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • RabieAlhabeeb

    Jul. 27, 2020
  • FahadEid2

    Dec. 17, 2016
  • author-truth

    Nov. 9, 2015
  • thusim1

    May. 31, 2015
  • danielleward1612

    Feb. 17, 2014
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    Aug. 21, 2013

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