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  1. 1. By Bharath BhushanCereals
  2. 2. Brief history• The first cereal grains were domesticated about 12,000 years ago by ancient farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region. Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, and barley were three of the so-called Neolithic founder crops in the development of agriculture.
  3. 3. Introduction• Agricultural grasses grown for their edible seeds are called cereals. Three cereals – rice, wheat, and maize (corn) – provide more than half of all calories eaten by humans.Of all crops, 70% are grasses.Cereals constitute the major source of carbohydrates for humans and perhaps the major source of protein, and include rice in southern and eastern Asia, maize in Central and South America, and wheat and barley in Europe, northern Asia and the Americas.• Grasses are, in human terms, perhaps the most economically important plant family. Grasses economic importance stems from several areas, including food production, industry, and lawns.
  4. 4.  Pseudocereals are broadleaf plants (non-grasses) that are used in much the same way as cereals (true cereals are grasses). Their seed can be ground into flour and otherwise used as cereals. Examples of pseudocereals are amaranth, Love-lies-bleeding, red amaranth, Prince-of-Wales-feather, quinoa, and buckwheat.
  5. 5.  Quinoa–the spectacular super food that originated in the Andean region of Peru–is NOT a grain. Despite looking like a baby version of rice or barley and taking the place of various grain in recipes, quinoa, the protein-fiber powerhouse combo, is actually a LEAFY PLANT. It is closely related to chard or spinach in a bizarre category called pseudocereals… The tiny grain-like pieces which we cook are actually SEEDS from the plant. In fact, the leafy part of the quinoa plant is edible, too. WOW! Don’t know when the foodie world has been so confused and misleading since we dubbed the tomato as a fruit?
  6. 6. cereals Cereals, grains, or cereal grains are grasses (members of the monocot families Poaceae or Gramineae)cultivated for the edible components of their grain composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients.
  7. 7. Grains of cerealMaize Rice Wheat Barley Sorghum (Milo)Millet Oats Rye Triticale Fonio [high protein cross between wheat and rye]
  8. 8. • The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. • Maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or starch.MAIZE • Maize constitutes an important source of carbohydrates, protein, vitamin B, and minerals. As an energy source, it compares favourably with root and tuber crops, and it is similar in energy value to dried legumes. Furthermore, it is an excellent source of carbohydrate and is complete in nutrients compared to other cereals. • Maize is a good source of vitamin B and B12. Yellow maize can provide substantial amounts of vitamin A, and the maize germ is rich in vitamin E. Furthermore, maize oil contains a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidants (Okoruwa, 1996). However, of the three major cereal grains (wheat, maize, and rice), maize has the lowest concentration of protein, calcium, and niacin.
  9. 9. RICE • In India, there is a saying that grains of rice should be like two brothers, close but not stuck together. • The primary cereal of tropical and some temperate regions it is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. • Comparative nutrition studies on red, black and white varieties of rice suggest that pigments in red and black rice varieties may offer nutrition benefits. Red or black rice consumption were found to reduce or retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development, induced by dietary cholesterol, in mammals. • White rice consumption offered no similar benefits, and the study claims this to be due to absent antioxidants of red and black varieties of rice
  10. 10. wheat• Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, couscousand for fermentation to make beer,other alcoholic beverages, or biofuel.• Wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop and is the most important staple food for humans. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined.• The many forms of wheat are white , red wheat,purple wheat, a tetraploid species of wheat that is rich in anti-oxidants. Other commercially minor but nutritionally- promising species of naturally evolved wheat species include black, yellow and blue wheat.
  11. 11. BARLEY Grown for malting and livestock on land too poor or too cold for wheat It serves as a major animal fodder, a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley contains eight essential amino acids. According to a recent study, eating whole grain barley can regulate blood sugar (i.e. reduce blood glucose response to a meal) for up to 10 hours after consumption compared to white or even whole-grain wheat
  12. 12. Sorghum(milo/jowar/jola/高粱) sorghum is an important food crop, especially for subsistence farmers. It is used to make such foods as couscous, sorghum flour, porridge and molasses. sorghum is the most important ingredient for the production of distilled beverages, such as maotai and kaoliang. It is drought tolerant and heat tolerant, and is especially important in arid regions. It is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the "fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world"
  13. 13. MILLET  A group of similar but distinct c e r e a l s t h a t fo r m a n i m p o r t a n t s t a p l e fo o d i n A s i a a n d A f r i c a .  T h ey g r ow i n h a r s h e nv i r o n m e n t s w h e r e ot h e r c r o p s d o n o t g r o w we l l . I m p r ov e m e n t s i n p r o d u c t i o n , av a i l a b i l i t y, n u t r i t i o n a l c o n t e n t , s to r a g e a n d u t i l i z a t i o n te c h n o l o g y fo r m i l l e t s m ay s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e to t h e h o u s e h o l d f o o d security and nutrition of the inhabitants of these areas.  Is cereal grain popularly used in r u r a l a n d p o o r p e o p l e to c o n s u m e as staple in the form of roti or ot h e r fo r m s i s c a l l e d R a g i i n Ka r n a t a k a o r N a a c h a n i e i n Maharashtra, with the popularly m a d e R a g i Ro t t i i n Ka n n a d a . R a g i Mudde is a popular meal in Southern India.
  14. 14. Oats• Formerly the staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide as a winter breakfast food and livestock feed• which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other grains). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats make up a part of the daily diet of horses, about 20% of daily intake or smaller, and are regularly fed to cattle as well. Oats are also used in some brands of dog food and chicken feed.
  15. 15. Important in cold climates. { Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.Rye
  16. 16. Triticale  Hybrid of wheat and rye, grown similarly to rye. The primary producers of triticale are Poland, Germany, France, Belar us and Australia. Triticale has potential in the production of bread and other food products, such as cookies, pasta, pizza dough and breakfast cereals. The protein content is higher than that of wheat, although the glutenin fraction is less.
  17. 17. • Fonio is the term for cultivated grains in the Digitaria genus. These are notable in parts of West Africa and one species in India. The grains are very small. • Black fonio (D. iburua) is a similar crop grown in Nigeria, Togo, and Benin. • In the Akposso area of Togo fonio (called ɔva) is primarily a womens crop; it and cowpeas are used to make a traditional dish.Fonio
  18. 18. Thank you